Vector-Borne and Zoonotic Diseases
ISSN / EISSN: 15303667 / 15577759
Published by: Mary Ann Liebert Inc
Total articles ≅ 2,387
Latest articles in this journal
Vector-Borne and Zoonotic Diseases; https://doi.org/10.1089/vbz.2022.0042
In June 2021, a traveler to Ashe County, North Carolina, was bitten by an Ixodes scapularis tick. The patient experienced axillary lymphadenopathy and an erythematous rash near the bite site. We confirmed Borrelia burgdorferi sensu stricto through PCR testing and DNA sequencing in the attached tick and later from mice trapped inside the cabin where the patient stayed.
Vector-Borne and Zoonotic Diseases; https://doi.org/10.1089/vbz.2022.0054
Background: Flaviviruses are agents with high zoonotic potential of importance to human health. They are transmitted by mosquitoes of the Culicidae family, and birds act as host–amplifiers. Birds, mammals, and humans are susceptible hosts to infection. Methods: In this study, West Nile virus (WNV), flavivirus, infection was studied in 37 serum samples from 22 hens on Easter Island, Chile. Results: WNV was detected by ELISA (ID Screen® West Nile Competition Multi-Species). We report absence of antibodies to WNV, and to related viruses of the Japanese Encephalitis Virus serocomplex, and, therefore, absence of infection across the sample. Conclusion: This is the first evaluation of its type carried out in Chile, and represents a positive result for public health at Easter Island.
Vector-Borne and Zoonotic Diseases, Volume 23, pp 18-28; https://doi.org/10.1089/vbz.2022.0056
Background: Chagas disease is one of the world's most neglected tropical diseases, infecting over six million people across the Americas. The hemoparasite Trypanosoma cruzi is the etiological agent for the disease, circulating in domestic, peridomestic, and sylvatic transmission cycles that are maintained by triatomine vectors and a diversity of wild and synanthropic hosts. Public health and wildlife management interventions targeting the interruption of T. cruzi transmission rely on an understanding of the dynamics driving the ecology of this zoonotic pathogen. One wildlife host that purportedly plays a role in the transmission of Chagas disease within the southern United States is the striped skunk (Mephitis mephitis), although infection prevalence in this species is poorly understood. Materials and Methods: To this end, we conducted a PCR-based surveillance of T. cruzi in 235 wild skunks, representing 4 species, across 76 counties and 10 ecoregions in Texas, United States, along with an evaluation of risk factors associated with the infection. Results: We recovered an overall T. cruzi prevalence of 17.9% for all mephitid taxa aggregated, ranging between 6.7% for plains spotted skunks (Spilogale putorius interrupta) and 42.9% for western spotted skunks (Spilogale gracilis). We report the first cases of T. cruzi infection in plains spotted and American hog-nosed skunks (Conepatus leuconotus), of important note for conservation medicine since populations of both species are declining within Texas. Although not statistically significant, we also detected trends for juveniles to exhibit greater infection risk than adults and for differential sex biases in T. cruzi prevalence between taxa, which align with variations in species-specific seasonal activity patterns. No geographic or taxonomic risk factors were identified. Conclusion: Our study contributed key data for population viability analyses and epidemiologic models in addition to providing a baseline for future T. cruzi surveillance among skunks and other wildlife species.
Vector-Borne and Zoonotic Diseases, Volume 23, pp 9-17; https://doi.org/10.1089/vbz.2021.0090
Background:Bartonella species are fastidious gram-negative vector-borne bacteria with a wide range of mammalian reservoirs. While it is understood that some species of Bartonella are human pathogens, the extent of human exposure to Bartonella species (both pathogenic and nonpathogenic) is yet to be fully understood. Materials and Methods: To this end, residual sera from participants enrolled in undifferentiated fever studies in Cambodia, Ghana, Laos, and Peru were screened for the presence of IgG antibodies against Bartonella quintana and Bartonella henselae, using the FOCUS diagnostics Dual Spot- Bartonella IgG Immunofluorescence assay. Forty-eight patients with suspected or confirmed Bartonella bacilliformis exposure or infection in Peru were screened to assess cross-reactivity of the FOCUS assay for IgG against other Bartonella species. Results: Ten of 13 patients with confirmed B. bacilliformis infection were Bartonella-specific IgG positive, and overall, 36/48 of the samples were positive. In addition, 79/206, 44/200, 101/180, and 57/100 of the samples from Peru, Laos, Cambodia, and Ghana, respectively, were Bartonella-specific IgG positive. Furthermore, ectoparasite pools from Cambodia, Laos, and Peru were tested using quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) for the presence of Bartonella DNA. Of the sand fly pools collected in Peru, 0/196 were qPCR positive; 15/140 flea pools collected in Cambodia were qPCR positive; while 0/105 ticks, 0/22 fleas, and 0/3 louse pools collected in Laos tested positive for Bartonella DNA. Conclusion: Evidence of Bartonella in fleas from Cambodia supports the possibility that humans are exposed to Bartonella through this traditional vector. However, Bartonella species were not found in fleas, ticks, or lice from Laos, or sand flies from Peru. This could account for the lower positive serology among the population in Laos and the strictly localized nature of B. bacilliformis infections in Peru. Human exposure to the Bartonella species and Bartonella as a human pathogen warrants further investigation.
