Scientific Papers Naukma. Economics

Journal Information
ISSN / EISSN: 25194739 / 25194747
Total articles ≅ 134

Latest articles in this journal

Oleksandra Humenna, Nazar Bedii
Scientific Papers Naukma. Economics, Volume 7, pp 41-47; https://doi.org/10.18523/2519-4739.2022.7.1.41-47

Abstract:
The objective of the study is to reveal the essence and features of corporate cultural responsibility (CCR) and its role in managing the company’s brand.Research methods. The research is based on the Synthesis Methods, including comparative analysis, interpretation, and applying systematic research synthesis.Research results. The article reveals the need to introduce and use CSR as a branch of corporate social responsibility. The relevance of the study is due to the importance of using CCR in the formation of business and marketing strategies of companies and brands, which can provide economic benefits and even affect the level of national security.The study emphasizes that today, during the full-scale Russian war against Ukraine and the genocide of Ukrainians by the Russian Federation, the issue of protection, preservation, promotion, and development of Ukrainian culture by businesses operating in Ukraine is more urgent than ever before. Therefore, the article substantiates the role of CCR in Ukraine as a phenomenon that will encourage businesses to take a responsible approach to the choice of influencers with whom businesses cooperate for advertising purposes; implementing elements of Ukrainian culture in its products, services, and/or communications; priority provision of sponsorship (financial or media) support for advertising purposes specifically to Ukrainian cultural figures and/or projects; proofreading of information about the culture and history of Ukraine, provided they are used in products, services and communications.The usage of the results. According to the results of the study, a list of steps for implementing the CCR in Ukrainian business for successful branding is proposed as recommendations, namely the implementation of the CCR at the level of company strategy; corporate culture of the company; product/service; in the company’s external communications. The proposed recommendations should solve the following tasks: cultural and social – the development and popularization of Ukrainian culture in Ukraine and the world; business and communication – reducing business reputational risks and strengthening the reputation of a company or its brand among Ukrainian consumers, which will have a long-term positive economic effect on business. Conclusions. The proposed recommendations are designed to solve the following two tasks – cultural and social: development and popularization of Ukrainian culture in Ukraine and in the world; business and communication: reducing business reputational risks and strengthening the reputation of the company or its brand among Ukrainian consumers, which under other normal circumstances will have a long-term positive economic effect on business. Further research in the area of the introduction of CCR in Ukraine will be aimed at deepening the analysis of the impact of CCR on modern brands and determining the economic effects of CCR on the activities of companies. JEL classіfіcatіon: М14, L21
, Anastasiia Pokydko, Taras Tokarchuk
Scientific Papers Naukma. Economics, Volume 7, pp 68-78; https://doi.org/10.18523/2519-4739.2022.7.1.68-78

Abstract:
The aim of the article is in-depth empirical analysis and development of economic and mathematical tools to assess the current state of the external sector of Ukraine, and determination of the impact of monetary and fiscal policies on the external sector to ensure its sustainability in the medium- and long-term perspective taking into account internal and external risks. The article analyzes how the current pandemic crisis has affected the external sector of the economy and identifies potential risks of vulnerability of our economy to external shocks. Based on the system of indicators, the current external stability of the economy is assessed, and the main channels of macroeconomic policy influence on the state of the external sector of the economy are studied. The sensitivity of the external sector of Ukraine’s economy to measures and instruments of fiscal and monetary policy analyses using the developed VAR model. In particular, the investigation revealed that excessive fiscal expansionary policies could lead to the accumulation of external imbalances, which might be adjusted by the effective monetary policy. The calculation results showed that to ensure the stability of the external sector of the economy of Ukraine, a balanced fiscal policy is required, since the state of the external sector strongly reacts to fiscal shocks. Consider the fact that the external sector of the Ukrainian economy is most sensitive to changes in the real exchange rate; fiscal policy is effective in adjusting the current account of the balance of payments only in the short-term perspective. However, in the mediumterm perspective, monetary influence on the external sector is stronger through other channels of transmission of the discount rate, except for currency.Accordingly, based on the results of the study, recommendations for the application of macroeconomic policy measures to ensure the external stability of Ukraine’s economy in the medium and long term has been developed. Further research is worth focusing on determining the factors that ensure the stability of the external sector in the conditions of military actions. JEL classіfіcatіon: C32, E63, F31, F32, F40
Scientific Papers Naukma. Economics, Volume 7, pp 48-53; https://doi.org/10.18523/2519-4739.2022.7.1.48-53

