International Journal of Advances in Medicine
ISSN / EISSN: 23493925 / 23493933
Published by: Medip Academy
Total articles ≅ 2,459
Latest articles in this journal
International Journal of Advances in Medicine, Volume 10, pp 482-484; https://doi.org/10.18203/2349-3933.ijam20231458
In adults, EHPVO mainly occurs following thrombosis, while in children it may be related to congenital malformations and/or neonatal umbilical venous catheterization. EHPVO leads to the cavernous transformation of the portal vein in the absence of recanalization. Portal cholangiopathy (also referred to as portal biliopathy) is common in patients with long-standing chronic PVT. It is due to compression of the large bile ducts by the venous collaterals (portal cavernoma) that form in patients with chronic PVT. Typically, symptoms of portal cholangiopathy include jaundice, biliary colic and pruritus.
International Journal of Advances in Medicine, Volume 10, pp 456-460; https://doi.org/10.18203/2349-3933.ijam20231452
Background: Ingestion of wild mushrooms leading to toxicity is a common phenomenon every year during the rainy season in Upper Assam, India. The model for end-stage liver disease (MELD) score was developed to predict mortality in a specific group of patients with decompensated chronic liver disease. It has also been used to predict mortality in patients with acute liver failure, which is also one of the dreaded complications of mushroom toxicity. There are only a couple of studies in the world that have studied MELD score as a predictor of outcomes in patients with mushroom toxicity and to the best of our knowledge, this is the first such study done in India. Methods: In this hospital-based observational study, 35 patients aged >13 years with an alleged history of ingestion of wild mushrooms, but no other cause of hepatic dysfunction were included in this study. Disease outcome (discharged/expired) was correlated with both MELD score and day of presentation from symptom onset. Results: The mean age was 32.54 years with a male-to-female sex ratio of 4:5 among the study participants. Gastrointestinal symptoms, including loose stool, vomiting, pain abdomen, and jaundice, were the most common. The MELD score was significantly higher in patients who succumbed to the toxin (p<0.05) and positively correlated with mortality (r=0.664, p<0.001) and a later day of presentation (r=0.226, p=0.123). A later-day presentation also positively correlated with mortality (r=0.227, p=0.189). Conclusions: The MELD score can be used as a prognostic tool in patients with mushroom toxicity.
International Journal of Advances in Medicine, Volume 10, pp 467-470; https://doi.org/10.18203/2349-3933.ijam20231454
Indonesia has been known as an endemic country of tuberculosis (TB). Most of the cases are pulmonary TB, and pleural effusion is one of the common cases. Untreated pleural effusion can become massive pleural effusion, a true emergency case in the emergency room. In this report we present a 21-years-old female patient with new onset massive pleural effusion due to TB infection. A 21-year-old female patient with no previous medical illness came to ER with shortness of breaths since a week ago. Cough and unmeasured fever have been reported since a month ago. Tachypnea, extreme tachycardia, asymmetric chest movement, decreased vocal fremitus, dullness of percussion, and decreased left pulmonary sound were found. Chest x-ray showed a massive left pleural effusion with tracheal deviation. High flow nasal cannula was given due to blood gas analysis interpreting moderate respiratory distress. Thoracentesis was immediately performed with estimated 1200 CC yellow coloured fluid production. Other laboratory findings include hyponatremia and hypoalbuminemia. This patient was diagnosed with pleural effusion type pulmonary TB, treated with anti-TB drugs, mucolytic, corticosteroid, and analgesics. Serial chest x-rays showed improvement of pleural effusion. In developing countries like Indonesia, the most common causes of pleural effusion was TB infection besides malignancy. A massive pleural effusion diagnosis can be established with history taking, physical examination, chest sonography, chest x-ray, and/or CT-scan. Thoracentesis must be performed within minutes after massive pleural effusion was established.
International Journal of Advances in Medicine, Volume 10, pp 478-481; https://doi.org/10.18203/2349-3933.ijam20231457
We describe a case of a young adult female with Henoch-Schonlein purpura (HSP) presenting with cutaneous and gastrointestinal manifestations. Biopsy revealed a leukocytoclastic vasculitis in the skin. Steroid therapy led to initial resolution of the symptoms followed by a relapse of rashes and subsequent introduction of azathioprine. HSP is the most common childhood vasculitis and uncommonly seen in adults. Early recognition of the disease, especially in the atypical age group, as in our patient, and appropriate intervention can mitigate the disease and limit organ damage.
