Frontal System Track Variation and Its Impact on Water Availability in Northern Pakistan Using Remote Sensing and Ground Data During Monsoon Season- 2019

Pakistan, which is positioned in the South Asian sub-continent, occupies a significant climatological location. It is included among the world's few countries which experience a comprehensive transformation from summer all the way to winter season. The variation in precipitation has direct and significant consequences on society. In this ongoing research, the latitudinal variation in the track of the frontal system and trends in Pakistan during the monsoon period have been examined. Meteorological data (monthly rainfall, maximum temperature, satellite images, upstream data for Tarbela, Mangla, Rasool, and Marala) has been taken to conduct the ongoing research. Consequently, the focus of the study is the frontal weather system that moves North of Pakistan and energizes the monsoon rainfall over the Indus Basin which makes it a source of flooding. The rainfall is the cause of flooding downstream of rivers in the plains of Punjab and Sindh. Varying trends in rainfall were observed across the selected stations in Pakistan. The ongoing research is conducted across Pakistan with Gilgit and Skardu being the cities in Northern Pakistan. Among all the water reservoirs, Tarbela exhibited an increased upstream flow due to the snow melt factor over glaciers in Gilgit and Skardu because of an increase in maximum temperature.

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