Abstract:
Research aim. The purpose of the study is to form a complete and clear idea of approaches to calculating the profitability of Ukrainian enterprises in the conditions of a war economy, which is especially relevant in the conditions of a full-scale war between the Russian Federation and Ukraine.Research methods: positivism, which assumes the presence and application of various scientific paradigms and theories within certain scientific disciplines; systematic approach; general methodological principles of the system approach, empirical method and method of idealization; comparison, analysis, synthesis, interpretation, generalization.Research results. A complete and clear understanding of approaches to calculating the profitability of Ukrainian enterprises in the conditions of the military economy was formed. The concept of the military economy was also clarified. Under peaceful conditions and a market economy, as well as under conditions of a hybrid war while maintaining market relations in part of the state’s territories, three main groups of indicators should be used to calculate the profitability of enterprises: cost, income, and resource. To calculate the profitability of enterprises of the military-industrial complex, it is also worth using a specific indicator, which consists in weighing the combat effect of manufactured products on their cost price.Potential application of the research results: on the basis of the developed provisions, it is possible to develop organizational and methodical provisions for the analysis of profitability in the conditions of the military economy.Conclusions. The branches of the war economy were examined, and the fact that they were all related to the branches of the normal peacetime market economy was emphasized. After considering the existing classifications, a generalized version was given that divides the military economy into the following areas: 1) purely military production of means of armed struggle, 2) civilian production of means of armed struggle, 3) civilian production of ordinary civilian products, 4) military economy.In the traditional form, the concept of profitability in the conditions of the war economy is absent. Instead, in order to analyze at least the efficiency of the production process, it is suggested to limit the use of indicators of the productivity of the enterprise’s activity and to estimate labor productivity in the calculation of one employee or per unit of working time. JEL classіfіcatіon: D20, H56
, Natalia Donkohlova
Scientific Papers Naukma. Economics, Volume 7, pp 29-34; https://doi.org/10.18523/2519-4739.2022.7.1.29-34

Abstract:
The article highlights the essence of the concept of image and the image of a teacher of a higher education institution, analyzes scientific works devoted to this issue, highlights the results of a questionnaire survey and interviews, which made it possible to determine the respondents’ vision of those qualities and traits that should be inherent in teachers of higher education institutions.In order to assess the closeness of the connection between the specified features, the correlation coefficient of Spearman’s ranks was calculated and its value was checked for the significance of the connection. In particular, it was determined how important it is for students that the teacher has a scientific degree and title; own scientific articles, manuals and textbooks; and how important it is for the teacher to be a practitioner. It was found out whether students pay attention to how the teacher communicates with other teachers and students, how the teacher answers students’ questions and whether it is important for them when there is contact with the teacher on social networks and the latest technologies are used in the educational process; do students pay attention to how the teacher reacts to the opposite opinion, what are his manners in the process of interaction in the environment of colleagues and students, what appearance of the teacher impresses students more, etc.The importance (on the basis of a rank scale) of image characteristics indicated personally (answers to open questions) by both male and female respondents was determined. The following main characteristics of the image of a teacher of a higher education institution were noted: self-confident professional; has a love and flair for teaching; is able to convey information, interest, capture the attention of students; is able to clearly explain tasks and their evaluation criteria; objective and impartial; punctual, responsible in fulfilling commitments and keeping one’s word; friendly and open in communication; sociable, with a sense of humor; able to consider the psychological characteristics of students; has a suitable appearance. JEL classіfіcatіon: A22, Z00
Scientific Papers Naukma. Economics, Volume 7, pp 61-67; https://doi.org/10.18523/2519-4739.2022.7.1.61-67

