The Polish Journal of Aviation Medicine, Bioengineering and Psychology

Journal Information
ISSN / EISSN: 24513512 / 25437186
Total articles ≅ 100

Latest articles in this journal

Stanisław Dec
The Polish Journal of Aviation Medicine, Bioengineering and Psychology, Volume 26, pp 18-24;

Introduction: Electroneurophysiological tests, together with tests to evaluate structures of the central nervous system (CNS), are in neurological diagnostics among the basic additional specialized examinations for diagnostic, therapeutic and certification purposes. The electroencephalographic (EEG) test is one of the methods of elelectroneurophysiological evaluation of the CNS. EEG is a non-invasive objective test of the bioelectrical activity of the brain. Objective: To investigate whether the course of COVID-19 with clinical mild/moderate respiratory tract involvement, in non-hospitalized patients, may affect brain bioelectrical activity. Methods: Eighty-five subjects were selected for evaluation of EEG recordings from clinically initially healthy flight personnel and flight training candidates. Of all the male and female subjects, between 04 January 2021 to 31 January 2022, as part of periodic and qualifying certification examinations at the Military Institute of Aviation Medicine, for the purposes of the Regional Military Aviation and Medical Commission. The selected group consisted of individuals aged 14-60 (average age: 27 years and 6 months), which included 14 women (average age: 24 years and 2 months) and 71 men (average age 29 years and 3.5 months). The subjects were ill with COVID-19 (non-hospitalized) for approximately 3-4 weeks, during the period; June 2020 – December 2021. Routinely made recordings of bioelectrical brain activity with the Grass Technologies EEG TWin 4.5.3 system were visually evaluated. EEG examinations were performed in the supine position, in the before noon hours, in a darkened and acoustically isolated laboratory. Before the study, each person declared min. 6-8 hours of sleep and eating a meal (breakfast). Except for the flight training candidates and one person from flight personnel, all other subjects declared having received one and 29 subjects two SARS-CoV-2 vaccinations, prior to contracting COVID-19. Some subjects had one further revaccination after recovery from the disease. EEG examinations were performed between one and fourteen months after recovery from COVID-19. The mean time between recovery and EEG examination was 6.5 (6.47) months. Results: EEG recordings within normal limits (normal) were found in 79 subjects, while six subjects (7.05%) had abnormal brain bioelectrical activity recordings. Discussion and Conclusion: Infection with SARS-CoV-2 with clinical mild/moderate respiratory tract involvement by initially healthy individuals may adversely affect spontaneous brain bioelectrical activity in some individuals.
Andrzej Wojdas, Roman Stablewski, Elżbieta Zgnilec
The Polish Journal of Aviation Medicine, Bioengineering and Psychology, Volume 26, pp 5-11;

Introduction: Chronic hypertrophic rhinitis is one of the most common diseases in rhinology. Various surgical techniques are used to reduce hypertrophic changes in the inferior turbinates. The aim of our study is to determine the impact of plastic surgery of the lower nasal turbinates, performed by cryoablation or radiocoblation, on the patency of the Eustachian tube and to determine how long the waiting period should be for activities that particularly require patent ear tubes, such as traveling by plane. Material: A total of 70 patients treated at the Department of Otolaryngology of the Military Institute of Aviation Medicine were qualified for the study. Due to the technique of conchoplasty of the lower nasal turbinates, the patients were divided into two groups. Group I consisted of 35 patients, including 15 women and 20 men, aged 24 to 62 (mean 42.67 years), operated on by cryoablation. Group II also comprised 35 patients, including 12 women and 23 men, aged 29 to 69 (mean 44.21 years), operated on by radiocoblation. Methods: Plastic surgeries of the lower nasal turbinates, also known as conchoplasties, were performed under local anesthesia with a cryosurgery machine with the use of a nasal applicator and an apparatus for submucosal coblation with the use of radio waves. The patency of the Eustachian tube was assessed by tympanometry before the operation and 1, 2 and 3 weeks after the operation. Results: No statistically significant (p < 0.001) disturbances of the patency of the Eustachian tubes were observed after conchoplastic surgeries, using both the cryoablation and radiocoablation methods. Conclusions: Conchoplasties of the lower nasal turbinates performed by cryo- and radiocoblation do not impair the patency of the Eustachian tubes. After operations on the lower nasal turbinates, the waiting period for activities that particularly require patent tubes should be two weeks.
Magdalena Rerych, Katarzyna Paczwa, Radosław Różycki,
The Polish Journal of Aviation Medicine, Bioengineering and Psychology, Volume 26, pp 25-30;

