BMC Oral Health
ISSN / EISSN: 14726831 / 14726831
Published by: Springer Nature
Total articles ≅ 3,062
Latest articles in this journal
BMC Oral Health, Volume 22, pp 1-7; https://doi.org/10.1186/s12903-022-02595-3
Background: Emerging evidence indicate the relationship between ELA with oral health problems. However, most focus on single types of adversity. The association of cumulative ELA with edentulism, the final marker of disease burden for oral health, remains unclear. Methods: Data came from 17,610 elderly participants in the China Health and Retirement Longitudinal Study (CHARLS). In 2014, the Life History Survey Questionnaire was utilized to evaluate the experience of threat and deprivation. Information on edentulism was evaluated through self-report from the follow-up in 2013, 2015, and 2018. By controlling for age, education, hukou residence, marital status, and disease history, logistic regression analyses were used to evaluate the relationships between distinct dimensions of ELA and risk of edentulism. Results: Nearly half (49.8%) of the 17,610 older persons (mean [SD] age at baseline: 63.6 [9.4] years) reported experiencing early adversity due to threat-related ELA, and 77.9% reported having deprivation-related ELA. ELA characterised by threat was associated with edentulism in both male and female participants. Two forms of threat-related ELA exposure were linked to a 1.65-fold and 1.73-fold higher risk for edentulism in both male (95% CI 1.23, 2.21) and female participants (95% CI 1.31, 2.29), compared to no threat-related ELA exposure. Both male (95% CI 2.34, 4.24) and female participants (95% CI 2.49, 4.56) had a 3.15-fold and 3.37-fold higher risk for edentulism when exposed to three or more threat-related ELAs. Conclusion: Our findings suggest that ELA marked by threat is linked to an increased risk of edentulism. The biological pathways between different dimensions of ELA and teeth loss should be clarified by future research.
BMC Oral Health, Volume 22, pp 1-9; https://doi.org/10.1186/s12903-022-02549-9
Objective: Nanomaterials with superior properties such as high surface area over volume ratio are widely used in dentistry and medicine. This in vitro study was performed to synthesize and characterize nano bioactive glass (nBG) and to evaluate the effect of casein phosphopeptide-amorphous calcium phosphate (CPP-ACP) containing nBG ([email protected]) on enamel remineralization by its application to pH-cycled, synthetically demineralized enamel surfaces. Materials and methods: nBG particles were prepared by sol-gel method. X-ray diffraction pattern (XRD), Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and transmittance electron microscopy (TEM) were used for nBG characterization. Synthetic CPP-ACP paste was prepared and nBG particles were added to it. To evaluate the degree of remineralization, 32 healthy human premolars were selected. The samples were randomly divided into 4 groups as: Group 1: Commercial CPP-ACFP (MI paste plus), Group 2: Synthetic casein phosphopeptide-amorphous calcium phosphate containing fluoride ([email protected]), Group 3: Synthetic CPP/ACP containing nBG ([email protected]), and Group 4: Control (received no treatment). The pastes were then applied on the tooth surfaces for 28 days. The Vickers microhardness of enamel surfaces was evaluated, and enamel surface morphology was assessed using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Results: X-Ray diffraction pattern (XRD) of the synthesized nBG show its crystalline nature with the Larnite crystalline mode. Transmittance electron microscope (TEM) microimage of the synthesized nBG shows its formation as less that 100 nm spherical nanoparticle with partial agglomeration. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) confirm the success formation of nBG with high purity. The results of this study showed that microhardness of the experimental groups was significantly higher than the control group (p ≥ 0.05). SEM images showed a layer of hydroxyapatite in the [email protected], synthetic and commercial [email protected] remineralized groups. Conclusion: The results of this study demonstrated that [email protected] and [email protected] remineralize the surface of the demineralized enamel. Microhardness of the remineralized enamel in the [email protected] group was higher than synthetic and commercial [email protected] groups.