Abstract:
The main purpose of this paper was the historical and economic analysis of the Kyiv School of Political Economy representation in the modern scientific literature and the systematization of approaches to determining this community of Kyiv economists. Analysis showed that in the Soviet period the scientific heritage of this community of scholars had been critical, and the school itself had been defined as bourgeois. At the end of the 20th century researchers began to show a creative perception of scientific achievements of the 19th – early 20th century economists, including Kyiv scholars’ achievements. The number of historical and economic studies were increased and the issues diversified. The author of this paper systematized approaches to studying the Kyiv School based on the complex analysis of modern scientific literature. These approaches are legal, financial, managerial and political-economic. Within these approaches, researchers study Kyiv University School of Police Law, Kyiv School of Financial Law, Kyiv Financial School, School of Ukrainian Management Scientific Thought, Kyiv Psychological School of Political Economy, Kyiv School of Economics, Kyiv School of Political Economy, etc. The most common one is the political-economic approach, within which researchers study the methodology and scientific achievements of the Kyiv school and some of its representatives in the field of economic research. The author emphasized that such a variety of different approaches is generated by the multifaceted Kyiv School’ scientific achievements that give food for research to modern specialists in various fields of economics and law. It was concluded that an attempt to reduce the community of Kyiv scholars to one scientific school, focusing on the only research area, would be artificial as it would cut off other areas that don’t meet the requirements of the chosen peculiarity. JEL classification: B19
Hennadiy Hryhoriev
Scientific Papers Naukma. Economics, Volume 7, pp 35-40; https://doi.org/10.18523/2519-4739.2022.7.1.35-40

Abstract:
The purpose of this study is to present possible scenarios for assessing the levels of Ukraine’s sovereign debt burden in the context of the cumulative effect of Ukraine’s pre-war and post-war debt accumulation to avoid sovereign debt overload or even sovereign default and achieve debt relief.The methodology of the article is based on the theory of international finance using the scientific method of system dynamics as an applied method of analysis. The main purpose of the article was to find the way out of the concession debt trap, but the Russian military aggression against Ukraine in February 2022 significantly changed the purpose of the analysis. As a result, as far as possible, an element of military economics was added to the article.The dynamic interpretation of the research problem is formulated as: “What are the possible dynamics of falling into a sovereign debt trap and, ultimately, into political dependence through external infrastructure financing before and after the war, and how can such a trap be avoided?” It is necessary to recognize such a trap in advance, because, fortunately, Ukraine has not yet fully got there.The results of the study are important in the application of the national debt policy model. JEL classіfіcatіon: C73, E17, H56, H60, H81
Scientific Papers Naukma. Economics, Volume 7, pp 79-86; https://doi.org/10.18523/2519-4739.2022.7.1.79-86

Abstract:
The purpose of the article is a comprehensive presentation of the modern arsenal of methods of historical and economic research. Methods and tools are presented in accordance with specific research issues. This is an urgent issue of post-war economic recovery. Scientific methods are shown in unity with the functions of economic history. A set of methods and approaches was used, which made it possible to reveal the methodological arsenal of historical and economic research in unity with their functions. The combination of analysis of various tools and synthesis of methodological approaches is aimed at achieving systemic and ensuring the effectiveness of current research programs of historical experience of post-war economic reconstruction.The result of the study is the methodological support of scientific knowledge of the international experience of post-war economic reconstruction. The expediency of applying the principle of integrativity as a synthesis of empirical historical and theoretical economic knowledge is substantiated. The content of the worldview function of economic history is revealed. It is realized through demythologization and objectification of knowledge about the content and determinants of post-war reconstruction. It is shown how the cumulative function of economic history is related to the formation of the realism of economic thinking. The prognostic function of economic history is substantiated – the ability to predict future developments and directions of events on the basis of previous experience. Comparative analysis allows us to consider the dynamics of economic recovery in different countries, the development of different economic systems and their national models. Historical experience in the implementation of reconstruction plans and programs should be studied in the unity of ontological, teleological and axiological components.The value of research methods and principles is revealed with the help of historical examples. The results of the study will be useful in the study and implementation of historical experience in the post-war recovery of Ukraine’s economy. JEL classіfіcatіon: B40, N44, N45, O19
Scientific Papers Naukma. Economics, Volume 7, pp 87-93; https://doi.org/10.18523/2519-4739.2022.7.1.87-93

