Approaches to Improve Oral Bioavailability of Antihypertensive Drugs: A Mini-Review

Hypertension elevates the risk of heart disease and stroke which are one of the most frequent causes of death. Fortunately, hypertension is manageable with the use of anti-hypertensives and a healthy lifestyle. However, patient non-adherence to the prescribed dosing regimen is the primary reason for uncontrolled blood pressure levels. Daily multiple doses of medication are one of the major reasons for patient non-compliance to the dosing regimen. Multiple doses of medication are a result of low solubility and high first-pass metabolism of anti-hypertensives. There are several approaches to improve the bioavailability of anti-hypertensives like polymeric and non-polymeric approaches to enhance solubility, avoiding first-pass metabolism through alternate routes of drug delivery and others. The objective of this review is to discuss different approaches to enhance the oral bioavailability of anti-hypertensive drugs. Keywords: Solubility enhancements, solid lipid nanoparticles, hot melt extrusion, drug delivery, pharmacokinetics, poorly soluble, oral bioavailability.