Journal of the Chinese Advanced Materials Society

Journal Information
ISSN / EISSN: 22243682 / 21681031
Published by: Informa UK Limited
Total articles ≅ 189

Latest articles in this journal

Journal of the Chinese Advanced Materials Society, Volume 6, pp 722-737; https://doi.org/10.1080/22243682.2018.1548303

Abstract:
Thin films of ruthenium (Ru) on 6-hexagonal silicon carbide (6H-SiC) and 4-hexagonal silicon carbide (4H-SiC) were analysed by Rutherford backscattering spectroscopy (RBS) at various annealing temperatures in the air-ambient. RBS analysis indicated Ru oxidation at a temperature of 400 °C and commencement of diffusion of Ru into SiC at a temperature of 500 °C for both Ru–4H-SiC and Ru–6H-SiC. X-ray diffraction analysis of samples annealed in air at 600 °C showed evidence of formation of ruthenium silicide in both 4H and 6H-SiC. Silicide formation in 4H-SiC and Ru oxidation in 6H-SiC were also confirmed by Raman analysis. Both samples of Ru–6H-SiC and Ru–4H-SiC Schottky barrier diodes (SBD) showed excellent rectification behaviour and linear capacitance-voltage characteristics up to an annealing temperature of 600 °C for 6H-SiC and 300 °C for 4H-SiC . The Ru–6H-SiC and Ru–4H-SiC SBDs degraded after annealing at 700 °C and 400 °C, respectively as evidenced by the appearance of infinite series resistance. The degradation of Ru–6H-SiC may be attributed to the inter-diffusion of Ru and Si at the Schottky-substrate interface, while the oxidation of Ru which led to the formation of of non-conducting and gaseous oxide compounds is the likely cause of Ru–4H-SiC SBDs device failure.
O. D. Onukwuli, , R.S. Odera
Journal of the Chinese Advanced Materials Society, Volume 6, pp 755-765; https://doi.org/10.1080/22243682.2018.1555056

Abstract:
Banana peduncle fibres (BPF) are new natural fibres that need the attention of researcher. In this study, the effect of chemical treatments on the BPF for possible application in polymer composites production was investigated. Alkali, acetic anhydride, permanganate and silane treatment of BPF were studied. Tensile test and microstructure were used to validate the work. The obtained results shows that alkali treatment fibres have tensile strength of 98.33 N/mm2 and untreated fibre strength of 51.62 N/mm2, acetic anhydride treatment of the BPF have a maximum tensile strength 108.61 N/mm2 at 2 h. Permanganate treatment of BPF maximum strength of 118.89 N/mm2 at the 2 h. The celluloses content of the BPF was enhance from 63.40, 75.81, 82.23, 77.78 and 79.67% for the untreated BPF, alkali, silane, KMnO4 and acetylation treatment. It was established that silane treatment has the best tensile strength after treatment of the BPF.
, R. Bhoopathi, C. Deepa, G. Sasikala
Journal of the Chinese Advanced Materials Society, Volume 6, pp 640-654; https://doi.org/10.1080/22243682.2018.1534609

Abstract:
In recent years, the development of natural and synthetic fibers reinforced hybrid composites is one of the high attractive research fields. These composites are one of the major concerns for many industrial applications due to weight reduction and ecological reasons. In this experimental study, partially eco-friendly hybrid composites were fabricated by using carbon and flax fibers with epoxy resin. The composites were fabricated by hand lay-up process and the properties such as inter-laminar shear strength (ILSS), Fourier transform infra-red (FTIR) spectroscopy analysis, hardness, wear behavior and weight gain characteristics have been carried out. The internal structures of the fractured surfaces of the tested composites were analyzed using a scanning electron microscopy (SEM) analysis. From the experimental results, it is observed that the average weight loss is 17.98%, ILSS varies between 3.96 and 4.9 MPa and hardness is in the range of 62.33–77.66 (HRC). The results further revealed that the percentage of water intake of the flax fiber is 92%, carbon fiber is 36.6% and these fibers reinforced composite is 61.9%. From the results, it is concluded that the above said properties are comparable with pure carbon fiber reinforced composites, which shows the potential for hybridization of flax fiber with carbon fiber.
Ekene Clifford Igboayaka, , Innocent Chinedu Ernest
Journal of the Chinese Advanced Materials Society, Volume 6, pp 801-816; https://doi.org/10.1080/22243682.2018.1555678