BMC Oral Health, Volume 22, pp 1-10; https://doi.org/10.1186/s12903-022-02570-y
Objective: The study assessed the association of country-level income inequalities with the percentage of schoolchildren toothbrushing-at-least-twice-daily; and the mediating effect of country-level unemployment rate and governmental expenditure on health and education (EH&E). Methods: This was an ecological study. The dependent variable was country-level toothbrushing-at-least-twice-daily among 11-15-year-old schoolchildren. Data for the period 2009 to 2019 were extracted from two global surveys about schoolchildren’s health and from manuscripts identified through a systematic search of three databases. The independent variable was country-level income inequalities measured by the Gini coefficient (GC) extracted from the Sustainable Development Report 2021. The mediators were the unemployment rate and EH&E. We stratified the sample by the level of GC and assessed the correlation between the dependent and independent variables in each stratum. Linear regression was used to assess the relations between the dependent and independent variables, and mediation path analysis was used to quantify the direct, indirect, and total effects. Results: Data were available for 127 countries. The mean (SD) percentage of children who brushed-at-least-twice-daily was 67.3 (16.1), the mean (SD) GC = 41.4 (8.2), unemployment rate = 7.5 (4.7) and EH&E = 8.4 (3.3). The percentage of children brushing at-least-twice-daily had weak and non-significant correlation with GC that was positive in countries with the least inequality and negative for countries with higher levels of inequality. A greater percentage of schoolchildren brushing-at-least-twice-daily was significantly associated with higher GC (B = 0.76, 95%CI: 0.33, 1.18), greater EH&E (B = 1.67, 95%CI: 0.69, 2.64) and lower unemployment rate (B=-1.03, 95%CI: -1.71, -0.35). GC had a significant direct positive effect (B = 0.76, 95%CI: 0.33, 1.18), a significant indirect negative effect through unemployment and EH&E (B=-0.47, 95%CI: -0.79, -0.24) and a non-significant total positive effect (B = 0.29, 95%CI: -0.09, 0.67) on the percentage of schoolchildren brushing-at-least-twice-daily. Conclusion: Unemployment and EH&E mediated the association between income inequality and toothbrushing. Country-level factors may indirectly impact toothbrushing.
BMC Oral Health, Volume 22, pp 1-8; https://doi.org/10.1186/s12903-022-02591-7
Background: There are no studies that have assessed advanced glycation end products (AGEs) and interleukin 17A (IL-17A) levels in whole saliva (WS) of patients with dental implants. The aim was to compare levels of AGEs and IL-17A in WS and peri-implant clinical and radiographic status of patients with and without osteoporosis at 6-years’ follow-up. Methods: Osteoporotic (Group-1) and systemically healthy controls (Group-2) having undergone dental implant therapy at least 5 years ago were included. A questionnaire was used to collect information about age, gender, duration and treatment of osteoporosis, number and duration of implants in function, and frequencies of toothbrushing, flossing and hygiene visits. Modified bleeding and plaque indies (mBI and mPI), peri-implant probing depth (PD) and crestal bone loss (CBL) were recorded. WS was collected and levels of AGEs and IL-17A were determined using enzyme linked immunosorbent assay. Sample-size estimation was done and statistical analyses were doing using the independent t- and Wilcoxon rank-sum tests. Statistical significance was marked for P-values that were below 0.01. Results: In patients with (n = 24) and without (n = 27) osteoporosis, implants were in function for 6.3 ± 0.27 and 6.6 ± 0.5 years, respectively. There was no significant difference in peri-implant mBI, PD, mPI and CBL in both groups. Levels of AGE in patients with (119.6 ± 26.5 μg/ml) and without (91.5 ± 14.6 μg/ml) osteoporosis were comparable. Levels of whole salivary IL-17A in patients without and with osteoporosis were 4.6 ± 0.3 and 5.1 ± 0.8 pg/ml, respectively. Flossing of full mouth interproximal spaces once and twice daily toothbrushing daily was reported by 100% patients with osteoporosis. Among patients with osteoporosis 75% and 25% individuals were receiving professional dental prophylaxis every 4 and 6 months, respectively. Conclusion: Within the limitations of the present study osteoporotic patients are not at an increased risk of peri-implant diseases and can demonstrate salivary AGE and IL-17A levels comparable to non-osteoporotic individuals as long as oral hygiene is stringently maintained.
BMC Oral Health, Volume 22, pp 1-11; https://doi.org/10.1186/s12903-022-02580-w
Background: At present, there are still controversies about the influence of orthodontic treatment on the size of upper airway and the position of hyoid bone. We investigated the effect of orthodontic vertical control therapy on the size of the upper airway and position of the tongue and hyoid bone in adult patients with hyperdivergent skeletal Class II. Methods: Overall, 15 adults with hyperdivergent skeletal Class II and normal occlusion, respectively, were selected as the experimental and control groups. The angle and line of the craniofacial structure, upper airway, hyoid bone position and three-dimensional (3D) upper airway indexes were measured using the Uceph 4.2.1 standard version and Mimics 21.0 software, respectively. The paired t-test, Wilcoxon symbol rank test, t-test of two independent samples, two independent sample nonparametric tests, Mann–Whitney U test, Pearson correlation analysis, the Univariate linear regression analysis and Multiple linear regression analysis were performed. Results: After treatment, the S-Go/N-Me (%) and the MP-SN and XiPm-SN angles were significantly different (P < 0.01). The U-MPW and PAS significantly increased (P < 0.05), sagittal diameter L2 increased significantly, and transverse diameter L2 decreased significantly (P < 0.01). Although no significant correlation was observed between the vertical change in the jaw and that in U-MPW and PAS, the sagittal diameter L2 showed a significant correlation (P < 0.05). The Multiple linear regression analysis showed that there was a significant negative correlation between the variables MP-SN and sagittal diameter L2 and positive correlation between S-Go/N-Me(%) and H-MP (P < 0.05). Furthermore, significant differences between the Hv (P < 0.01) and sagittal diameter L1(P < 0.05) were observed before and after treatment. Conclusions: After the orthodontic vertical control therapy in patients with hyperdivergent skeletal Class II, the upper airway only underwent adaptive changes during treatment without substantial size changes, the position of tongue body and hyoid bone did not change significantly. Furthermore, compared with normal occlusion, the velopharyngeal segment airway of patients with hyperdivergent skeletal Class II remains narrow and long after treatment.