The methods of imaging posterior segment of the eye are still improving. Conventional colour fundus imaging, fluorescein angiography (FA) and optical coherence tomography (OCT) have become routine in clinical practice to examine retinal diseases. This review presents the results of using adaptive optics (AO) to assess microvascular changes and cone parameters in retinal and systemic diseases. In the future, adaptive optics technology might be used as a non-invasive method in clinical practice not only in retinal diseases but also in diabetology and hypertensiology.
, Łukasiewicz Research Network – Krakow Institute of Technology,
The Polish Journal of Aviation Medicine, Bioengineering and Psychology, Volume 26, pp 31-38;

Utilization of personal computers in medicine requires strong emphasis on software performance. Contemporary programming languages give engineers great flexibility in developing applications. Since these technologies are more and more complex, there is a need to analyze methods of achieving desired results taking into account time requirements. This paper focuses mainly on development of plotting module using Windows Presentation Foundation library, which is one of the newest tool for software developers. Aspects of plotter creation for technologically limited screen are covered and conclusions are summarized giving recommendations regarding the topic. General methods of drawing signal on a raster surface are also discussed. Since medical signals in monitoring range consist of frequencies up to about 100 Hz, one has to take into account aspects of signal scaling in order to not to make its important parts invisible. The main problem is that personal computer screen, e.g. a monitor, is purely digital in nature; actually it is the set of pixels (consisting of three components). Because resolution is limited, the signal must be limited in frequency to the range which can be shown at a given plotting speed. This paper describes these aspects of signal plotting as well as the method for virtually increasing pixel resolution by using particular components of a pixel. This paper is a summary giving a general idea of the capabilities of the above mentioned WPF technology and the basis for creating such programs using methods such as: WriteableBitmap method, DrawingVisual method, Canvas Method type 1, Canvas Method type 2.
The Polish Journal of Aviation Medicine, Bioengineering and Psychology, Volume 26, pp 12-17;

Introduction: Studies on simulator sickness take into account an increasing number of factors regarding individual characteristics (e.g., gender, age, experience), testing time as well as simulator testing conditions, to name a few. In addition to the symptoms of simulator sickness expressed at the level of subjective indicators, it is also important to consider physiological indicators. The present study was designed to test whether the use of a fixed-base vs. fullmotion simulator influences the severity of simulator sickness symptoms and changes in the level of oculomotor variables. Methods: Twelve male subjects with age M=29.8, SD=4.26 participated in this study. Each subject performed two 30-minute simulator tasks following the same route. Each of these tasks was performed in different configuration of a truck simulator manufactured by ETCPZL Aerospace Industries: Condition 1 – fixed-base simulator, Condition 2 – full-motion simulator. Eye movements were recorded during the simulator task. Additionally, the SSQ questionnaire was filled out immediately after the simulator task and 1 h after leaving the simulator. Results: The results show a higher level of most symptoms of simulator sickness under 2nd condition (full-motion simulator). In the case of measurement immediately after completing the task on the simulator, there was an increase in oculomotor problems. On the other hand, the measurement after 1 h also revealed a significant increase in nausea, oculomotor and disorientation. Moreover, after 1 hour, a relationship between nausea symptoms and oculomotor indices was found. Discussion and Conclusions: Results indicate the influence of simulator testing conditions on the occurrence of simulator sickness symptoms. In addition, the relationship between variables measured by the oculograph and subjective symptoms of simulator sickness was demonstrated. The results obtained indicate changes in the sensitivity of physiological indicators and are discussed in the context of the possibility of using simulators in the diagnosis and training of selected functions.
, Mariusz Bałkota, Zbigniew Rybicki,
The Polish Journal of Aviation Medicine, Bioengineering and Psychology, Volume 26, pp 5-10;

