Indonesian Aquaculture Journal

Journal Information
ISSN / EISSN: 02150883 / 25026577
Total articles ≅ 243

Latest articles in this journal

Sadam Hossain, Mohammad Moniruzzaman, Mohammad Matiur Rahman, Zakir Hossain
Indonesian Aquaculture Journal, Volume 17, pp 147-155;

Nutritionally balanced diet and selection of appropriate species for culturing environment are important criteria in aquaculture. The present study was conducted to evaluate the effects of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) and β-glucan containing diet (PBG) on growth performance, feed utilization, length-weight relationship, and condition factor of Pabdah catfish, Ompok pabda. In this study, squid extracted phospholipid and mushroom powder were used as the source of PUFAs and β-glucan, respectively, and formulated two isonitrogenous diets such as basal or control (CON) diet and PBG diet with maintaining 30% protein levels. During the study period, similar physicochemical conditions of water such as temperature, pH, and dissolved oxygen (DO) were 26.5 ± 2 °C, 7.4 ± 0.2, and 6.7 ± 0.5 ppm, respectively were maintained in each cistern. The results showed that final mean body weight, final mean length gain, food conversion ratio (FCR), specific growth rate (SGR), food conversion efficiency (%), hepato somatic index (HSI), kidney index (KI), and viscerosomatic index (VSI) were significantly (P<0.01 and P<0.05) higher in fish fed the PBG diet than that of fish fed the CON diet. The coefficient of determination showed a significant relationship (R2 = 0.956) between the length and weight of the treatment group. The length-weight relationship and relative condition factor (K) of Ompok pabda were significantly (P<0.05) affected by the PBG diet. The present study shows that the experimental diet more effective and achieves better growth performance, feed utilization, length-weight relationship, and condition factor of Ompok pabda. 
Mukhlisnah Djalil, , Triyanto Triyanto, Tito Arya Nugraha
Indonesian Aquaculture Journal, Volume 17, pp 157-163;

A fermented earthworm (FEW) is reported to be an alternative to an immune-modulator feed additive in catfish. However, the effects on growth and feed efficiency have not been reported yet. The present study aimed to evaluate the effects of fermented earthworms (FEW) on the growth and feed efficiency of catfish (Clarias sp.). A feeding trial was conducted in a completely randomized design with five treatments of diet in quadruplicate. The trial was conducted for 78 days. The observed parameters comprised of survival rate (SR), specific growth rate (SGR), feed conversion ratio (FCR), feed efficiency (FE), protein efficiency ratio (PER), and total biomass. The results revealed that the FEW at up to 5% did not affect (P>0.05) the growth rate of catfish, but FEW gave a negative effect on the growth rate (P>0.05) at the addition rate higher than 5%. The highest growth rate was found at the addition rate of 2.5%. FEW also did not affect the survival rate (SR), FCR, PER, and total biomass (P>0.05). This study successfully confirmed that FEW could be used as an alternative to immuno-modulator ingredient without any negative impact on the growth of catfish when FEW was added to the feed at as high as 5%. These findings give a new perpective in utilizing FEW as a fuctional aqua-feed ingredient to increase immune response without alteration of the fish growth.
Murwantoko Murwantoko, Endang Wijayanti, Sri Agustatik, Harshelly Valianti, Lalla Kumala Yulanda, Nur Lailatul Firotun Nukmah
Indonesian Aquaculture Journal, Volume 17, pp 165-172;