BMC Oral Health, Volume 22, pp 1-14; https://doi.org/10.1186/s12903-022-02585-5
Background: Cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) is the most widely used method for postsurgical evaluation of the accuracy of guided implant surgery. However, the disadvantages of CBCT include radiation exposure, artifacts caused by metal implants, and high cost. Few studies have introduced a digital registration method to replace CBCT for evaluating the accuracy of guided surgery. The purpose of this study was to compare digital registration to conventional CBCT in terms of the capacity to evaluate the implant positioning accuracy of guided surgery. Materials and methods: This in vitro study included 40 acrylic resin models with posterior single mandibular tooth loss. Guided surgery software was used to determine the optimal implant position; 40 tooth-supported fully guided drilling templates were designed and milled accordingly. After the guided surgery, the accuracies of the surgical templates were evaluated by conventional CBCT and digital registration. For evaluation by conventional CBCT, postsurgical CBCT scans of the resin models were performed. The CBCT data were reconstructed and superimposed on the implant planning data. For digital registration, we constructed a virtual registration unit that consisted of an implant replica and a scan body. Next, we obtained postsurgical optical scans of resin models with the scan body. The postsurgical implant position was identified by superimposition of the registration unit and optical scan data. The implant planning data and postsurgical implant position data were superimposed; deviations were reported in terms of distance for implant entry/apex point and in terms of angle for the implant axis. Interclass correlation coefficients (ICCs) and Bland–Altman plots were used to analyze the agreement between the two evaluation methods. Results: The ICCs between the two methods were 0.986, 0.993, and 0.968 for the entry point, apex point, and angle, respectively; all were significantly greater than 0.75 (p < 0.001). Bland–Altman plots showed that the 95% limits of agreement of the differences were − 0.144 to + 0.081 mm, − 0.135 to + 0.147 mm, and − 0.451° to + 0.729° for the entry point, apex point, and angle, respectively; all values were within the maximum tolerated difference. Conclusion: Conventional CBCT and digital registration showed good agreement in terms of evaluating the accuracy of implant positioning using tooth-supported surgical templates.
BMC Oral Health, Volume 22, pp 1-12; https://doi.org/10.1186/s12903-022-02600-9
Background: To evaluate the clinical and radiographic assessment of customized fusion-sputtered one-piece zirconia implants. Methods: Twenty-eight patients received either fusion sputtered one-piece zirconia implants (n = 14) or one-piece titanium implants (n = 14). All implants were one-piece designs. After 4 months of immediate loading, all implants were restored with a monolithic zirconia crown. All implants were evaluated at baseline, 6 months, 1 year, 2 years, and 5 years. Implant mobility, plaque index, and gingival index evaluations were performed. The measurements of marginal bone level were calculated radiographically. Results: All implants were well maintained through the evaluation period with a 100% survival rate without any clinical complications. Regarding gingival index, there was no statistically significant difference (P = .364) between zirconia (3.3 ± 0.7 mm) and titanium (3.5 ± 0.6 mm) implants, after 5 years. There was no statistically significant difference (P = .470) between zirconia (1.77 ± 0.039 mm) and titanium (1.80 ± 0.28 mm) implants regarding marginal bone loss, after 5 years. Conclusions: One-piece fusion-sputtered zirconia implant represents a reliable treatment modality in replacing a missing tooth in the esthetic zone.
