The Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
ISSN / EISSN: 08913668 / 15320987
Published by: Ovid Technologies (Wolters Kluwer Health)
Total articles ≅ 16,918
Latest articles in this journal
Published: 29 March 2023
The Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal; https://doi.org/10.1097/inf.0000000000003911
Background: Ceftolozane/tazobactam, a cephalosporin–β-lactamase inhibitor combination, is approved for the treatment of complicated urinary tract infections and complicated intra-abdominal infections (cIAI). The safety and efficacy of ceftolozane/tazobactam in pediatric participants with cIAI were assessed. Methods: This phase 2 study (NCT03217136) randomized participants to either ceftolozane/tazobactam+metronidazole or meropenem for treatment of cIAI in pediatric participants (<18 years). The primary objective was to assess the safety and tolerability of intravenous ceftolozane/tazobactam+metronidazole. Clinical cure at end of treatment (EOT) and test of cure (TOC) visits were secondary end points. Results: The modified intent-to-treat (MITT) population included 91 participants (ceftolozane/tazobactam+metronidazole, n = 70; meropenem, n = 21). Complicated appendicitis was the most common diagnosis (93.4%); Escherichia coli was the most common pathogen (65.9%). Adverse events (AEs) occurred in 80.0% and 61.9% of participants receiving ceftolozane/tazobactam+metronidazole and meropenem, drug-related AEs occurred in 18.6% and 14.3% and serious AEs occurred in 11.4% and 0% of participants receiving ceftolozane/tazobactam+metronidazole and meropenem, respectively. No drug-related serious AEs or discontinuations due to drug-related AEs occurred. Rates of the clinical cure for ceftolozane/tazobactam+metronidazole and meropenem at EOT were 80.0% and 95.2% (difference: −14.3; 95% confidence interval: −26.67 to 4.93) and at TOC were 80.0% and 100.0% (difference: −19.1; 95% confidence interval: −30.18 to −2.89), respectively; 6 of the 14 clinical failures for ceftolozane/tazobactam+metronidazole at TOC were indeterminate responses imputed as failures per protocol. Conclusion: Ceftolozane/tazobactam+metronidazole was well tolerated in pediatric participants with cIAI and had a safety profile similar to the established safety profile in adults. In this descriptive efficacy analysis, ceftolozane/tazobactam+metronidazole appeared efficacious.
Published: 22 March 2023
The Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal; https://doi.org/10.1097/inf.0000000000003901
Background: The neutrophil-to-lymphocyte-ratio (NLR), neutrophil-to-monocyte-plus-lymphocyte-ratio (NMLR) and monocyte-to-lymphocyte-ratio (MLR) may have diagnostic potential for tuberculosis (TB). Methods: Data of two prospective multicenter studies in Switzerland were used, which included children <18 years with TB exposure, infection or disease or with febrile non-TB lower-respiratory-tract infection (nTB-LRTI). Results: Of the 389 children included 25 (6.4%) had TB disease, 12 (3.1%) TB infection, 28 (7.2%) were healthy TB exposed and 324 (83.3%) nTB-LRTI. Median (IQR) NLR was highest with 2.0 (1.2, 2.2) in children with TB disease compared to TB exposed [0.8 (0.6, 1.3); P = 0.002] and nTB-LRTI [0.3 (0.1, 1.0); P < 0.001]. Median (IQR) NMLR was highest with 1.4 (1.2, 1.7) in children with TB disease compared to healthy exposed [0.7 (0.6, 1.1); P = 0.003] and children with nTB-LRTI [0.2 (0.1, 0.6); P < 0.001). Receiver operating characteristic curves to detect TB disease compared to nTB-LRTI for NLR and NMLR had an area under the curve of 0.82 and 0.86, the sensitivity of 88% and 88%, and specificity of 71% and 76%, respectively. Conclusion: NLR and NMLR are promising, easy-to-obtain diagnostic biomarkers to differentiate children with TB disease from other lower respiratory tract infections. These results require validation in a larger study and in settings with high and low TB endemicity.
Published: 20 March 2023
The Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal; https://doi.org/10.1097/inf.0000000000003910
Published: 20 March 2023
The Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal; https://doi.org/10.1097/inf.0000000000003906
Zimbabwe introduced raltegravir (RAL) granules at 14 facilities providing point-of-care HIV birth testing, aiming to initiate all newborns with HIV on a RAL-based regimen. From June 2020 to July 2021, we tested 3172 of the 6989 (45%) newborns exposed to HIV; we diagnosed 59(2%) with HIV infection, of whom 27 (46%) initiated RAL. The SARS-CoV-2 coronavirus disease pandemic exacerbated supply chain and trained provider shortages, contributing to low birth testing, RAL uptake and 6-month viral load testing.
Published: 20 March 2023
The Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal; https://doi.org/10.1097/inf.0000000000003907
Several studies have shown an association between varicella-zoster virus infection and ischemic stroke. We analyzed the trends in the numbers of patients with varicella, herpes zoster and ischemic stroke before and after the universal vaccination program using a Japanese database of hospitalized patients. The number of patients with varicella decreased but those of herpes zoster and ischemic stroke did not change.
