South Asian Journal of Life Sciences
Latest articles in this journal
South Asian Journal of Life Sciences, Volume 10; https://doi.org/10.17582/journal.sajls/2022/10.1.7.13
| In the present study, we investigated the prevalence of Salmonella in various parts of table eggs collected from various union councils of Peshawar, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa Pakistan. For this purpose, 200 egg samples were collected. The culturing of Salmonella from egg shell and their contents was carried out according to ISO guidelines for Salmonella isolation. A total of twenty-two (22) eggs were positive for Salmonella species. The antibiotic susceptibility testing revealed that Salmonella isolates were resistant to ampicillin, amoxicillin/clavulanic acid, cefotaxime, and kanamycin while isolates were susceptible to chloramphenicol, gentamicin, kanamycin and streptomycin. These positive samples were further investigated and confirmed through PCR by targeting serovars specific genes i.e rfbJ, fliC, fljB for S. Typhimurium and ST11, SPV, SefA for S. Enteritidis . The prevalence of Salmonella was found to be 22 (11%), out of which 17 (77.27%) isolates were S. Enteritidis and 5 (22.73%) isolates were found to be S. Typhimurium as confirmed through PCR. The presence of infectious Salmonella in table eggs in Peshawar presents a serious public health threat and should be monitored on routine basis for the presence of Salmonella.
South Asian Journal of Life Sciences, Volume 10; https://doi.org/10.17582/journal.sajls/2022/10.1.1.6
| Vitamin D play a vital role in health, therefore, it is necessary to find a sensitive, selective as well as quick and easy technique for its determination. This review focuses on the Vitamin D investigations of electrochemical biosensors that have been conducted in recent years. According to the research, the practical use of electrochemical biosensors is attributed to the existence of UV radiation and transactivation of pharmaceutical items, food, or even human blood plasma in the detection of Vitamin D from diverse samples, including Vitamin D production in nature. Among the most commonly used electrochemical biosensors for vitamin D detection are Ab-25OHD/SPE/ FMTAD, CYP27B1/GCE, SiO2/GO/Ni(OH)2/GCE, BSA/Ab-VD2/CD-CH/ITO, BSA/Anti VD/Fe3O4 PANnFs/ITO, BSA/Ab-VD/Asp-Gd2O3NRs/ITO, 25OHD Antibody, 25OHD, 25OHD Antibody, IoT Enabled Enzyme Embossed Biosensor, Au-Pt NPs/APTES/FTO and GCN- β -CD/Au nanocomposite. The proposed electrochemical biosensors utilized in the previous publications studied were based on glassy carbon, carbon dots, or carbon paste, functionalized with the various electrochemical biosensors. Further research should be conducted on existing problems and future opportunities of the present electrochemical sensors for the determination of vitamin D.
South Asian Journal of Life Sciences, Volume 8; https://doi.org/10.17582/journal.sajls/2020/184.108.40.206
| A global health emergency termed as Corona Virus Disease COVID-19 became an international concern since December 2019. Novel coronavirus (nCoV) is a spherical or pleomorphic enveloped beta virus containing single- (positive-sense) RNA strand with a nucleoprotein surrounded by a capsid comprised of matrix protein. The envelope is surrounded by club-shaped glycoprotein projections. The virus spreads primarily from one person to another, typically through close contact or breathing drops caused when the infected person coughs or sneezes, hence it is necessary to keep away from a sick person more than two meters. Many pharmaceutical companies and testing organizations are therefore rushing to develop more reliable and rapid test kits to detect 19-nCoV among people suspected of being contaminated in only a few minutes and without the need to send samples to central laboratories. Coronavirus (Covid-19) vaccine latest update: with the production of a secure, reliable and accessible Covid-19 vaccine as the cornerstone to controlling the pandemic, research and testing are rising at a rapid pace around the world to find a cure for the current coronavirus.
South Asian Journal of Life Sciences, Volume 8; https://doi.org/10.17582/journal.sajls/2020/220.127.116.11
| This study evaluated the effects of exogenously administered methyl farnesoate (MF) and 20-OH ecdysone (20E) on polypeptide profile of circulating vitellogenin (Vg) and ovarian vitellin (Vn) in the edible freshwater crab Travancoriana schirnerae by sodium dodecyl sulphate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. The results indicated that the polypeptide profiles of yolk proteins in the hemolymph and ovary of control and experimental females varied with the stage of development of the ovary. Our observations also revealed that both MF and 20E administration was able to induce the production of Vg and Vn during the avitellogenic and previtellogenic phases manifested by the presence of Vg and Vn polypeptide subunits in the electropherograms of experimentals over the controls. Moreover, the electropherograms of MF and 20E crabs during the vitellogenic phase displayed more number of Vg and Vn subunits with increased staining intensity and thickness compared to the control crabs. It was concluded that though both MF and 20E were able to induce or enhance the production of Vg and Vn during the avitellogenic, previtellogenic and vitellogenic phases, the effects were far more pronounced in MF injected females than the 20E injected crabs.