The orange clownfish, Amphiprion percula, is a popular fish in the global marine ornamental trade. In March 2021, several orange clown fish at Batam Mariculture Development Center exhibited lethargic behavior with wart-like nodules on the fins suggesting a viral disease infection. This study aimed to detect the suspected viral disease agent from the clownfish and determine its genotype based on the major capsid protein gene. The fish tissues with wart-like nodules were collected and fixed in 96% ethanol. The DNA was extracted from the tissues and used as the template for the amplification of the major capsid protein (MCP) and myristylated membrane protein (MMP) genes using polymerase chain reaction (PCR). The nucleotide sequences of the PCR products were analyzed for their homology using the Basic Local Alignment Search Tool (BLAST). Multiple alignments of the amino acid sequence of MCP were performed using MEGA-X to determine the genotype. The PCR amplification produced the expected bands for detecting MCP, MMP and DNAPol genes. These results indicated the presence of Lymphocystis disease virus (LCDV), designated as LCDV-Oc-Btm. The sequencing of MCP and MMP genes produced the 1221 and 407 nucleotides, respectively. The BLAST analysis showed the highest identity was obtained with the species of LCDV-1 (LCDV-Sa strain) at 91.04 % and 88.19 % for MCP and MMP, respectively. The UPGMA phylogenic tree showed LCDV-Oc-Btm differs from the existing genotype and can be assigned as a new genotype. This study concludes that LCDVOc-Btm is a novel species of lymphocystis disease virus.
Otie Dylan Soebhakti Hasan, Adang Kasmawijaya, Azam Bachur Zaidy, Rina Rina
Indonesian Aquaculture Journal, Volume 17, pp 131-138;

Daphnia magna as a live feed in the maintenance of striped catfish larvae in the form of frozen feed is still limited. Evaluation of the production performance of striped catfish larvae using live feed D. magna in both live and frozen compared with feeding Tubifex became the objective of this research activity. The experimental design used feed treatment with Tubifex (P1) as a control, live D. magna (P2), and frozen D. magna (P3) with four experimental replications for 15 days of rearing using a completely randomized design. Twelve aquariums with a water volume of 150 L were used in the experiment. Striped catfish larvae (1.5 cm TL), as many as 9 fish/L were stocked in each aerated aquarium. The amount of feed given was 15% of the weight of fish biomass with a frequency of 4 times a day and increased every day by 10% from the total feed of the first day. Results of the experiment showed different feeding significantly affected absolute length growth, total biomass, and feed conversion, with the best treatment being Tubifex (P1) with values of 0.6 ± 0.02 cm, 83.93 ± 5.99 g, and 1.31, respectively. The best growth rate of weight and length were obtained on larvae fed Tubifex (P1). The best protein efficiency and retention ratio resulted from frozen D. magna feed (P3) treatment of 12.45 and 7.11%, respectively. Live and frozen D. magna was not significantly different, so frozen D. magna feed can be used as an alternative natural feed with a high level of availability.
Erma Primanita Hayuningtyas, Eni Kusrini,
Indonesian Aquaculture Journal, Volume 17, pp 107-119;

The growth of fish is regulated by growth hormones secreted in a limited amount by its pituitary glands. Tiger shovelnose catfish has a relatively faster growth indicating that some growth hormones suspectedly play roles in the process and could be used in improving other farmed fish species. This study aimed to isolate and identify the growth hormone (GH) mRNA gene in Tiger shovelnose catfish (Pseudoplatystoma fasciatum Linnaeus, 1766). The sample was isolated from the pituitary, the fish measuring 602 g and 43 cm body length; Total RNA was extracted using the Tri Reagent Kit, followed with cDNA synthesis. The success of the extraction was confirmed by quantification and PCR using the β-actin gene as an internal control. GH mRNA gene was isolated by RT-PCR method, with degenerated primers from seven catfish species sequence data in the NCBI gene bank. The single band from GH gene was cloned and sequenced. Total RNA quantification with a concentration of 227 ng/µL and purity of 1.821. The successful isolation of mRNA from the pituitary gland was confirmed by amplifying the β-actin gene generated at 300 bp. This isolation of the GH mRNA gene had a sequence length of 234 bp. Tiger shovelnose catfish GH gene consists of 17 amino acid residues. The GH gene of Tiger shovelnose catfish was close to that of striped catfish (P. hypophthalmus) and Indian catfish (Clarias batrachus) with almost similar homology value of 90.6 %. Partial GH gene from tiger shovelnose catfish can be used a molecular marker in revealing the role of growth hormone on fish development, fish biology, growth gene expression, selective breeding and other mechanisms related to the aquaculture.
Andi Aliah Hidayani, Yushinta Fujaya, Dody Dharmawan Trijuno, Moh. Tauhid Umar, Nita Rukminasari, Alimuddin Alimuddin, Gunarto Gunarto
Indonesian Aquaculture Journal, Volume 17, pp 121-130;