Vector-Borne and Zoonotic Diseases, Volume 23, pp 54-55; https://doi.org/10.1089/vbz.2022.29005.ack
Vector-Borne and Zoonotic Diseases
Vector-Borne and Zoonotic Diseases, Volume 23, pp 35-43; https://doi.org/10.1089/vbz.2022.0031
Background: In August 2013, a virus strain (DH13M98) was isolated from Culex tritaeniorhynchus Giles collected in Mangshi, the southwestern border area of Yunnan Province, China. The virus replicated and caused cytopathic effects (CPE) in Aedes albopictus (C6/36) cells, but not in baby hamster Syrian kidney (BHK-21) cells. Materials and Methods: Agarose gel electrophoresis (AGE) analysis revealed that the DH13M98 virus was a 10-segment double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) virus, with a “1-1-1-2-1-1-2-1” pattern. The full genome of the DH13M98 virus was sequenced by full-length amplification of complementary DNAs (FLAC). Results: Phylogenetic analysis of the viral RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (Pol), major subcore-shell (T2), and major core-surface (T13) protein showed that DH13M98 clustered with Umatilla virus (UMAV), and the amino acid (aa) sequences of DH13M98 shared more than 89.5% (Pol), 95% (T2), and 91.1% (T13) identity with UMAV. However, the aa identity of outer capsid protein one (OC1) of DH13M98 with other UMAV was 57.1–79.2%, suggesting that DH13M98 was UMAV, but distinct from other strains of UMAV from the United States, Japan, and Germany at OC1, and it may be a high variant strain of UMAV, even a new serotype. Conclusion: This is the first isolation of UMAV in China, which enriches the resources of virus species in China and provides new insights into the genetic diversity and geographical distribution of the virus.
Vector-Borne and Zoonotic Diseases, Volume 23, pp 44-53; https://doi.org/10.1089/vbz.2022.0026
Background: Crimean–Congo hemorrhagic fever virus (CCHFV) causes a highly contagious tick-borne disease with high case-fatality rates in humans. It is circulating not only in many Asian and African countries, but also spreading to and within Europe. To cope better with future outbreaks of Crimean–Congo hemorrhagic fever (CCHF), the WHO has prioritized the need for the development and validation of CCHF diagnostics, including serological assays. In this study, we evaluated the performance of the new EUROIMMUN anti-CCHFV IgM and IgG enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs). Materials and Methods: Both ELISAs were compared to the Vector-Best VectoCrimean-CHF-IgM and -IgG ELISAs using the EUROIMMUN CCHFV Mosaic 2 IgM and IgG indirect immunofluorescence assays (IFA) as reference. Forty-nine acute-phase serum samples from patients with CCHFV infection confirmed by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and/or anti-CCHFV IgM IFA positivity were used to determine assay sensitivity. The assessment of specificity was based on sera from 30 control patients, 30 healthy blood donors, and 29 patients with hantavirus or sandfly fever virus infections. All samples originated from Turkey. Results: Sensitivity of the EUROIMMUN ELISAs (IgM 98.0%, IgG 47.1%) exceeded that of the Vector-Best ELISAs (IgM 95.9%, IgG 35.3%). Specificity of the EUROIMMUN ELISA IgM (86.4%) was slightly higher compared with the Vector-Best ELISA IgM (84.7%), while specificity for IgG was 100% for both assays. Qualitative agreement between the EUROIMMUN and Vector-Best ELISAs was substantial for detecting anti-CCHFV IgM (84.1%, ĸ = 0.673) and IgG (94.9%, ĸ = 0.791), whereas the quantitative results indicated a very strong positive correlation (IgM: r = 0.868, IgG: r = 0.913). Conclusion: The new EUROIMMUN anti-CCHFV ELISAs are standardized and easy-to-use tools that reliably support the identification of acute CCHF cases, and thus suitable for laboratories involved in on-site outbreak support.