South Asian Journal of Life Sciences, Volume 8; https://doi.org/10.17582/journal.sajls/2020/18.104.22.168
| Background: Soap is solution used to lessen the number of living microorganisms on the surface of the skin, clothes, toilet and materials. It is a cleaning agent made by the chemical action of alkali on fats or fatty acids to yield the sodium or potassium salts of these acids. Objective : This study was carried out to assess antibacterial activity of common soaps used in Rwanda. Materials and methods: This was a cross-sectional study conducted in Susa Village, Musanze District, Rwanda. Skin, clothe, toilets and household used materials were taken as sample sites. Swabs were collected and taken in INES Ruhengeri microbiology laboratory to isolate and identify bacteria, and perform antimicrobial activity of soaps. Results: The most isolated bacteria were Citrobacter spp . (40%), P. aeruginosa and Enterobacter spp . (13.5%), S. aureus and E. coli (10.8%), Proteus spp . and Klebsiella spp . were isolated at 5.4%. Toilet gel and hand washing soap had the highest antibacterial compared to other soaps. Toilet gel antibacterial activity observed as indicated: E. coli (18mm), Enterobacter spp .(15mm) and S. aureus at 14mm, while for hand washing soap were seen as follows E.coli (24mm), followed by proteus (15mm), Klebsiella (13mm) and S .aureus (14mm) however Enterobacter and Citrobacter were resistant to hand washing soap. Duru soap showed the property to inhibit growth of S.aureus. but its antibacterial property was not effective to other bacteria . Clear and Tembo were not effective prevent the growth of bacteria. Conclusion: Hand washing soap, toilet gel could be used as antimicrobial agents. Clear, Tembo can be used to remove duties and oil on skin, clothes and materials.duru soap can be used as beauty soap.
South Asian Journal of Life Sciences, Volume 8; https://doi.org/10.17582/journal.sajls/2020/22.214.171.124
South Asian Journal of Life Sciences, Volume 8; https://doi.org/10.17582/journal.sajls/2020/126.96.36.199
| Agriculture is the method of plant interaction with microorganisms. There is a growing need for an eco-friendly, eco-responsive system in agriculture that can provide adequate nutrients to the growing human population by improving the quality and quantity of agricultural manufacture. Plant Growth-Promoting Microorganisms (PGPMs) have the potential to inhibit the rhizosphere and are at the center of microbial inoculations to regulate risk of rooting. The decomposition of organic matter by earthworms by vermicompost (VC) is known as cheap and environmentally friendly process. It is a substantial provenance of essential nutrients, which bounce back the overall soil condition and stimulate the yield and development of plants that enhance the physical and chemical properties of the soil. . For this vindication the blear of this review is on the momentary of soil symbiotic fungi like Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi (AMF) and Vermicompost (VC), and their precious repercussions on plant maturation. An extensive outline of profuse details of the conservation process is of extraordinary consequence for crops maturation in cultivations.
South Asian Journal of Life Sciences, Volume 8; https://doi.org/10.17582/journal.sajls/2020/188.8.131.52
| Clostridium Chauvoei is an anaerobic, endospore forming gram-positive organism causing black quarter, a deadly disease of domestic animals. A total of 30 Swiss albino mice weighting between 18-20g were used for experiment. In this study, the bacterial load, pathological lesions and histopathological changes in heart, liver and thigh muscles of swiss albino mice caused by Clostridium Chauvoeiat1d.p.i, 2d.p.i, 3d.p.i, 4d.p.i and 5d.p.i (Days post infection) respectively investigated and it was observed that the bacterium Clostridium Chauvoei produced more severe pathological changes in heart, liver and thigh muscles respectively. Necrosis was observed in the tissues examined, both grossly and histopathologically. It is concluded from the present study that, Clostridium Chauvoei is potentially pathogenic and its play an important role in the mechanisms of blackleg in swiss albino mice, they can be particularly important to study its pathogenic characteristics.
South Asian Journal of Life Sciences, Volume 9; https://doi.org/10.17582/journal.sajls/2021/184.108.40.206
| Present study was conducted to investigate the concentration of heavy metals (Na, K, Fe, Zn, Cu, Ni, Mg, Co, Cd and Pb) in different organs (heart, liver, muscles, wings, neck) of poultry, cattle (mutton, beef) and fish available in local and branded markets of Lahore. Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy and Flame Photometry were used to estimate the contamination of these metals in meat. The concentration of heavy metals in different organs showed great variation. The detected values of Na, K, Fe, Mg and Ni were under the tolerable level cited by international standards; World Health Organization (WHO) and Australia New Zealand Food Authority (ANZFA). The Co, Cd and Pd were almost absent in red meat samples but poultry meat wing samples had high concentration of Cu exceeding the permissible limits. Rapid and sensitive Lowry method was adopted for scrutinizing the protein content in internal organs (heart, liver, breast, wings, neck and leg) of poultry meat (Home raised, Local, Zenith and Menu). The results showed that out of all the tested samples liver of Home raised chicken was a rich source of protein. Quantitative evaluation of steroid (testosterone) in chicken through High Performance Liquid Chromatography confirmed that the level of testosterone in different organs didn’t exceed the acceptable limit.
South Asian Journal of Life Sciences, Volume 8; https://doi.org/10.17582/journal.sajls/2020/220.127.116.11
|The experiment was carried out to determine the use of double strength fumigation with formaldehyde gas on broiler breeder’s eggs hatchability, candling, blasting/putrification, dead in shell, quality of chicks and later life mortality. The broiler breeders eggs were divided into two groups each (n=134640 eggs). The fumigation of both groups was performed through automatic fumigation system provided by chick master. The hatchability and candling of flocks SSR1AIC, SSR2AIB, SSR3AID and SSF5 were significantly (P<0.05) better for double strength fumigation compared to single strength fumigation. The dead in shell were insignificant for the treatment. The putrification/blasting and low quality chicks were significantly (P<0.05) better for double strength fumigation for SSR2AIB, SSR3AID and SSF5, while remaining flocks were insignificant regarding quality of chicks and putrification due to fumigation strength. The chicks each (n=30,000) were shifted to poultry houses from both groups to know the effects of fumigation strength on later life of chicks. The weight gain, feed intake and FCR were insignificant for both groups while mortality was significantly better for double strength fumigation compare to single strength fumigation. In short double strength fumigation is safe can be used to improve the hatchery parameters and later life of chicks,