Abstract:
The purpose of the article is to reveal the main reasons for the low level of savings, investments and excessive consumer lending and opportunities for improving financial well-being at the micro level and forming sources for future development. The article reveals the main problems of citizens’ savings and consumption that occurred before the crisis caused by the coronavirus pandemic. And which only intensified during it. Some macroeconomic indicators reflecting the state of citizens’ savings and dependence on income were analyzed. Despite the stable growth of the population’s income, the savings rate remains at a low level. On the other hand, the demand for loan funds is ahead of such growth. In this way, the thesis about the negative relationship between wage growth and the rate of savings, put forward by some scientists earlier, was proved. Regardless of the presence of economic factors affecting the level of consumption and savings, the psychological reasons for the low tendency of citizens to save were also analyzed. Among these reasons are the deficit thinking effect, the default effect, confirmation bias, and loss aversion bias. It was also analyzed based on the facts, how much the psychological prejudices of Ukrainians influenced financial behavior. In particular, the fallacy of prejudices regarding the impracticality of investing in deposits of Ukrainian banks, as well as the idea that the Ukrainian banking system underwent catastrophic transformations in the first years after the banking reform, was considered.The research methods are descriptive, analytical, methods of synthesis and comparison. As a result of the analysis, the article proposes a comprehensive approach to men’s behaviour toward savings during the pandemic according to behavioural economics.Consideration of the economic and psychological aspects of the situation with savings led to the provision of conclusions and proposals. The main task for improving the effectiveness of managing one’s own expenses today is to understand the reasons for irrational behavior of people in new circumstances from the point of view of behavioral economics and the application of the theory of “pushing” for the formation of positive socio-economic changes. It is suggested to use this paper for further and deeper practical research of certain aspects of changing people’s behaviour for better investment solutions and financial wellbeing. JEL classіfіcatіon: D14, D91, E21
Tetiana Bui,
Scientific Papers Naukma. Economics, Volume 7, pp 10-19; https://doi.org/10.18523/2519-4739.2022.7.1.10-19

Abstract:
The article assesses the local budgets independence using statistiсal methods and includes system dynamics research with a simplified explanatory model of aggregated municipal deposits. Using the method of analytical equalization, the share of local budgets’ own funds was calculated, as they are a source of financial stability and independence.A system dynamics hypothesis and model revealed important feedback mechanisms that play a role in financial autonomy and general financial well-being of municipalities – a higher deficit drives a higher debt that drives a higher deficit back; lower local tax revenues will bring higher transfers in the upcoming year; negative population growth decreases consumption, labor force, and other indicators, etc. The general reason for low financial autonomy lies in high dependency on transfers and income-based taxes, while taxes that are classified as local lay on businesses, which need more support. Some aspects revealed the need for deeper research and addition to the model – municipal borrowing and property markets. The model has been validated and built confidence through various tests, but yet it has serious assumptions, limitations, and aspects outside of the model boundary. Nevertheless the model has a potential for expansion and solving mode issues regarding this system or to be recalibrated for specific reasons and areas. The research can be used by the municipalities in Ukraine and needs to be updated with new data and expanded. JEL classification: E62, H21, H61, H72
Valeriia Tkachova,
Scientific Papers Naukma. Economics, Volume 7, pp 101-106; https://doi.org/10.18523/2519-4739.2022.7.1.101-106

Abstract:
We considered the quantitative indexes to control different monopoly’s types and identified the main disadvantages, which obstacle the usage of these indicators in practice of the antitrust regulation. Economic methods of antitrust control can be divided into two groups: (1) direct and (2) indirect. The direct ones are based on the market and competitive prices analysis, marginal revenue (MR) and marginal costs (MC) and theoretically, they permit to evaluate directly the negative monopoly’s impact on the market. Indirect methods are based on the non-price indexes (for instance, concentration or share of the firm on market) and identify only the potential hazard from monopoly. However they do not permit to determine whether monopoly indeed negatively impacts on market and in addition the level of such impact. By analyzing of some disadvantages of the monopoly control indexes, we determined several main features, which should have belonged to the new more perfect monopoly index, which would be the subject of our further investigation: (1) to be a dynamic (not a static one) quantitative index of the monopoly power, which evaluates both the fact of the monopoly power existence and the level of the power’s manifestation on the different hierarchical levels (economy, industry, firm) in the mode of real time; (2) to have a capability to separate in the new indicator the innovational component of the monopolist’s costs on the different hierarchical stages; (3) to display the correlation between the monopoly’s power index and the business cycle phases, since the level of the negative monopoly’s impact may be intensified in the recession phase and may be weakened in the recovery phase; (4) to perform the direct control of monopoly through the control of the difference between the market and “natural” (competitive) prices. This control could be realized permanently, actually in “on-line” mode. As compared to indirect methods (which are discrete ones), the price control does not require the confidential information of a firm’s activity, which is often unavailable for the regulator. JEL classіfіcatіon: D40, D41, D42, D43
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