Abstract:
A prediction model for the throughput capacity and energy consumption of cassava tuber-shredder was developed following fundamental principles and iterative steps involved in machine process modelling. The homogeneity of each of the derived model was verified using dimensional analysis, after which, the validation and confirmation of the adequacies of the developed models were performed using six experimental runs. Each model’s prediction accuracy is over 98% with the range of the standard error for the specific energy consumption of the machine found to be −1.48 to 1.49%, while that of throughput of the machine was found to be −1.21 to 1.31% respectively. The result of the verification showed R2 value of 99.86% for the throughput capacity and 99.99% for specific energy consumption. This shows a good fit with a positive linear relationship between the observed and the predicted values for the two parameters predicted. The performance efficiency of the modelled cassava shredder ranged from 84 to 85.11% at a shredding speed of 300–600 rpm. It was observed from the ANOVA table that the shredding speed significantly affected the specific energy consumption and throughput but not the shredding efficiency.
, O. D. Onukwuli, C. F. Okey-Onyesolu
Journal of the Chinese Advanced Materials Society, Volume 6, pp 478-496; https://doi.org/10.1080/22243682.2018.1497534

Abstract:
A comparative evaluation of the predictive capability of response surface methodology (RSM) and artificial neural network (ANN) in adsorptive treatment of dye simulated wastewater using acid activated Raphia hookeri seeds (AARHS) as adsorbent was investigated. FTIR spectrum and SEM displayed the functional groups and surface morphology of AARHS, respectively. A 24 central composite experimental design (CCD) and a three-layered (4:n:1) feed-forward architecture of artificial neural network trained by the Levenberg–Marquard back-propagation algorithm were developed to model and predict the process parameters. The best performance for the ANN architecture was obtained at n = 10 neurons. The response (% crystal violet dye adsorbed) was a function of four controllable input variables: adsorbent dosage, time, solution temperature and pH. Sensitivity analyses of the input variables on the response evaluated by Pareto analysis (P) and Relative Contribution (RC) for RSM and ANN, respectively, reveal that pH has the highest effect on the response. The predictive ability of the ANN and RSM models were evaluated in terms of RMSE (0.912; 1.186), χ2 (0.267; 0.472), MPE (0.549; 1.085) and R2 (0.9950; 0.9867), respectively. The result showed the superiority of ANN in capturing the nonlinear behaviour of the adsorptive system. An optimal response of 98.05% was recorded at 3.812 g adsorbent dosage, 65.58 min, 47.83 °C and pH of 7.928.
Tomleshkumar B. Deshmukh, Sujata S. Deo, Farhin S. Inam,
Journal of the Chinese Advanced Materials Society, Volume 6, pp 329-340; https://doi.org/10.1080/22243682.2018.1425905

Abstract:
A new simple, specific, accurate, precise and robust normal phase high performance thin layer chromatography (HPTLC) method were developed and validated for simultaneous estimation of two antihypertensive drugs Amlodipine Besylate (AMB) and Telmisartan (TEL) in pharmaceutical dosage form. Chromatographic separation of the drugs was performed over aluminium plates precoated with silica gel 60F254 as the stationary phase and solvent system comprised of chloroform: methanol: formic acid (8:2.5:0.5 v/v/v). Densitometric evaluation of the separated zones was performed at 251 nm. Analytical performance of the suggested HPTLC method was validated according to the ICH guidelines with respect to the linearity, accuracy, precision, detection and quantitation limits, robustness and specificity. The two drugs were satisfactory resolve with Rf values 0.57 ± 0.02 and 0.77 ± 0.02 for AMB and TEL, respectively. The linearity was studied in the concentration range 100–600 μg/ml for both AMB and TEL with a correlation coefficients (r2) >0.9997 and 0.9999, respectively. Statistical analysis showed that the developed method is repeatable and selective for the estimation of AMB and TEL in its pharmaceutical formulations.
Peng Song, Wei Zhang, Chen Xu, Huaiyang Guan, Yu Tu,
Journal of the Chinese Advanced Materials Society, Volume 6, pp 827-837; https://doi.org/10.1080/22243682.2018.1556334