Background and Study objective: Continuous perioperative monitoring of blood oxygen saturation via pulse oximetry is an established standard of care. The incidence of postoperative cognitive dysfunction (POCD) in orthopedic patients is higher when compared to any other group of hospitalized patients. Although its etiology remains unclear, factors such as thromboembolic complications may play a role. Thromboembolic material, including that released from the surgery site, enters the bloodstream and then travels to the brain. The decrease in blood flow in the involved cerebral vessels may decrease cerebral oxygen saturation. Considering this, we decided to determine if the regional cerebral saturation monitored by near-infrared spectroscopy corresponds with readings of blood oxygen saturation monitored by pulse oximetry in patients who underwent primary total hip arthroplasty. Methods: A total of 20 patients scheduled for elective total hip arthroplasty were enrolled in the study. All orthopedic procedures were performed under spinal anesthesia and intravenous sedation. Monitoring of regional cerebral oxygen saturation (rSO2) was carried out from the time of the initiation of spinal anesthesia until the end of the surgery, using the near-infrared spectroscopy method. In all, 15 patients were analyzed. Results and Conclusions: We found the following: (1) rSO2 values decreased continuously over the surgery, and (2) rSO2 value changes were not related to mean arterial pressure variations or to hemoglobin saturation as analyzed by pulse oximetry.
Andrzej Wojdas, Roman Stablewski
The Polish Journal of Aviation Medicine, Bioengineering and Psychology, Volume 26, pp 11-16;

Introduction: Intraoperative spatial imaging using a high-resolution 3D camera is a state-ofthe-art technique applied to endoscopic paranasal sinus surgery. It enables better visualization of the surgical site, improves depth perception and facilitates tissue identification. All 3D endoscopy capabilities are still under review. The purpose of this study is to compare analogous endoscopic surgeries performed with 3D technique and those performed with traditional 2D technique based on the analysis of length of surgery, blood loss, occurrence of intraoperative complications and hospital stay time. Material: The material included 346 patients who underwent endoscopic paranasal sinus surgery with unilateral or bilateral sinus opening. In case of 152 patients, corrective surgery of the nasal septum was additionally performed. The patients were divided into two groups (2D group and 3D group) comprising 173 patients each, who underwent paranasal sinus opening using 2D and 3D endoscopic visualization. Each group was divided into four subgroups: the first were patients after bilateral paranasal sinus surgery (PSS), the second were patients after bilateral endoscopic paranasal sinus surgery and nasal septal correction surgery (PSS+NS), the third were patients after unilateral paranasal sinus surgery (UPSS), and the fourth group was patients after unilateral endoscopic paranasal sinus surgery and nasal septum correction surgery (UPSS+NS). Methods: The surgery was carried out using a TipCam 3D endoscope from Storz (Germany), 18 mm in length, 4 mm in diameter, with 30° optics, with an integrated camera capable of transmitting 3D images, as well as classic 2D endoscopes, 16 mm in length, 4 mm in diameter and 30° optics, along with a video track and instrument set. Patients underwent unilateral or bilateral endoscopic surgery with opening of the maxillary sinuses, frontal sinuses, anterior and posterior ethmoid as well as corrective surgery of the nasal septum. Patients underwent unilateral or bilateral endoscopic surgery with opening of the maxillary sinuses, frontal sinuses, anterior and posterior ethmoid as well as corrective surgery of the nasal septum. Results: The length of surgery were as follows in the 2D group: 2D/PSS+NS group — 107 min. (±22); 2D/PSS group — 95 min (±24); 2D/UPSS+NS group — 68 min (±21); 2D/UPSS group — 53 min (±14); The length of surgery in the 3D group: 3D/PSS+NS group — 91 min. (±17); 3D/PSS group — 83 min (±20); 3D/UPSS+NS group — 69 min (±15); 2D/UPSS group — 49 min (±10); Among the complications were early and late postoperative bleeding, eyelid or orbital hematomas, and eyelid edema. There were 17 complications in the 2D group (9.82%), and 7 complications in the 3D group (4.05%). Conclusions: It was found that 3D endoscopic surgeries significantly reduced the length of surgery, especially in serious bilateral paranasal sinus surgeries. and influenced a decrease in perioperative complications. 3D endoscopic surgeries had no significant effect on the amount of blood loss and the length of the patient’s stay at the Clinic.
The Polish Journal of Aviation Medicine, Bioengineering and Psychology, Volume 26, pp 25-33;

