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Simulation and Validation of Optimized PID Controller in AGV (Automated Guided Vehicles) Model Using PSO and BAS Algorithms

, Jinsong Li, Nima Sina, Xi Chen, Liefa Liao, ,
Published: 14 November 2022

Abstract: Automated guided vehicles (AGVs) are popular subsets of robots that come in various shapes and sizes. The group’s use in the industry ranges from applications for carrying pallets, carts, and utensils to helping the elderly or transporting medicine to hospitals. Even recently, they have been used in libraries to carry books on shelves. The main part of an AGV includes its body, motor, driver, processor, and sensors, which are more or less the same in all types of AGVs, and addons vary depending on the application and the work environment. The part that affects AGV performance is the control strategy, to which researchers have shown different approaches. Using various techniques and simulations to obtain a model is the key and can help to improve and evaluate the performance of the strategy of the robot. In this study, based on the actual design of the AGV system, all data and components are described, and the simulation is performed in MATLAB software. Then, for controlling the platform based on the PID controller tuning, four methods of Ziegler Nichols, empirical, Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO), and Beetle Antennae Searching (BAS) (optimizer) are discussed, and the results are compared in the four paths including the circle, ellipse, Spiral and 8-shaped paths by observing and testing the tuned PID parameters. Finally, a series of subsequent experiences were carried out in CoppeliaSim (VREP) as a famous robot simulator to overcome the environmental constraints for the same paths that were used in Matlab based on the extracted PID values. Based on the results, the empirical methods, PSO, and BAS errors are very close together. But in general, the BAS algorithm is the fastest, and the PSO had better performance. In general, the maximum error is linked to the path of 8 shapes and the minimum is related to circle shape one. Finally, the analysis of results in different paths in both simulators shows the same results. Therefore, concerning the limited test on the real platform and using the PID coefficients obtained from the simulation shows the model’s ability for the researchers in robotic research.
Keywords: Optimized / model / BAS algorithm / AGV / Algorithms / simulation / PID controller / platform / PSO

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