Abstract:
The mechanical properties of silk, including stress and strain, play a key role in many emerging fields. In this study, seven types of silkworm (Bombyx mori) silk were studied to verify the effects of silkworm variety on the mechanical properties of silk, as well as diameter, morphology and structure. Results demonstrated that the physical properties and chemical structure of silk were highly dependent upon silkworm variety, although the FTIR spectra and XRD curves were very similar. Due to the high content of silk Ι (α-helix/random coil), three kinds of silk (7532 × 781, 9Fu × 7Xiang and A1) had superior tensile strengths of 644.05, 579.85, and 652.59 MPa, and strains of 23.29, 19.98, and 16.65%, which were considerably higher than those of the other four varieties. Yuncan Ι silk had a relatively higher silk production with a weaker tensile strength. Our study is first to illustrate the relationship among silkworm variety, silk mechanical properties, and silk chemical structure. In addition, this study might provide a useful reference to cultivate new silkworm variety for producing silk fiber with higher quality.
Journal of the Chinese Advanced Materials Society, Volume 6, pp 817-826; https://doi.org/10.1080/22243682.2018.1556333

Abstract:
The temperature rise in chips during machining process largely affects the tool life as well as the quality of the machined product. It also affects the power required for machining. Therefore, accurate measurement of temperature rise in chips during machining is important not only to understand and predict any changes in the properties of the component but also to predict and optimize the life cycle of the tool. In this work, we measure temperature rise during shaping process of the aluminum block using thermal imaging technique and compare the values with that obtained using Weiner’s model for moving heat source. Our result indicates that temperature value obtained by the infrared camera was very close to those obtained by Weiner model. This work validates the use of Weiner model for an in situ temperature rise of chips during machining.
Bin Yang, , Shiqi He
Journal of the Chinese Advanced Materials Society, Volume 6, pp 369-381; https://doi.org/10.1080/22243682.2018.1482522

Abstract:
In this article, 17-4PH metal powder was used as raw material to study the effects of the injection position and MIM (metal powder injection molding) thermal debinding temperature on the rocker arm. By simulation, it was found that different injection schemes have obvious effects on the filling time, density, blowhole, and injection stress of parts. In addition, when the termination temperature of the thermal debinding was 820 °C, the presintering effect could be achieved. When the intermediate process temperature was 450 °C, the polyethylene component remained in the sample. According to the TG and DSC curves of the solvent debinding feedstock, it was effective to avoid the occurrence of the residue binder when the intermediate process temperature increased to 500 °C.
Journal of the Chinese Advanced Materials Society, Volume 6, pp 779-800; https://doi.org/10.1080/22243682.2018.1555677

Abstract:
This is a state-of-the-art review on the current state and advancements in the field of polymer and graphene foam-based nanocomposites. Graphene is nanoallotrope of carbon having single layer of hexagonally arranged atoms in two-dimensional (2D) lattice. Graphene foam with one or few-layered graphene nanosheets have shown huge potential owing to unique three-dimensional (3D) structure and properties. Graphene foam has been reinforced in polymers such as epoxy, poly(vinyl alcohol), polydimethylsiloxane, polyaniline, and polypyrrole. Integration of 3D graphene-based framework has enhanced the mechanical properties of nanocomposites at minimal concentrations. Whereas, percolation limits of electrical and thermal advantages tend to require high concentrations to attain significant properties. The 3D graphene-based conductive structures have found potential in supercapacitors and energy devices because of large surface area, high electron transport, and low density. Combination of polymer and graphene foam network enables microstructural and conductivity changes needed for high performance electromagnetic interference shielding materials. Polymer and graphene foam-based materials are also demanding in water-oil separation systems due to specific surface area, high porosity, hydrophobic, oleophilic, and lightweight properties. Polymers with internal 3D foam network have been found useful for tissue in-growth and increased drug loading capacity leading to smart scaffolding material for biomedical applications.
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