Journal of Interpersonal Violence

Journal Information
ISSN / EISSN: 08862605 / 15526518
Published by: SAGE Publications
Total articles ≅ 6,236

Latest articles in this journal

, Stephanie Lim, Merle Huff, Ramona Herrington, Leon Leader Charge, Heather Littleton
Published: 30 January 2023
Journal of Interpersonal Violence; https://doi.org/10.1177/08862605221150945

Abstract:
Research suggests that Indigenous girls, women, and LGBTQ+ Two-Spirit people experience disproportionately high rates of intimate partner violence (IPV), but there is a dearth of research on IPV among Indigenous college students. Therefore, the current study sought to explore rates of IPV victimization and perpetration among Indigenous college students, as well as correlates including depressive and anxious symptoms, emotion dysregulation, on-campus social support, and hazardous drinking. Participants were 230 undergraduate students who identified as American Indian/Alaska Native attending 20 medium- and large-sized universities across the contiguous U.S. Results indicated that 28.9% of Indigenous students reported any type of IPV victimization in the past 6 months (psychological: 24.5%; physical: 9.1%; sexual: 9.8%; coercive control: 12.4%). Further, 18.3% of Indigenous students reported any type of IPV perpetration in the past 6 months (psychological: 16.9%; physical: 4.5%; sexual: 2.6%; coercive control: 7.1%). Anxious and depressive symptoms were related to many forms of IPV victimization; emotion dysregulation was related to all forms of IPV victimization and sexual IPV perpetration; and hazardous drinking was related to most forms of IPV victimization and perpetration. These findings underscore the alarmingly high rates of IPV among Indigenous college students as well as the potential deleterious effects of IPV victimization on psychological functioning, as well as the need to concurrently address hazardous alcohol use in IPV prevention and response efforts.
, Melvin D. Livingston, Kelli Komro, , Andrew Walker, Briana Woods-Jaeger
Published: 30 January 2023
Journal of Interpersonal Violence; https://doi.org/10.1177/08862605221150458

Abstract:
Children in poverty are at significantly greater risk of experiencing child maltreatment. Family economic security policies, such as minimum wage laws, offer a promising prevention strategy to support low-income families. This study utilized data from the Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing Study, a longitudinal birth cohort study, to examine the effect of changes in state-specific minimum wage laws on maternal self-reported child maltreatment and material hardship as it varies by developmental age of the child. A series of fixed effects models with an interaction between the minimum wage and the age of the focal child were used to estimate if there was variation by developmental period of the impact of minimum wage laws on the following outcome variables: all domains of child maltreatment, maternal work-related stress, reported material hardship, aggravation in parenting, and maternal depression. Results revealed significant effects of increased minimum wage on maternal self-reported child neglect and material hardship when children are 3 years of age, and this relationship became non-significant as children aged. No effect was observed by age for other forms of child maltreatment nor any other outcome variables. Study findings suggest minimum wage laws may have differential effects on child neglect depending on the developmental period in which they are received.
Apriel D. Jolliffe Simpson, Chaitanya Joshi, Devon L. L. Polaschek
Published: 29 January 2023
Journal of Interpersonal Violence; https://doi.org/10.1177/08862605221147069

Abstract:
Assessing the risk for future harm is a crucial task for agencies managing Family Violence (FV) cases. The Integrated Safety Response (ISR) is a multiagency collaboration of such agencies operating in two areas of New Zealand, and one of the first steps in their process is to perform a risk assessment. However, in these assessments, it is unclear whether the factors ISR triage team members select are the basis for their overall risk categorization (low, medium, or high), and if those factors are risk factors (i.e., empirical predictors of outcomes). Therefore, in this study we documented the factors ISR triage teams recorded during their risk assessments for 842 FV cases and examined the relationship of those factors with the risk categories. We then investigated whether those factors and the risk categories were indeed capable of predicting FV-related outcomes (recurrence and physical recurrence). We found most of the triage teams’ recorded factors were associated with the risk categories, but fewer than half of the factors were associated with FV-related outcomes. Moreover, the risk categories predicted FV-related outcomes better than chance, but their predictive ability varied across subgroups, performing poorly for aggressors who were Māori or women, and for non-intimate partner cases. We concluded that the ISR triage teams’ risk assessment protocol may benefit from increased structure and validation.
, , Deirdre Colburn
Published: 29 January 2023
Journal of Interpersonal Violence; https://doi.org/10.1177/08862605221149090

