Zhurnal Nevrologii I Psikhiatrii Im. S.S. Korsakova

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ISSN: 19977298
Total articles ≅ 8,329

Latest articles in this journal

, , G.L. Kobyakov, , S.V. Shugay, G.R. Musina, ,
Zhurnal Nevrologii I Psikhiatrii Im. S.S. Korsakova, Volume 123, pp 97-102; https://doi.org/10.17116/jnevro202312301197

To study the relationship of NMDA receptors expression activity with proliferative activity and genetic properties of anaplastic astrocytomas, as well as the survival of patients with this disease. To solve this problem, we compared the expression activity of the least studied NMDA receptors in the context under consideration, detected using immunofluorescent studies and polymerase chain reaction, with the results of histological and molecular studies, the proliferative activity of neoplasms, and the survival of patients. The expression activity of NMDA receptors is higher in astrocytomas, grade 3, which do not carry mutations in IDH1 and IDH2 genes. In addition, the activity of NMDA receptors expression directly correlates with proliferative activity in the tumors. The activity of NMDA receptor expression has a significant impact on the prognosis of disease-free survival. We have shown for the first time the significant role of NMDA receptors in the progression of diffuse astrocytomas, which can become the basis for creating new therapeutic and diagnostic tools.
, M.N. Dymkovskaya
Zhurnal Nevrologii I Psikhiatrii Im. S.S. Korsakova, Volume 123, pp 59-66; https://doi.org/10.17116/jnevro202312301159

To determine visual and cognitive impairments in relation to MRI changes in patients with freezing of Gait (FOG) in Parkinson’s disease (PD). We examined 78 patients with PD without dementia, who were divided into groups according to the presence (FOG«+» group) or absence (FOG«–» group) of «freezing» episodes. A decrease in contrast sensitivity (CS) and retinal photosensitivity was determined in all subjects with PD, but in patients with FOG, the decrease in CS was more pronounced. There was a significant decrease in the volume of the cuneus, lingual gyrus, posterior cingulate gyrus, superior parietal lobe and middle frontal gyrus in the FOG«+» group. It was revealed that patients with FOG had cognitive impairments of both the frontal and posterior cortical subtypes, while in the FOG«–» group, only visuospatial deficit prevailed. A direct correlation was determined between the severity of FOG and part I of the UPDRS scale, between a decrease in CS and cortical areas related to the dorsal and ventral visual information processing systems. The presence of a negative relationship between the scores of the FOG-Q, Timed Up and Go test and the volume of cortical areas of the frontal lobe responsible for planning and programming of movements indicates their role in the development of FOG in PD. Thus, visual impairments associated with PD, along with a heterogeneous profile of cognitive impairment, make a significant contribution to the development of FOG.
P.R. Kamchatnov, , S.B. Khanmurzaeva, E.V. Mityaeva, , N.D. Malashenkov
Zhurnal Nevrologii I Psikhiatrii Im. S.S. Korsakova, Volume 123, pp 67-74; https://doi.org/10.17116/jnevro202312301167

To study the effect of the drug Cellex on the severity of cognitive impairment in patients with small vessel disease (SVD). A non-interventional observational controlled prospective observational study in parallel groups was conducted. 118 patients with CHEM who received unified therapy were under observation. Group 1 consisted of 40 patients who, in addition to basic therapy, received 10 injections of Cellex subcutaneously (0.2 ml 1 time/day), group 2 — 39 patients who received 2 courses of injections of Cellex subcutaneously (0.1 ml 1 time/day) with an interval of one month, patients 3-both groups (n=39) received only basic therapy. The examination included an assessment of the clinical status and neuropsychological testing (the MOS questionnaire and the clock drawing test — TRCH), analysis of the results of MRI of the brain. The blood levels of homocysteine (HC), C-reactive protein (CRP), asymmetric dimethylarginin (ADMA), and von Willebrand factor (FW) were determined in dynamics. A statistically significant improvement in the performance of the MoCA and TRP questionnaire tests in groups 1 and 2 was demonstrated, with a more pronounced and persistent effect in patients who received repeated courses of treatment. Clinical improvement was accompanied by normalization of the concentration of studied markers of inflammation (CRP) and endothelial dysfunction (HC, ADMA, FW) in the blood, while the dynamics was most pronounced in patients of group 2. The treatment was characterized by good tolerability, low frequency and insignificant severity of adverse events. The drug Cellex has demonstrated significant effectiveness in the treatment of patients with SVD with cognitive impairment, against the background of treatment, there was a decrease in markers of inflammation and endothelial dysfunction, therapy was characterized by good tolerability.
, A.V. Lebedeva, Yu.V. Rubleva, N.V. Pantina, A.V. Yurchenko, M.A. Bogomazova, I.I. Kovaleva, A.E. Karchevskaya
Zhurnal Nevrologii I Psikhiatrii Im. S.S. Korsakova, Volume 123, pp 28-33; https://doi.org/10.17116/jnevro202312301128