International Journal of Advances in Medicine, Volume 10, pp 446-451; https://doi.org/10.18203/2349-3933.ijam20231450
Background: Diabetes is leading cause of renal failure in entire world. Approximately 20-40 percent of patients with diabetes develop diabetic nephropathy. Newer drugs like SGLT-2 inhibitors and DPP-4 inhibitors are valuable option for Diabetic Nephropathy. Remogliflozin etabonate (RE) is the latest addition to the SGLT2 inhibitor class of drugs that have been recently approved in India for the management of T2DM.This study was conducted to elaborate effect of SGLT2 inhibitor (remogliflozin) plus DPP4 inhibitor (vildagliptin) on diabetic nephropathy in patients of Type 2 DM. Methods: This hospital based, comparative, open label, randomized controlled trial has been carried out in our department during January 2020 to October 2022 on 60 patients. Group 1 was given metformin 500 mg BD and glimepiride 1 mg BD and group 2 was given FDC of remogliflozin 100 mg and vildagliptin 50 mg BD with 32 patients in group 1 and 28 patients in group 2. The study was approved by ethical committee of our institute. Results: Mean (SD) of urine ACR in metformin and glimepiride group at screening, 12 weeks, 24 weeks, and at 36 weeks were 93.64 (53.92), 95.56 (52.76), 89.96 (50.22) and 90.9 (53.56) respectively mean (SD) of urine ACR in remogliflozin and vildagliptin group at screening, 12 weeks, 24 weeks, and at 36 weeks were 108.28 (68.5), 100.73 (55.5), 99.35 (55.71) and 75.1 (38.7) respectively. Mean (SD) of eGFR in metformin and glimepiride group at screening, 12 weeks, 24 weeks, and at 36 weeks were 59.62 (18.57), 61.2 (11.1), 60.06 (14.37) and 60.8 (13.3) respectively. Mean (SD) of eGFR in remogliflozin and vildagliptin group at screening, 12 weeks, 24 weeks, and at 36 weeks were 68.03 (16.35), 65.8 (7.96), 66.28 (15.13) and 68.4 (11.6) respectively. Conclusions: Remogliflozin and vildagliptin combination has significant reduction of proteinuria and eGFR improvement when compared to metformin plus glimepiride.
International Journal of Advances in Medicine, Volume 10, pp 485-495; https://doi.org/10.18203/2349-3933.ijam20231459
Multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children (MIS-C) is a rare and potentially life-threatening condition that has emerged as a post-infectious complication of COVID-19. MIS-C is characterized by widespread inflammation affecting multiple organ systems, including the heart, lungs, kidneys, and gastrointestinal tract. The condition primarily affects school-aged children and adolescents, with most cases occurring several weeks after a COVID-19 infection. The exact pathophysiology of MIS-C is not yet fully understood, but it is thought to result from an abnormal immune response triggered by the SARS-CoV-2 virus. The clinical presentation of MIS-C is highly variable, and patients may present with fever, rash, conjunctivitis, abdominal pain, vomiting, diarrhea, and cardiac dysfunction. Early recognition and diagnosis of MIS-C are crucial for the prompt initiation of treatment, which typically involves immunomodulatory therapy and supportive care. The diagnosis of MIS-C is based on a combination of clinical and laboratory findings, including elevated inflammatory markers, cardiac biomarkers, and evidence of recent SARS-CoV-2 infection. The management of MIS-C is challenging, and treatment strategies continue to evolve as our understanding of the condition improves. Ongoing research is focused on optimizing diagnostic and therapeutic approaches to improve outcomes for affected children. This review article provides an overview of the current state of knowledge regarding MIS-C, including its epidemiology, clinical presentation, diagnostic evaluation, and management strategies.