Abstract:
As technology has become increasingly integrated into the everyday lives of young people and social interactions have moved online, so too have the opportunities for child sexual abuse. However, the risk factors for online sexual abuse, and their similarities or differences with those of offline sexual abuse have not been clarified, making it difficult to design prevention strategies. Using a nationally representative online survey panel of young adults ages 18 to 28, the current study sought to identify risk factors for online childhood sexual abuse and compare their relevance and strength in predicting offline sexual abuse. The 2,639 participants, ages 18 to 28, were sampled from the Ipsos KnowledgePanel and were asked questions about 11 different kinds of technology-facilitated online sexual abuse that occurred in childhood, follow-up questions about their dynamics and offenders, and a variety of potential risk factors. Results indicated that: (1) being cisgender female, nonheterosexual, and having parents with less than a high school education emerged as important demographic predictors of online child sexual abuse (OCSA); and (2) early offline sexual abuse was the strongest predictor of OCSA, when considering both its direct and indirect effects through online risky behavior. Findings suggest that prevention programs directed at reducing risk of sexual abuse, in general, are likely to be effective against online sexual abuse, provided they also incorporate efforts to educate youth on the need to avoid risky online behaviors.
Ariadna Cerdán-Torregrosa, Krizia Nardini,
Published: 29 January 2023
Journal of Interpersonal Violence; https://doi.org/10.1177/08862605221147070

Abstract:
There has been growing concern about the increase in gender-based violence (GBV) among young people. The aim of this study was to explore the grey zones in GBV alongside gender (masculinities and femininities) discourses in young adults. We used the concept of a “grey zone” as an analytical tool to identify possible contradictory discursive positions where the notions of victims and perpetrators of GBV converge and become ambiguous. We performed a qualitative study based on 20 semi-structured interviews and 4 focus groups (October 2019 to February 2020) in Spain with a sample of 49 cisgender women and men, aged between 18 and 24, some involved in feminist activism and some not. We conducted a sociological analysis of the discourse system. Study findings show how culturally constructed gender norms intervene in the ways in which young people understand and deal with GBV. When asked general questions about GBV, this concept was problematized along with gender assumptions and two discursive positions were identified: the discourse of “men as authors of GBV” and the discourse of “GBV as an individual genderless issue.” When vignettes of everyday GBV situations were shown, grey zones became visible when discussing subtle forms of GBV influenced by the myths of romantic love, victim-blaming around sexual violence, digital GBV and bystander men intervention on GBV. In those grey zones, discourses on GBV were articulated around unequal notions of gender that, in turn, served as its justification, reproduction, and normalization. The grey zones identified represent contexts of oppression that illustrate how GBV is systematically reproduced, as well as the ways in which young people can be involved in it, perpetuating power and health inequalities. Our findings provide information as a guide to design GBV interventions and prevention actions that incorporate a focus on gender configurations.
Valérie Pijlman, Veroni Eichelsheim, Antony Pemberton, Mijke de Waardt
Published: 29 January 2023
Journal of Interpersonal Violence; https://doi.org/10.1177/08862605221147064

Abstract:
Experiencing sexual violence may have serious long-term consequences for victims. Seeking help may decrease the chances of developing long-term physical and psychosocial problems. Still not every victim seeks help, and especially with victimization of sexual violence, there may be several reasons as to why. The barriers to help-seeking are diverse and may depend on several contextual factors. This study, as part of a larger research project, aimed to determine the barriers that victims of sexual violence experience in their decision to seek help in a non-college setting. This mixed-methods study included an online survey ( N = 133) and open-ended survey ( N = 207) amongst victims of 18 years and older. The online survey data were analyzed using chi-square tests for independence and t-tests; the open-ended survey data were analyzed using a descriptive approach. The online survey data showed that minimization of the incident was higher for non-help-seekers, whilst distrust toward support providers and issues with the accessibility of help were higher for help-seekers. No further significant associations were found between the decision to seek help and the barriers to help-seeking. From the open-ended survey data, three categories of barriers were distinguished: (a) individual barriers, such as feelings of shame, (b) interpersonal barriers, such as the fear of negative social reactions and (c) sociocultural barriers, such as societal stereotypes regarding sexual violence. The findings suggest that victims experience various, but primarily individual, barriers to help-seeking and that these barriers do not strongly differ between help-seekers and non-help-seekers. This study highlights the importance of addressing barriers to help-seeking on an organizational and societal level to encourage help-seeking.
Sharon Eytan, Natti Ronel
Published: 29 January 2023
Journal of Interpersonal Violence; https://doi.org/10.1177/08862605221145723

Abstract:
The current study aims to describe a spiritual facet of recovery processes from sexual trauma, as manifested in the transformation from the frustration and despair of looking for reasons to the traumatic event(s) to the growth and prosperity of finding meaning. A phenomenological research was conducted, interviewing individuals with a variety of affiliations to spirituality and to trauma: female survivors who turned to spirituality as part of their recovery process ( n = 17), spiritually oriented therapists who treat survivors ( n = 10), and spiritual leaders and teachers who are often consulted by survivors and their close ones ( n = 9). Participants were asked about the nature of perceived transformation of survivors’ trauma, within the meaning context, and about the perceived relevance of such a spiritual meaning-making process to recovery. Findings suggests four stances in the process:(1) doubting, describing frustrations, denials, and struggles, (2) believing, describing the acceptance of the idea that there is spiritual meaning in the trauma, (3) knowing, describing calmness, comfort, trust, and sense of freedom, and (4) doing, describing carrying the message of spiritual recovery to other survivors. This study contributes to the growing body of literature on victimology and on spirituality. It adds to the research on the spiritual meaning-making process, on the role of spirituality in survivors’ perceptions of victimization and recovery, and on the importance of spiritual meaning as a recovery capital. Additionally, it directs therapists to broaden their discussions with survivors on their beliefs and values. The study lays the foundation for a theory entitled Spiritual Victimology.
Linda Campbell, , Maximiliane Uhlich, , Kristen Mark, Naomi Miall, Stefano Eleuteri, Amanda Gabster, Simukai Shamu, Leona Plášilová, et al.
Published: 26 January 2023
Journal of Interpersonal Violence; https://doi.org/10.1177/08862605221141865