Patients with epilepsy who have also hearing loss represent a distinct group of patients, often with aggravated medical history, comorbidities and high potential for disability. The etiopathogenetic factors of epilepsy and hearing loss may be common to these conditions (neuroinfections, craniocerebral injuries, cerebral circulatory disorders, perinatal pathology, etc.). In addition, these two syndromes may occur as part of hereditary diseases, so their timely recognition and genetic diagnosis are important for determining further medical and genetic prognosis. This article provides an overview of orphan genetic diseases associated with epilepsy and hearing loss — MERRF syndrome, MELAS syndrome, EAST syndrome, Ayme-Grippsyndrome, epilepsy, hearing loss and mental retardation syndromes, associated with mutations in SPATA5 gene, DOOR syndrome, Gustavson syndrome.
, I.V. Volkov, E.V. Gumennik, O.A. Rachmanina, M.O. Abramov, O.K. Volkova, T.S. Bayborina, A.S. Petrukhin
Zhurnal Nevrologii I Psikhiatrii Im. S.S. Korsakova, Volume 123, pp 122-130; https://doi.org/10.17116/jnevro2023123011122

To study the clinical picture of all patients with GNAO1 encephalopathy detected in the Russian Federation. This publication is a multicenter study combining data from epileptological centers in Moscow, Novosibirsk, St. Petersburg, Nizhny Novgorod, Tyumen. Nine patients were included, aged 2 to 19 years, with 4 mutations. Male to female sex ratio = 5:4. 8 patients (5 with mutation c.607G>A (p.Gly203Arg), 1 — c.155A>G (Gln52Arg), 1 — c.485G>A (p.Arg162Gln)) had a variant of epileptic encephalopathy, developmental encephalopathy, 1 patient had torsion dystonia without epilepsy (mutation c.713A>G (p.Asp238Gly)). Epileptic seizures in 8 children with epileptic encephalopathy GNAO1 in 100% debuted at 1 month of life, becoming the earliest symptom of the disease. Motor development delayed in 100% of cases. Mental development was not affected only in the case of the dystonic variant. Hyperkinesis (dystonia, choreoathetosis, ballism) followed later, from 2 to 8 months. They were more severe than epilepsy. 4 patients with the c.607G>A (p.Gly203Arg) mutation developed repeated dystonic storms that were resistant to most drugs. Epilepsy in GNAO1 is difficult to treat, but temporary or complete remission is possible. Effective drug strategies for the treatment of hyperkinesis have not yet been developed. Expansion of indications for surgical therapy (DBS) of hyperkinesis in this syndrome is desirable.
O.V. Senko, , L.I. Ponomareva, , , A.V. Kuznetsova, M.Yu. Salmanov
Zhurnal Nevrologii I Psikhiatrii Im. S.S. Korsakova, Volume 123, pp 111-115; https://doi.org/10.17116/jnevro2023123011111

This work is to develop and use a new approach to the analysis of differences between the velocity profiles of registered light signals in groups of patients with schizophrenia and healthy donors. The present study involved 62 patients (all female) with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorders in the acute period (observational study — 2016—2017). 44 patients were diagnosed with paranoid schizophrenia with an attack-progredient type of course (F20.01 according to ICD-10) or with a continuous type of course (F20.02). The fibrinodynamics test (FD) was performed on the T-2 thrombodynamics device (Hemacore LLC, Moscow), which makes it possible to monitor the processes of coagulation and fibrinolysis in the cuvette channels filled with fresh blood plasma. The result of the test are the brightness profiles of the clot. In the proposed approach, each profile is characterized by a vector of distances between it and other analyzed profiles. At that the distances between the profiles are calculated as the sum of the modules of differences at different points of the observation interval. This method makes it possible to overcome a certain loss of information that occurs when using a standard method based on the calculation of several parameters that characterize the analyzed velocity profiles. The method includes the construction of all kinds of statistically significant piecewise linear regression models that link the distances to two profiles. The velocity profiles corresponding to the points lying on opposite sides of the break point of such models have significantly different shapes. In practice, it turns out that for many piecewise linear regression models, the break points also significantly separate the velocity profiles for the compared groups of donors and patients with schizophrenia. Statistically significant deviations at the level p≤0.01 exist for 16.1% of 3143 statistically significant piecewise linear models. The developed method makes it possible to visually establish the relationship between the shape of the velocity profile and the presence of the disease.
Zhurnal Nevrologii I Psikhiatrii Im. S.S. Korsakova, Volume 123, pp 103-110; https://doi.org/10.17116/jnevro2023123011103

