International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance

Journal Information
ISSN / EISSN: 15550265 / 15550273
Published by: Human Kinetics
Total articles ≅ 2,455

Latest articles in this journal

International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance, Volume 18, pp 1-2; https://doi.org/10.1123/ijspp.2023-0057

Abstract:
"Do We Ask the Right Questions and Use Appropriate Methodologies to Answer Them?" published on 01 Mar 2023 by Human Kinetics.
International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance, Volume -1, pp 1-6; https://doi.org/10.1123/ijspp.2022-0229

Abstract:
Purpose: To assess the variations in power performance and perceptual training responses and compare the physical performance of national boxing athletes qualified or not qualified for the Tokyo Olympic Games over a 7-month training period. Methods: Twelve amateur boxers from the Brazilian national team were tested 6 times across 7 months. In the first assessment, boxers performed squat and countermovement jumps and bench press, prone bench pull, half squat, and jump squat power tests. In the following testing sessions, only countermovement jump and bench press power were assessed. In addition, the rating of perceived exertion and total quality recovery status were assessed in 106 training sessions across the study. Independent t test and repeated-measures analysis of variance were used for data analysis purposes. Results: No significant differences (P > .05) were observed between Olympic and non-Olympic groups for any test variables (effect size [95% CI] ranging from 0.01 [−1.13 to 1.13] to 0.69 [−0.53 to 1.79]). No significant changes (P > .05) were detected throughout the study for countermovement jump height and bench press power in either group (effect size [95% CI] ranging from 0.01 [−1.13 to 1.13] to 1.03 [−0.25 to 2.14]). Overall, both groups exhibited similar variations in both rating of perceived exertion and total quality recovery over the 7-month period. Conclusions: Within the same national team, power-related performance was similar between Olympic and non-Olympic boxers. The maintenance of power abilities and optimization of technical and tactical skills seem to be key issues to consider during the final stages of preparation for international boxing competitions.
International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance, Volume -1, pp 1-1; https://doi.org/10.1123/ijspp.2023-0079

Abstract:
"“I Touch the Future. I Teach.”" published on 25 Mar 2023 by Human Kinetics.
, , Catherine Hambly, , , Tim F. Donovan
International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance, Volume -1, pp 1-6; https://doi.org/10.1123/ijspp.2022-0297

Abstract:
Purpose: An understanding of an athlete’s total daily energy expenditure (TEE) is necessary to inform nutritional strategies, particularly where daily training and competitive demands are highly variable. This observational case series assessed the TEE of elite tennis players during high-level competition. Methods: Senior female singles participants (FS: n = 3; 21 [1] y; ranked Women’s Tennis Association [WTA] top 125–375), an FS junior (n = 1; 16 y; ranked WTA top 350), and a men’s doubles player (n = 1; 26 y; ranked Association of Tennis Professionals [ATP] top 5) were assessed for TEE (using the doubly labeled water method) during a 9- to 14-day period, which included training, Wimbledon Championships, WTA/ATP International Tournaments, Junior/Senior International Tennis Federation, and Wimbledon Junior Championships. One female (FS3) did not exercise from day 4 following injury. Results: TEE for men’s doubles was 4586 kcal·d−1 (67 kcal·kg−1 fat-free mass [FFM]; daily activity 98 [74] min). Noninjured adult female participants’ TEEs were 3396 and 3948 kcal·d−1 (66 and 81 kcal·kg−1 FFM; daily activity durations were 139 [84] min and 150 [66] min, respectively), while TEE for the injured athlete was 2583 kcal·d−1 (45.7 kcal·kg−1; daily nonexercise activity duration was <45 min). The junior player TEE was 3988 kcal·d−1 (78.2 kcal·kg−1 FFM; daily activity of 131 [66] min). Conclusion: This observational case series positions tennis as a highly energetically demanding sport with variability evident between individuals (ie, TEE between 60 and 90 kcal·kg−1 FFM). Accordingly, nutritional strategies that promote sufficient energy availability should be emphasized with individual variability suitably assessed prior to prescription.
International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance, Volume -1, pp 1-6; https://doi.org/10.1123/ijspp.2022-0389