Abstract:
Intimate partner violence (IPV) causes substantial physical and psychological trauma. Restrictions introduced in response to the COVID-19 pandemic, including lockdowns and movement restrictions, may exacerbate IPV risk and reduce access to IPV support services. This cross-sectional study examines IPV during COVID-19 restrictions in 30 countries from the International Sexual HeAlth and REproductive Health (I-SHARE) study conducted from July 20th, 2020, to February, 15th, 2021. IPV was a primary outcome measure adapted from a World Health Organization multicountry survey. Mixed-effects modeling was used to determine IPV correlates among participants stratified by cohabitation status. The sample included 23,067 participants from 30 countries. A total of 1,070/15,336 (7.0%) participants stated that they experienced IPV during COVID-19 restrictions. A total of 1,486/15,336 (9.2%) participants stated that they had experienced either physical or sexual partner violence before the restrictions, which then decreased to 1,070 (7.0%) after the restrictions. In general, identifying as a sexual minority and experiencing greater economic vulnerability were associated with higher odds of experiencing IPV during COVID-19 restrictions, which were accentuated among participants who were living with their partners. Greater stringency of COVID-19 restrictions and living in urban or semi-urban areas were associated with lower odds of experiencing IPV in some settings. The I-SHARE data suggest a substantial burden of IPV during COVID-19 restrictions. However, the restrictions were correlated with reduced IPV in some settings. There is a need for investing in specific support systems for survivors of IPV during the implementation of restrictions designed to contain infectious disease outbreaks.
Patrick Q. Brady, Sara B. Zedaker, Kelsey McKay, David Scott
Published: 25 January 2023
Journal of Interpersonal Violence; https://doi.org/10.1177/08862605221145726

Abstract:
The reliance on external injuries for justice is misguided given that assault injuries may be less visible among victims of color due to increased melanin in the skin. To date, however, less is known whether racial/ethnic disparities extend to officers’ identification of signs of nonfatal strangulation (NFS). The current study estimates the extent of NFS indicators identified by officers who completed a standardized strangulation assessment in 133 family violence complaints. Breathing difficulties were the most common symptoms identified by officers (98%), followed by external signs (89%), and symptoms of impeded blood circulation (87%). Compared to cases involving White/Asian survivors, officers were less likely to identify external injuries on Black survivors’ neck, chin, and chest/shoulders. While racial/ethnic differences did not emerge for symptoms of disrupted airflow, Hispanic survivors were twice as likely to report losing control of bodily functions. Implications for policy and practice are discussed.
, Toria Herd, Elizabeth D. Handley, Sheree L. Toth, Jennie G. Noll
Published: 25 January 2023
Journal of Interpersonal Violence; https://doi.org/10.1177/08862605221138654

Abstract:
Child maltreatment (CM) is a robust risk factor for adolescent depressive and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms. Quality attachment relationships have been posited as a protective factor but findings are equivocal and studies have not adequately considered the complex network of interpersonal relationships that adolescents rely on. The current study applied a person-centered approach to (a) identify subgroups of adolescent females characterized by distinct patterns of attachment quality with peers, fathers, and mothers and (b) determine if the effect of maltreatment on depressive and PTSD symptoms varied as a function of distinct patterns of attachment quality. Data came from a prospective, longitudinal cohort study of 464 racially diverse and adolescent females designed to examine the developmental sequelae of substantiated CM (260 maltreated and 204 demographically matched, nonmaltreated comparisons). Latent profile analysis (LPA) revealed four profiles of attachment characterized by: (a) above-average attachment quality across all three relationships ( N = 207, 44.6%); (b) below-average quality with father and friends and above-average quality with mothers ( N = 128, 27.6%); (c) below-average quality across all three relationships ( N = 106, 22.9%); and (d) very low-(−1 SD) quality with mothers and above-average quality with fathers and friends ( N = 23, 5.0%). Moderation models revealed that cumulative maltreatment exposure resulted in greater adolescent depressive symptoms only for those with a profile of attachment consisting of very low-quality maternal attachment and high-quality father and friend attachments. Profiles did not significantly moderate the effect of maltreatment on PTSD symptoms. Results identify subgroups of maltreatment survivors most vulnerable to the development of depression in adolescence. Such groups should be targets for the provision of finite clinical resources with clinical interventions that seek to promote healthy maternal attachment relationships to mitigate the impact of maltreatment on depression.
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