International Journal of Advances in Medicine, Volume 10, pp 475-477; https://doi.org/10.18203/2349-3933.ijam20231456
A recently identified condition known as COVID-19-associated pulmonary aspergillosis (CAPA) is connected to the COVID-19 pandemic and is known as post-COVID complications. More data are awaited, and a consensus criterion was recently published in an effort to spur more research and registries to assist clinical decision-making. However, it is evident that CAPA imposes a COVID-19 illness course that worsens with increased morbidity and mortality. Here we present the case of a 53-year-old male patient admitted to our hospital after recovering from COVID-19. Due to his clinical condition, some investigation criteria were performed and Aspergillus fumigatus was identified in his culture test. Treatment was provided with posaconazole as a first-line drug, and the patient showed a good clinical outcome.
International Journal of Advances in Medicine, Volume 10, pp 452-455; https://doi.org/10.18203/2349-3933.ijam20231451
Background: The aetiology of upper gastrointestinal bleed is variable in different geographical regions. Epidemiological data are helpful in knowing the burden of the problem. This study was conducted to know the etiological spectrum, mortality, morbidity, and predictors of outcome in patients with acute UGIB. Methods: Cross-sectional observational study to be carried out in indoor patients presenting with upper GI bleed and to study the spectrum and risk factors associated with it at LLR and associated hospitals, GSVM Medical College, Kanpur during 2020-2022 and noted the clinical presentation, aetiology of bleed, and outcome. Results: Out of 120 patients, 60(50%) had history of chronic alcohol intake, use of NSAIDS 12(10%), smoking 7 (5.83%), intake of spicy food 7 (5.83%), use of steroids 3 (2.5%), stressor present 3 (2.5%), not identified 10 (8.33%). Maximum no. of cases presenting with upper Gi bleed had oesophageal varices 55 (45.83%), esophagitis/gastritis/duodenitis 36 (30%), carcinoma upper GI 12 (10%) normal 11 (9.16%) GAVE 2 (1.66%) Mallory Weiss tear 4 (3.33%). Conclusions: In our study it was found that the most common risk factor for upper GI bleed is chronic alcohol intake and the most common endoscopic finding in these patients were variceal bleed.
Published: 16 May 2023
International Journal of Advances in Medicine; https://doi.org/10.18203/2349-3933.ijam20231437
Background: Chronic liver disease (CLD) is a continuous process of inflammation, destruction, and regeneration of liver parenchyma, which leads to fibrosis and cirrhosis. Liver plays an essential physiological role in thyroid hormone activation and inactivation, transport, and metabolism, as well as the synthesis of thyroid binding globulin. A complex relationship exists between thyroid and liver in health and disease. Methods: 103 patients of CLD were included in this study from December 2020 to September 2022. They were classified as per child Pugh scoring after clinical assessment and investigations. Serum TSH, FT3, FT4 levels were measured for all the patients. Results: Out of 103 patients and it was found that 19 (18.44%) patients belonged CTP class A, 40 (38.83%) patients had CTP score of class B, while maximum 44 (42.71%) patients belonged CTP class C. There was significant positive correlation between CTP class and TSH values (p<0.001) with mean (SD) of CTP class A, B and C were 2.42 (0.76), 3.9 (1.02) and 5.91 (1.08) respectively. There was significant negative correlation between CTP class and FT3 values (p<0.001) and between CTP class and FT4 values (p<0.001). Conclusions: Our study found that there was significant positive correlation of S.TSH values with severity of CLD as assessed by CTP score, while FT3 and FT4 were having significant negative correlation.
Published: 26 April 2023
International Journal of Advances in Medicine, Volume 10, pp 433-440; https://doi.org/10.18203/2349-3933.ijam20231081
Group A beta-hemolytic streptococcal (GABHS) infection is the most common bacterial cause of acute pharyngitis. GABHS is more commonly seen in the pediatric age group than in adults. The disease responds to antibiotics. Untreated GABHS leads to non-suppurative and suppurative complications. Penicillin is the drug of choice recommended by most guidelines. Most GABHS isolates are sensitive to penicillin including penicillin G. Penicillins play a very important role in preventing transmission rates of GABHS, resolution of symptoms, and prevention of GABHS complications. Intramuscular penicillin G benzathine is one of the treatment options for GABHS. Penicillin G potassium is a natural penicillin, with a narrow spectrum of activity, as is required for GABHS. This review aims to understand the role of penicillins in the treatment of GABHS and its complications.