Introduction: Cognitive and psychomotor skills as well as selected personality traits are important factors determining success in aviation training. Many people decide to take the aviation career at an early age, so the question arises whether the psychological features visible in developmental age can be a basis for predicting success in adulthood. Methods: The analysis took into account the results of psychological tests of 97 people (15-16 years old) who were enrolled in the Aviation High School, then after graduation again tested as candidates for aviation studies. Measurements of the stability of the psychological variables were calculated, as well as the factor structure of the results. Then, the predictive value of factors distinguished in this analysis was determined. Results: Despite the visible developmental changes in cognitive functions (higher results in the second assessment), most of the indicators are characterized by a satisfactory stability. In the structure of the results, six relatively independent factors were distinguished, one of which, defined as general intellectual ability, turned out to be the best predictor of a positive qualification in later assessment. Discussion and Conclusions: The obtained results allow us to conclude that the psychological tests and indicators used in the study of adolescents seem to be adequate and guarantee high stability of measurements, even over a period of several years. As predicted, the greatest predictive power has the general intellectual ability, which is the basic property that allows the acquisition and consolidation of other skills.
Anna Kędziora, Michał Kacprzak,
The Polish Journal of Aviation Medicine, Bioengineering and Psychology, Volume 26, pp 34-43;

Introduction: Earlier studies demonstrated that obesity was associated with lower cerebral perfusion in obese participants, as compared to participants at normal weight, especially in frontal grey matter regions. On the other hand, type 2 diabetes is a common co-morbid condition among obese patients, and it is associated per se with brain structural and metabolic abnormalities that are related to lower cerebral blood flow (CBF). Unfortunately, only two studies evaluated the effects on co-morbid T2D on CBF, one of them in adolescent population. Therefore, the aim of this study was to establish a pipeline process to quantify CBF images that were obtained in an independent project evaluating brain abnormalities associated with morbid obesity and their resolution with intragastric balloon – an invasive method to reduce weight. Furthermore, we compared CBF between obese patients with and without type 2 diabetes, as well as controls at normal weight. Methods: A processing pipeline utilizing SPM12 toolbox and digital maps (AAL, Brodmann) was established to automatically pre-process scans and toolbox REX was used to prepare data for statistical analysis. We used it to analyze data for six morbidly obese patients with type 2 diabetes T2D (O-T2D) (average age = 48.5 ± 7.9, average body weight = 125.0 ± 29.8 kg, average BMI = 42.0 ± 9.4), eight morbidly obese patients without T2D (O-NT2D) (average age = 39.1 ± 16.1, average body weight = 138.2 ± 14.9 kg, average BMI = 50.2 ± 6.5) and eight healthy controls with normal weight (CON) (average age = 43.5 ± 11.5, average body weight = 67.4 ± 14.6 kg, average BMI = 23.4 ± 3.5). All studies were performed at the CNS Lab MRI Centre, NIBBE. Results: These preliminary analyses demonstrated lower cerebral blood flow in frontal cortex in obese patients with T2D, as compared to obese patients without T2D and controls. Conclusion: A pipeline to numerically process ASL-CBF data was created and used to analyse the small dataset. The analyses indicated that not morbid obesity per se, but morbid obesity combined with co-morbid type 2 diabetes is associated with widespread reductions in cerebral perfusion. The results are in line with other studies that were limited to subjects with lower stages of overweight and obesity. We believe that this methodology may be applied to study changes in brain perfusion evoked by simulated hypergravity with Lower Body Negative Pressure (LBNP) device placed within a magnetic resonance scanner or perfusion changes induced by hypoxia.
, Justyna Mędrzycka, Radosław Różycki,
The Polish Journal of Aviation Medicine, Bioengineering and Psychology, Volume 26, pp 17-24;

Ultra-widefield retinal imaging is a modern method of imaging the posterior segment of the eye that enables scanning of the entire far periphery of retina. Our study presents the diagnostic possibilities of this technique using Optos California to illustrate pathology anywhere in the retina and provide clinical data from the retinal surface through the choroid.
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