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The prevalence and risk factors of sarcopenia in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus: a systematic review and meta-analysis

Yaqin Ai, Ruoxin Xu,
Published: 3 September 2021

Abstract: Background Sarcopenia was a frequent chronic complication in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), and previous evidence showed conflicting results regarding the prevalence and risk factors of sarcopenia in T2DM. In the current study, we aimed at systematically exploring the prevalence and risk factors of sarcopenia in patients with T2DM. Methods PubMed, Embase, and Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials were systematically searched to identify observational studies which investigated the prevalence and risk factors of sarcopenia in patients with T2DM. The quality of individual included studies was evaluated using The Newcastle–Ottawa scale. Pooled effects regarding prevalence and associated factors were calculated using random-effects models. The potential publication bias was assessed via funnel plot and Egger test. Results Twenty-eight studies involving 16,800 patients were included in our meta-analysis. The pooled prevalence of sarcopenia in patients with T2DM was 18% (95% CI 0.15–0.22; I2 = 97.4%). The pooled results showed that elder age (OR 4.73; 95% CI 4.30–5.19; I2 = 85.6%), male gender, chronic hyperglycemia (higher HbA1c) (OR 1.16; 95% CI 1.05–2.47; I2 = 99.2%) and osteoporosis (OR 1.16; 95% CI 1.05–2.47; I2 = 99.2%) was predictors for sarcopenia, whereas patients with lower BMI (OR 1.16; 95% CI 1.05–2.47; I2 = 99.2%) and metformin administrations (OR 1.16; 95% CI 1.05–2.47; I2 = 99.2%) were not prone to get sarcopenia. The funnel plot and statistical tests showed no obvious publication bias. Conclusions Sarcopenia was frequent in T2DM patients. Elder age, male gender and chronic hyperglycemia, Osteoporosis were significant risk factors for Sarcopenia. Lower BMI and metformin administrations were associated with lower risk of sarcopenia.
Keywords: Diabetes / Sarcopenia / Prevalence / Risk factors / Meta-analysis

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