High exploitation of the blue swimming crab (Portunus pelagicus) has significantly reduced its wild populations. The domestication process of this species has been started; however, its breeding program has not yet been successful. Therefore, this study aimed to examine the reproduction performance of intraspecific hybrids of blue swimming crab from Sorong (Papua) and Barru (South Sulawesi), Indonesia. P. pelagicus from Sorong has a bigger size, while the crab from Barru has a better reproduction performance, including fecundity and egg diameter. Hybridization was conducted between crabs from Sorong and Barru with different combinations of broodstock, namely: Barru female ><Barru male, (BF><BM); Barru female ><Sorong male (BF><SM); and Sorong female ><Barru male (SF><BM). The results showed no significant difference in the fecundity and egg diameter between the three hybridization trials. The number of successfully spawned broodstock from BF><BM, BF><SM, and SF><BM were 3, 3, and 2 broodstock, respectively. Meanwhile, the mean values of egg fecundity from BF><BM, BF><SM, and SF><BM were 117, 109, and 151 eggs/g BW, respectively. Furthermore, the mean values of broodstock fecundity per crab were 7,797 eggs, 10,103 eggs, and 10,605 eggs, while the mean values of egg diameter were 0.58 mm, 0.57 mm, and 0.62 mm, respectively. In conclusion, the intraspecific hybridization was successfully carried out between the Barru and Sorong crab populations showing no differences in the fecundity values and egg diameter between the three crosses. The successful spawning between female crabs from Sorong and male crabs from Barru was higher than that of female crabs from Barru and male crabs from Sorong.
Romi Novriadi, Fira Irawan, Shadiqa Malahayati, Nurul Khotimah, Ofan Bosman, Budi Tanaka, Jovano Erris Nugroho
Indonesian Aquaculture Journal, Volume 17, pp 139-145;

A sixty-days feeding trial was conducted to evaluate the inclusion effect of spirulina Arthrospira platensis meal (SM) in the diet on growth and health condition of juvenile Pacific white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei. Four isonitrogenous and iso-lipidic experimental diets were formulated to contain 0%, 0,2%, 0,4% and 0,8% SM. After 60 days, shrimp were sampled and total haemocyte counts was measured. The growth performances of shrimp were significantly affected by the dietary inclusion of SM, whereas the inclusion of SM provides a better biomass, final body weight (FBW), weight gain (WG) and feed conversion ratio (FCR) compared to the control group. Additionally, the inclusion of SM significantly enhances the total haemocytes count (THC) and lysozyme activity in shrimp compared to control group. Therefore, SM can be considered as the functional ingredients in shrimp diet to improve the growth and health condition of shrimp.
Fitriyah Husnul Khotimah, Alimuddin Alimuddin, Dinar Tri Soelistyowati, Sri Nuryati, Ketut Sugama, Ahmad Muzaki, Indah Mastuti, Sari Budi Moria Sembiring, Ketut Mahardika, Harton Arfah, et al.
Indonesian Aquaculture Journal, Volume 17, pp 97-106;