Morphometric estimation of the numerical density of oligodendrocytes (NcOl) and numerical density of oligodendrocyte clusters (NvOlC) in the rostral part of the caudate head nucleus associated with the cortical regions of the default network in the norm and in schizophrenia. NcOl and NvOlC were determined in the gray matter of the rostral part of the head of the caudate nucleus in Nissl-stained sections using optical dissector in postmortem brains in 18 schizophrenia and 18 healthy control cases. The NvOl (–20%, p<0.001) and NvOlC (–28%, p<0.001) were decreased in the schizophrenia group as compared to the control groups. The NvOl correlated with the NvOlC (R≥0.88, p<0.001) in both groups while a lack of correlations was previously found in the central part of the caudate head. The detected deficits of the NcOl and NvOlC is an agreement with prominent suppressing of cortico-striatal connections and reduced density of gray matter in this part of the caudate in schizophrenia. The differences in the pattern of correlations as compared to the central part of this structure might be associated with the specific features of functional activity of default-mode and fronto-parietal networks associated with these parts of caudate nucleus.
D.S. Danilov
Zhurnal Nevrologii I Psikhiatrii Im. S.S. Korsakova, Volume 123, pp 47-58; https://doi.org/10.17116/jnevro202312301147

The history of studying the effectiveness of therapy of patients with depression by irreversible non-selective monoamine oxidase inhibitors (MAOIs) is analyzed and systematized. Authors describe the stages of the appearance of the first data on the effectiveness of treatment by the first representatives (the 50s of the XX century), the targeted study of the effectiveness of the use of numerous «new» representatives and the emergence of disagreements in assessing the power of therapy (the end of the 50s—60s of the XX century), continuing to study the effectiveness of treatment by representatives who remained in clinical practice, and establishing its clinical predictors (80s—90s of the XX century), the appearance of the first data on the effectiveness of therapy for «atypical depression» (1959—1960) and further development of this issue (80s—90s of the XX century). The stage of formation and development of the idea of the effectiveness of treatment for resistant depression (late 70s—90s of the XX century) is characterized. Separately, the history of studying the effectiveness of application in the USSR and Russia (late 50s— 90s of the XX century) is outlined. The current state of the issue of assessing the effectiveness of therapy (the end of the 90s of the XX century — 2022) is shown.
Zhurnal Nevrologii I Psikhiatrii Im. S.S. Korsakova, Volume 123, pp 41-46; https://doi.org/10.17116/jnevro202312301141

The review examines the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on the prevalence, manifestation, as well as the possibility of preventing and treating behavioral (non-chemical) addictions. Particular attention is paid to various manifestations of Internet addiction (IA): gaming, gambling, cybersexual and food addiction (FA). During the pandemic, Internet use increased significantly, leading to an increase in IA, mainly due to gaming, which correlated with the level of psychosocial problems. The increase in gambling occurred mainly in individuals with addiction or risk groups, while in the population the frequency of gambling decreased or did not change. Immediately after the start of the COVID-19 pandemic, the number of requests to porn sites increased dramatically, suggesting an increase in cybersex addiction. However, longitudinal studies in adolescents show a slight decrease in the interest in pornography in boys, and an increase from an initially low level in girls. The proportion of eating disorders and FA significantly increased. An increase in FA was associated with depression, anxiety, and also in obese individuals. In the era of COVID-19 prevention practices and general remedial activity should take into account the needs of the general population, emphasizing the importance of self-regulating and balanced lifestyles with moderate and sensible Internet use during the pandemic.
, , N.S. Vasyukova, E.V. Kuznetsova, T.R. Kameneva
Zhurnal Nevrologii I Psikhiatrii Im. S.S. Korsakova, Volume 123, pp 16-27; https://doi.org/10.17116/jnevro202312301116

We reviewed the role of oxidative stress (OS) in the pathogenesis of ischemic (IS) and hemorrhagic stroke (HS). OS plays a major role in programmed cell death, increased permeability of the blood-brain barrier, astroglial and microglial activation, and local inflammatory response. We also reviewed the current state of neuro- and cytoprotection studies and their translation in clinical practice. With respect to experimental and clinical data the efficacy of long term administration of multimodal cytoprotective drug with antioxidant effect — ethylmethylhydroxypyridine succinate (Mexidol) is discussed during the acute and early recovery period after stroke.
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