Published: 17 March 2023
The Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal; https://doi.org/10.1097/inf.0000000000003909
Published: 16 March 2023
The Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal; https://doi.org/10.1097/inf.0000000000003908
Published: 16 March 2023
The Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal; https://doi.org/10.1097/inf.0000000000003900
Background: In a 2020 pilot case-control study using medical records, we reported that non-Hispanic Black children were more likely to develop multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children (MIS-C) after adjustment for sociodemographic factors and underlying medical conditions. Using structured interviews, we investigated patient, household, and community factors underlying MIS-C likelihood. Methods: MIS-C case patients hospitalized in 2021 across 14 US pediatric hospitals were matched by age and site to outpatient controls testing positive for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) within 3 months of the admission date. Caregiver interviews queried race/ethnicity, medical history, and household and potential community exposures 1 month before MIS-C hospitalization (case-patients) or after SARS-CoV-2 infection (controls). We calculated adjusted odds ratios (aOR) using mixed-effects multivariable logistic regression. Results: Among 275 case patients and 496 controls, race/ethnicity, social vulnerability and patient or family history of autoimmune/rheumatologic disease were not associated with MIS-C. In previously healthy children, MIS-C was associated with a history of hospitalization for an infection [aOR: 4.8; 95% confidence interval (CI): 2.1–11.0]. Household crowding (aOR: 1.7; 95% CI: 1.2–2.6), large event attendance (aOR: 1.7; 95% CI: 1.3–2.1), school attendance with limited masking (aOR: 2.6; 95% CI: 1.1–6.6), public transit use (aOR: 1.8; 95% CI: 1.4–2.4) and co-resident testing positive for SARS-CoV-2 (aOR: 2.2; 95% CI: 1.3–3.7) were associated with increased MIS-C likelihood, with risk increasing with the number of these factors. Conclusions: From caregiver interviews, we clarify household and community exposures associated with MIS-C; however, we did not confirm prior associations between sociodemographic factors and MIS-C.
Published: 16 March 2023
The Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal; https://doi.org/10.1097/inf.0000000000003881
Background: To determine maternal and neonatal risk factors for, and incidence of, neonatal early-onset group B streptococcus (EOGBS) and late-onset (LOGBS) infection in South Australia (SA) and the Northern Territory (NT). Methods: A case–control study with 2:1 matched controls to cases. The study included tertiary hospitals in South Australia and the Northern Territory, Australia. Retrospective data were collected from a 16-year epoch (2000–2015). Results: Of a total of 188 clinically suspected or confirmed cases, 139 were confirmed, of which 56.1% (n = 78) were EOGBS and 43.9% (n = 61) were LOGBS. The incidence of clinically suspected and confirmed cases of EOGBS was 0.26/1000 live births in SA and 0.73/1000 live births in the NT, and the incidence of confirmed cases was 0.19/1000 for SA and 0.36/1000 for the NT. The incidence of clinically suspected or confirmed LOGBS was 0.18/1000 live births in SA and 0.16/1000 for the NT. The majority of infants with GBS presented with sepsis, pneumonia, or meningitis. Developmental delay was the most commonly recorded long-term complication at 1 year old. Risk factors for EOGBS included maternal GBS carriage, previous fetal death, identifying as Aboriginal and/or Torres Strait Islander, and maternal fever in labor/chorioamnionitis. Conclusions: GBS remains a leading cause of neonatal morbidity and mortality. Adding previous fetal death to GBS screening guidelines would improve GBS prevention. The introduction of maternal GBS vaccination programs should be guided by country-specific disease epidemiology.
Published: 14 March 2023
The Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal; https://doi.org/10.1097/inf.0000000000003904
Background: Although dolutegravir (DTG) has a favorable metabolic profile, it has been linked to excess weight gain. We evaluated changes in hepatic steatosis in adolescents with perinatally acquired HIV switching to DTG-containing antiretroviral therapy (ART). Methods: Virologically suppressed adolescents switched to dolutegravir for a minimum of 4 months or on unchanged ART (84% protease inhibitor) were assessed prospectively with anthropometry, transient elastography with controlled attenuation parameter (CAP) and fasting metabolic profiles. ART regimens were determined independently of the study. Results: In total 68 adolescents [baseline median age 13.5 years [interquartile range (IQR): 12.5–14.4 years]; 42 (62%) female] were recruited. However, 38 remained on the same regimen and were followed for a median of 98 weeks (IQR: 48–108 weeks), and 30 switched to DTG and were followed for a median of 52 weeks (IQR: 49–101). There was no baseline difference in CAP between groups. There was no significant change in body mass index z-score in either group, but the median CAP in the DTG group decreased by −40dB/m (IQR: −51 to −31 dB/m) after a median of 44 weeks (IQR: 28–50 weeks) on DTG, compared to +1dB/m (IQR: −29 to +14 dB/m) in adolescents not switched (P < 0.01). Cholesterol and triglycerides were lower in those switched. Whereas hepatic steatosis prevalence decreased from 17% to 3% in adolescents who switched to dolutegravir, its prevalence doubled from 8% to 16% in those not switched (P = 0.1). Conclusions: In this exploratory study, adolescents switched to DTG-containing regimens had reduced hepatic steatosis, cholesterol and triglycerides with no excess weight gain compared to those on unchanged ART.