Abstract:
Purpose: This study aimed to investigate the effects of a 5-week training cessation on the cardiac autonomic response after a 50-m swimming time-trial test. Methods: Twenty trained and highly trained adolescent swimmers (17.1 [2.7] y) performed a 50-m front-crawl all-out test before (visit 1) and after a 5-week training cessation (visit 2). After the warm-up, heart-rate variability (HRV) was recorded in a seated position using a Polar RS800CX heart-rate monitor during the 10 minutes before (preexercise) and immediately after the 50-m front-crawl all-out test (postexercise). Two-way analysis of variance (time × visit) and analysis of covariance were conducted to compute the effect of the 50-m all-out test on vagal-related HRV parameters (mean R-R, standard deviation of R-R intervals [SDNN], square root of the mean squared differences between successive R-R intervals [RMSSD], the percentage number of pairs of adjacent normal R-R intervals differing by more than 50 milliseconds in the entire recording [pNN50], and power in the high frequency [HF]) with Bonferroni post hoc test. Results: All the HRV parameters had a time main effect (P < .05), showing a reduction after the 50 m in both visits (P < .05). All the variables exhibited a visit main effect (P < .05); the preexercise and postexercise mean R-R, natural logarithm SDNN, natural logarithm RMSSD, and natural logarithm HF values declined after the training cessation (P < .05). Natural logarithm pNN50 preexercise values were reduced in visit 2 compared with visit 1 (P < .05). Only mean R-R was further reduced in response to the test in visit 2 compared with visit 1 (P < .05). Conclusions: After 5 weeks of training cessation, all the preexercise and postexercise vagal-related HRV parameters evidenced a reduction, suggesting an impairment in swimmers’ physical status. Coaches should be cautious with training loads at the start of the season.
Bastien Krumm, Frédéric Luisier, Arnaud Rapillard,
International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance, Volume -1, pp 1-4; https://doi.org/10.1123/ijspp.2022-0422

Abstract:
Purpose: To optimize the recovery phase between heats in ski-mountaineering sprint competitions, this study investigated whether an active recovery protocol on an ergocycle could improve subsequent performance compared with a self-selected recovery strategy. Methods: Thirteen elite ski mountaineers (9 men and 4 women) performed 3 sprints with 2 different recovery conditions (Ergo vs Free) in a randomized order. The Ergo condition involved a 10-minute constant-intensity exercise on an ergocycle performed at 70% of maximum heart rate. For the Free condition, the athlete was asked to self-select modality. At the end of the third sprint, a passive recovery (seated) was prescribed for both protocols. Sprint performance (time) and physiological parameters (lactate concentration [La], heart rate [HR], and rating of perceived exertion [RPE]) were recorded from each sprint and recovery phase. Results: In the Ergo vs Free protocols, sprint times (177 [24] s vs 176 [23] s; P = .63), recovery average HR (70% [2.9%] vs 71% [5.2%] of maximal HR), and RPE (16.7 [1.5] vs 16.8 [1.5]; P = .81) were not significantly different. However, [La] decreased more after Ergo (−2.9 [1.8] mmol·L−1) and Free (−2.8 [1.8] mmol·L−1) conditions compared with passive recovery (−1.1 [1.6] mmol·L−1; P < .05). Conclusions: The use of an ergocycle between heat sprints in ski mountaineering does not provide additional benefits compared with a recovery strategy freely chosen by the athletes. However, active conditions provide a faster [La] reduction compared with passive recovery and seem to be a more suitable strategy between multiple-heat sprints.
Cameron Armstrong, Machar Reid, Callum Beale,
International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance, Volume -1, pp 1-11; https://doi.org/10.1123/ijspp.2022-0330

Abstract:
Purpose: To quantify match load associated with padel and compare responses with both singles and doubles tennis. Methods: On separate days, 12 participants (7 men and 5 women) played 60-minute padel (PADEL), singles tennis (SINGLES), and doubles tennis (DOUBLES) simulated games. Participants wore a 10-Hz GPS/100-Hz triaxial accelerometer unit and heart-rate monitor. Exercise-related sensations and blood lactate concentration were monitored every 20 minutes. Match-play characteristics (temporal structure) and shot selection were derived from video analysis. Vertical jump ability was assessed before and after each game. Results: Heart rate, exercise-related sensations (overall perceived exertion and limb discomfort), and physical load (total distance covered, PlayerLoad, acceleration density and load) for SINGLES were higher compared with DOUBLES and PADEL (all P ≤ .05). Blood lactate concentrations remained low (1–2 mmol·L−1) and did not differ between conditions. Effective playing time (P < .001) was lower in SINGLES and DOUBLES compared with PADEL. The number of forehands (P = .002) and backhands (P < .001) was greater for SINGLES than for DOUBLES and PADEL. The number of volleys/smashes and lobs (P < .05) was greater for PADEL compared with SINGLES and DOUBLES. Performance for squat, countermovement, and multirebound jumps was similarly reduced below baseline after match play (P < .05), independent of condition. Conclusion: Padel imposes a unique match load on players that is different from singles tennis and more closely resembles that of doubles tennis. Cardiovascular stimulation and physical load are highest in singles tennis, while padel sees players hit a larger variety of shots with higher effective playing percentages.
Silvana Bucher Sandbakk, Jacob Walther, , Espen Tønnessen,
International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance, Volume -1, pp 1-4; https://doi.org/10.1123/ijspp.2022-0484