The most common problem in barramundi Lates calcarifer seedling production is the high mortality (> 90%) caused by nervous necrosis virus (NNV) infection. This research aims to evaluate the resistance and gene expression of barramundi challenged by NNV. Two populations were used in this study, i.e., Australian, and Situbondo-originated barramundi populations. The immune-related gene expression levels in the liver, head of kidney, and spleen were observed at 48 and 96 hours after post-infection (hpi). Barramundi’s survival and blood parameters were evaluated post-NNV infection. The results showed that the highest survival was revealed in Situbondo’s barramundi (42.0±4.47%) compared to Australian barramundi (20.0±7.07%) and no mortality was observed in the control without NNV infection. The higher survival rate in barramundi from Situbondo was in line with the blood profile. The number of red blood cell from Situbondo barramundi post-NNV infection (ST) at 96 hpi was higher (P<0.05) than Australian barramundi post-NNV infection (AT). The number of white blood cell of ST at 48 hpi was higher (P<0.05) than AT, but started to decrease at 96 hpi in ST barramundi. The total white blood cell in AT barramundi increased from 48 to 192 hpi. TNFα and IL1-β gene expression levels were significantly higher in the liver, head kidney, and spleen of Situbondo compared to Australian barramundi at 48 hpi, while MHCIIα gene expression in Situbondo’s was significantly higher compared to Australian barramundi at 96 hpi. These results indicate the important roles of all the genes in the barramundi’s immune responses against viral infection. Based on the results of the research, Situbondo’s barramundi has the potential to be used as a candidate for generating broodstock of disease-resistant strain.
Nguyen Van Sang, Phuc Huu Tran, Vu Thanh Nguyen, Nelson Howard Kasigwa, Tham Thi Hong Vo, Khoa Dang Phạm, Hung Dinh Nguyen
Indonesian Aquaculture Journal, Volume 17, pp 87-96;

Grow-out or field survival (GS) is one of the most important traits of striped catfish. Genetic parameters of GS in generation 4 of the growth selected population of this species were estimated based on the data of 8,004 tagged and stocked and 6,410 harvested fish representing 152 full-sib and half-sib families. The heritability and estimated and realized correlated responses for GS, its phenotypic or genetic correlations with harvest weight (HW) and other growth traits, and direct realized response for HW were calculated. The low and significantly different from zero heritability for GS (0.12±0.05) was estimated. The medium positive and no significant difference from zero genetic correlation between GS and HW was found, 0.41±0.24. The estimated selection responses with the proposed selection proportion of 13.0% for GS was 8.5% in trait unit. Current and accumulated correlated selection responses for GS were -7.8% and -1.6%, and 25.5% and 47.6%, respectively, by Estimated Breeding Value and Least Square Means estimation methods. In addition to these results, the high heritability and direct estimated and realized responses for HW pose a great potential for applying multi-trait selection, including both GS and HW in G4 and in the long run.
Azam Bachur Zaidy, Yuke Eliyani, Toni Ruchimat
Indonesian Aquaculture Journal, Volume 17, pp 37-43;

Biofloc technique is a method of fish culture using minimal water exchange and microbial aggregates formed within the culture media as fish supplementary feed. Biofloc as a protein source is currently not being considered part of the feeding dosage in catfish culture. This present work aimed to determine the effects of commercial feed reduction on growth performance, water quality, and hematology of catfish cultured in biofloc ponds. Fish with an average body weight of 7.53 ± 0.47 g were stocked in nine ponds with a stocking density of 100 fish/pond and reared for nine weeks. The experiment was arranged in a completely randomized design, with the following treatments: full feed + non-biofloc (C100) as control; 10% less feed + biofloc (B90); 20% less feed + biofloc (B80). As such, the total feed doses given daily per each treatment fish biomass were: 5% for C100, 4.5% for B90, and 4.0% for B80. Each treatment was arranged in triplicates. The results showed that all water quality parameters (dissolved oxygen, pH, TAN, and nitrite) and biofloc concentrations did not differ significantly among the treatments (P>0.05). Specific growth rate, survival rate, weight gain, and feed conversion ratio of the fish were also not significantly different (P>0.05). The weight gain of biofloc-treated fish in B90 and B80 reached 2.71% and 12.65%, respectively; which were higher than the control treatment during the treatment period. The feed conversion ratios of B90 and B80 were 14.39% and 7.58%, respectively; lower than the control treatment. The biofloc treatment did not adversely alter the fish’s blood cell profiles. This study revealed that feed reduction did not affect water quality in the ponds and blood cell profiles of the fish. Moreover, fish in the biofloc-treated ponds had higher weight gain and lower food conversion ratios compared to fish cultured in the non-treated biofloc ponds. This study suggests that using the biofloc system in catfish rearing can reduce the use of feed up to 10%-20% with similar biomass yield compared to the non-biofloc system.
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