Investigation of the potential use of VCAM-1, TNF-α, IL-10 and IL-6 as biomarkers of nickel exposure
Abstract: Objectives: Industrial and agricultural activities such as mining, smelting, and the discharging of industrial and domestic wastewater have increased the severity of heavy metal pollution in environments. Nickel poisoning continues to be an important occupational health problem in many branches of industry especially coating. Occupational exposure to nickel can occur through skin contact or inhalation of nickel-containing aerosols, dusts, or fumes. As a result of the toxic effect of nickel, it can cause various health problems, including respiratory and dermatological effects. Methods: The study included 56 male workers exposed to nickel in coating factory (Ni-exposed group) and 44 non-exposed male workers (control group). Vascular Cell Adhesion protein (VCAM)-1, Tumor Necrosis Factor (TNF)-α, Interleukin (IL)-10 and IL-6 levels of serum were analyzed using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA). Ni levels were determined using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) in urine samples. Results: Significant intergroup differences were observed in the levels of all inflammatory parameters such as VCAM-1, TNF-α, IL-10 and IL-6 (p<0.01 for all). Conclusions: The correlations between increased inflammatory biomarkers levels and exposed/control groups suggests a close relationship between inflammation and toxicity. This relationship provides a clinical model for the early diagnosis of toxicity of nickel.
Keywords: nickel / workers / male / occupational / TNF / VCAM / protein / model
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