Abstract:
Purpose: The concept of training quality reflects that the effect of training is dependent on more than the mere product of training load (eg, duration, intensity, frequency). The aims of this commentary are to (1) propose a practice-oriented framework to describe training quality and its general and context-dependent characteristics and (2) discuss how athletes and coaches can work to improve training quality. Conclusions: Training quality can be viewed from different perspectives. The holistic dimension includes the entire training process (goal setting, gap analysis, application of training principles and methods, etc), while a narrower dimension encompasses the specific training sessions and how they are executed in relation to the intended purpose. To capture the varying contexts, we define training quality as the degree of excellence related to how the training process or training sessions are executed to optimize adaptations and, thereby, improve overall performance. Although training quality is challenging to quantify, we argue that identification and assessment of quality indicators will increase our scientific understanding and consequently help coaches and athletes to improve training quality. We propose that the physical, technical, and psychological factors of training quality can be improved through an individualized learning process of systematic planning, execution, and debriefing. However, assessment tools should be identified and scientifically validated across different training sessions and sports. We encourage further interventions to improve training quality.
Cion Wren, Marco Beato, Stuart A. McErlain-Naylor, Antonio Dello Iacono,
International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance, Volume -1, pp 1-7; https://doi.org/10.1123/ijspp.2022-0349

Abstract:
Background: It remains unknown if flywheel-assisted squats can be reliably utilized to increase power outputs and if such outputs are related. Objectives: To compare assisted and unassisted flywheel squat peak power outputs, determine their reliability, and analyze the relationship of the delta difference between peak power outputs during the squats. Methods: Twenty male athletes attended the laboratory 6 times—performing 3 sets of 8 repetitions of assisted and unassisted squats during 2 familiarization sessions and then 3 sets of 8 repetitions during experimental sessions 3 to 6 (2 sessions for unassisted and assisted squat in randomized order, respectively). Results: Concentric and eccentric peak power were significantly greater during assisted squats (both P < .001, d = 1.59, d = 1.57, respectively). Rating of perceived exertion (P = .23) and eccentric:concentric ratio (P = .094) did not differ between squat conditions. Peak power measures obtained excellent reliability, while rating of perceived exertion and eccentric:concentric ratio estimates were rated as acceptable to good, with greater uncertainty. A large to very large correlation (r = .77) was found between concentric and eccentric peak power delta difference of assisted and unassisted squats. Conclusions: Greater concentric outputs during assisted squats induce greater eccentric outputs and obtain greater mechanical load. Peak power is a reliable metric for monitoring flywheel training, whereas the eccentric:concentric ratio should be used with caution. Eccentric and concentric peak power are strongly related during flywheel squats, evidencing the need to maximize the concentric output to enhance the eccentric output.
, James J. Tufano, Kristen C. Cochrane-Snyman, Raad H. Gheith, Jeffrey M. McBride
International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance, Volume -1, pp 1-7; https://doi.org/10.1123/ijspp.2022-0407

Abstract:
Purpose: The purpose of this study was to explore whether offset loading in the barbell squat altered ground-reaction force (GRF) and muscle activation in the dominant (D) and nondominant (ND) lower limb compared to traditional squats. Methods: Twelve well-trained men (age 26.4 [3.2] y; 10.3 [1.9] y experience) performed 3 sets of 10 repetitions at 60% of their previously measured 1-repetition maximum. Sets were quasi-randomized between traditional loading (TDL), dominant-side offset loading (OS-D), and nondominant-side offset loading (OS-ND). All repetitions were performed on a dual force plate with electromyography sensors on the prime mover muscles of the squat. GRF symmetry was assessed using the symmetry index (SI) to determine the direction (D [+] or ND [−]) and magnitude (%) of the asymmetry. Finally, the first 3 and final 3 repetitions of each set were compared for compensatory changes in symmetry. Results: OS-D induced a significant change in limb SI relative to TDL (5.21% vs 1.44%; P = .011); however, no significant difference in limb SI was seen between TDL and OS-ND (−0.66% vs 1.44%; P = .278). No asymmetries between D and ND muscle activation were present in any condition. TDL and OS-D squats exhibited significant improvements in limb SI between the first 3 and final 3 repetitions (P = .035 and .011, respectively); however, no such improvement was seen in OS-ND. Conclusions: OS-D is capable of significantly altering GRF limb SI in a bilateral squat; however, OS-ND appears to exhibit no GRF or electromyography effects relative to TDL. Thus, the results of this study do not support the use of OS-ND in the pursuit of strengthening a weaker limb, suggesting that unilateral training may be a preferred mode of exercise for this desired outcome.
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