BMC Oral Health, Volume 22, pp 1-10; https://doi.org/10.1186/s12903-022-02607-2
Introduction: The incidence of oral cavity squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) continues to rise. OSCC is associated with a low average survival rate, and most patients have a poor disease prognosis because of delayed diagnosis. We used machine learning techniques to predict high-risk cases of OSCC by using salivary autoantibody levels and demographic and behavioral data. Methods: We collected the salivary samples of patients recruited from a teaching hospital between September 2008 and December 2012. Ten salivary autoantibodies, sex, age, smoking, alcohol consumption, and betel nut chewing were used to build prediction models for identifying patients with a high risk of OSCC. The machine learning algorithms applied in the study were logistic regression, random forest, support vector machine with the radial basis function kernel, eXtreme Gradient Boosting (XGBoost), and a stacking model. We evaluated the performance of the models by using the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC), with simulations conducted 100 times. Results: A total of 337 participants were enrolled in this study. The best predictive model was constructed using a stacking algorithm with original forms of age and logarithmic levels of autoantibodies (AUC = 0.795 ± 0.055). Adding autoantibody levels as a data source significantly improved the prediction capability (from 0.698 ± 0.06 to 0.795 ± 0.055, p < 0.001). Conclusions: We successfully established a prediction model for high-risk cases of OSCC. This model can be applied clinically through an online calculator to provide additional personalized information for OSCC diagnosis, thereby reducing the disease morbidity and mortality rates.
BMC Oral Health, Volume 22, pp 1-10; https://doi.org/10.1186/s12903-022-02581-9
Background: To date, the effects of different activation rates of miniscrew-supported expanders on the airway have not been compared. Hence, the purpose of this retrospective study was to evaluate and compare the effects of slow and rapid miniscrew-supported maxillary expansion on the upper airway dimensions using cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT). Methods: Data of 20 patients (Age 12 to 16 years old) treated using miniscrew-supported expanders at the Faculty of Dentistry, Alexandria University was collected. The patients were equally divided into two groups according to the activation protocol; slow maxillary expansion (SME): activation once every other day, and rapid maxillary expansion (RME): activation twice daily. CBCT scans obtained pre-expansion and 5 months post-expansion were used to evaluate the changes in the upper airway dimensions. Comparisons between the two time points within each group were done using paired samples t-test. SME and RME groups were compared using independent samples t-test. Significance level was set at p < 0.05. Results: Both groups showed a significant increase in anterior, middle, and posterior nasal cavity width. SME resulted in significantly greater increase of the anterior nasal cavity width than RME (Mean difference between the groups, 2.64 mm; 95% CI, 0.83, 4.45; p = 0.007). The dimensions of the retropalatal and retroglossal airways did not change significantly in either group. Both groups resulted in a significant increase of maxillary width, palatal width, and inter-molar width. RME showed a significantly larger increase of inter-molar width than SME (Mean difference between the groups, − 2.44 mm; 95% CI, − 3.88, − 1.00; p = 0.002). Conclusions: The use of either a slow or rapid activation protocol is effective in expanding the nasomaxillary complex, with greater expansion achieved in the anterior section of the nasal cavity using the slow rate. However, the expander design employed in the current study does not affect the dimensions of the retropalatal or retroglossal airways.
BMC Oral Health, Volume 22, pp 1-14; https://doi.org/10.1186/s12903-022-02588-2
Background: The preservation of biological and physiological vitality as well as the formation of dentin are among the main tasks of human dental pulp for a life time. Odontoblastic differentiation of human dental pulp stem cells (hDPSCs) exhibits the capacity of dental pulp regeneration and dentin complex rebuilding. Exploration of the mechanisms regulating differentiation and proliferation of hDPSCs may help to investigate potential clinical applications. BTB and CNC homology 1 (BACH1) is a transcription repressor engaged in the regulation of multiple cellular functions. This study aimed to investigate the effects of BACH1 on the proliferation and odontoblastic differentiation of hDPSCs in vitro. Methods: hDPSCs and pulpal tissues were obtained from extracted human premolars or third molars. The distribution of BACH1 was detected by immunohistochemistry. The mRNA and protein expression of BACH1 were examined by qRT-PCR and Western blot analysis. BACH1 expression was regulated by stable lentivirus-mediated transfection. Cell proliferation and cell cycle were assessed by cell counting kit-8 assay, 5-Ethynyl-2'-deoxyuridine assay and flow cytometry. The expression of mineralization markers, alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity and alizarin red S staining were conducted to assess the odontoblastic differentiation ability. Results: BACH1 expression was stronger in the odontoblast layer than in the cell rich zone. The total and nuclear protein level of BACH1 during odontoblastic differentiation was downregulated initially and then upregulated gradually. Knockdown of BACH1 greatly inhibited cell proliferation, arrested cell cycle, upregulated the heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) expression and attenuated ALP activity, decreased calcium deposits and downregulated the expression of mineralization markers. Treatment of Tin-protoporphyrin IX, an HO-1 inhibitor, failed to rescue the impaired odonto/osteogenic differentiation capacity. Overexpression of BACH1 increased cell proliferation, ALP activity and the expression of mineralization markers. Conclusions: Our findings suggest that BACH1 is an important regulator of the proliferation and odontoblastic differentiation of hDPSCs in vitro. Manipulation of BACH1 expression may provide an opportunity to promote the regenerative capacity of hDPSCs.