Vector-Borne and Zoonotic Diseases, Volume 23, pp 1-8; https://doi.org/10.1089/vbz.2022.0059
Background:Anaplasma ovis are obligate intracellular bacteria that can endanger human and animal health, and they can be transmitted by arthropod vectors, such as Melophagus ovinus and ticks. Materials and Methods: In this study, 433 specimens, including 370 M. ovinus and 63 sheep blood samples, were collected from nine districts of South Xinjiang to investigate the distribution and molecular epidemiology of A. ovis in M. ovinus and small ruminant. Results: DNA of A. ovis was detected in 109 (25.2%, 109/433) of the 433 samples using PCR and sequencing. The analysis of A. ovis msp4 sequences revealed four different genotypes, including genotype III (47.7%; 52/109), GB3 (34.0%; 37/109), AoGOv3 (15.6%; 17/109), and XJ9 (2.8%; 3/109). Conclusions: To the best of our knowledge, A. ovis genotypes GB3, AoGOv3, and XJ9 detected in this study are the first to be reported in M. ovinus, and our data indicate that XJ9 is a novel A. ovis genotype presented herein for the first time. These findings provide important references for the new understanding and prevention of A. ovis in border counties in China.
Vector-Borne and Zoonotic Diseases, Volume 23, pp 29-34; https://doi.org/10.1089/vbz.2022.0023
Background: Leptospirosis is an infectious disease caused by a pathogenic Leptospira species transmitted directly or indirectly from animals to humans. It is endemic in Southeast Asia in several countries, including Indonesia and Thailand. Therefore, this study aimed to determine the effect of community behavior on the incidence of leptospirosis in West Jakarta in 2019. Methods: The study used a case–control design, and data were obtained from the West Jakarta Health Office. The sample included 140 respondents, consisting of 70 leptospirosis patients (cases) and 70 participants who did not suffer from the disease (controls) in a 1:1 ratio. Results: In the bivariate analysis, there were significant effects on leptospirosis incidence from knowledge (odds ratio [OR] = 18.789), occupation (OR = 31.875), injury history (OR = 20.842), and recreation (OR = 0.294). Multivariate analysis showed significant effects based on occupation, present wounds, and recreation records. Occupation was a dominant factor in leptospirosis in West Jakarta (OR 54.116: 95% confidence interval: 4.435–660.372). Conclusion: The dominant factors for leptospirosis were risky occupations, followed by a history of injuries.
Vector-Borne and Zoonotic Diseases; https://doi.org/10.1089/vbz.2022.0033
Background: High frequency of Helicobacter pylori infection and the unknown mode of transmission prompted us to investigate H. pylori–wild housefly relationship. H. pylori causes chronic gastritis, peptic ulcers, and stomach cancer. H. pylori persists in the gut of the experimentally infected houseflies. The existence of H. pylori strains isolated from wild houseflies, on the other hand, has never been documented. Methods: In this study, 902 wild houseflies from different sites were identified as Musca domestica, then 60 flies were screened by traditional microbiological techniques and H. pylori-specific 16S rRNA gene. The antibiotic resistance (ART) was investigated phenotypically. Wild housefly gut bacterial isolates were further evaluated genotypically to have 23S rRNA gene mutation related to clarithromycin resistance. To find efficient therapeutic alternatives, the potency of three plant extracts (garlic, ginger, and lemon) and the wasp, Vespa orientalis venom was evaluated against H. pylori. The cytotoxic effect of the crude wasp venom, the most potent extract, against Vero and Colon cancer (Caco2) cell lines was investigated using the 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide assay. Results: All isolates from houseflies were positive. The isolated bacteria have variable resistance to frequently used antibiotics in all isolates. Minimum inhibitory concentration values of 15.625 mg/mL for both ginger and lemon extracts, 7.8125 mg/mL for garlic extract, and 0.0313 mg/mL for wasp venom were recorded. Wasp venom has the most potent antibacterial activity compared with the four antibiotics that are currently used in therapies against H. pylori. Conclusion: We conclude that wild houseflies can play a role in disseminating H. pylori. The housefly gut may be a suitable environment for the horizontal transfer of ART genes among its associated microbiome and H. pylori. Wasp venom proved its potential activity as a new and effective anti-H. pylori drug for both therapeutic and preventative usage.