Punjab University Journal of Zoology
Latest articles in this journal
Punjab University Journal of Zoology, Volume 38; https://doi.org/10.17582/journal.pujz/2023/126.96.36.199
| Temperature is one of the critical abiotic environmental factors that can influence biological and physiological processes, including mobility, development, and reproduction in poikilotherms. Due to the medical importance of Aedes aegypti as a vector of several medically important pathogens, evaluating the body length variation of Aedes aegypti larvae with the changing seasonal temperature is important. The study was conducted to observe the difference in body size and different body structures of Ae. aegypti larvae in two seasons, i.e., southwest monsoon (June through September) and retreating monsoon (October and November). The fourth instar larvae were collected from areas of district Lahore. The collected larvae were preserved in formalin and transported to the laboratory of the Department of Environmental Science and Engineering at the Government College University Faisalabad for further analysis. The larval morphological measurements were carried out using a stereomicroscope, which included changes in head length and width, thoracic length and width, abdominal length and width, and total length of the larva. Every month, the fourth instar larvae (n=36) were investigated for body size measurement. The results showed that low temperatures of breeding water significantly increase (P≤0.05) the body size, head, thorax and abdomen of larvae. The results convinced that temperature inversion affects the immature development stages of Ae. aegypti . This study concluded that, Ae. aegypti larvae’s body size depends upon seasonal temperature inversion in the breeding water. These findings can help in predicting the variation in the development rate of Ae. aegypti larvae under different seasonal temperatures.
Punjab University Journal of Zoology, Volume 38; https://doi.org/10.17582/journal.pujz/2023.38.1.59.64
| Fruit flies (Tephritidae: Diptera) are among the most destructive and economic pests of horticultural crops. They infest and destroy a wide range of fruits. Bactrocera dorsalis Hendel is an emerging threat to the export of Pakistani citrus fruits to overseas markets. Integrated pest management (IPM) is an appropriate and sustainable strategy for controlling fruit flies as it is based on integrated application of all available pest control methods with minimum implication of hazardous synthetic insecticides. In this study, five treatments including field sanitation (T 1 ), pheromone-based attract and kill strategy (T 2 ), protein-based bait method (T 3 ), combination of all three methods (T 4 ) and control (T 5 ) were evaluated against B. dorsalis infestation in citrus during 2015 and 2016. Data of percent infested fallen fruits, percent pupae recovered from these fallen fruits, percent adult deformity, percent sex ratio and cost-benefit ratio were recorded. Results showed that when all of the components were used together (T 4 ), fruit damage was significantly reduced remained 0.32 to 0.49% in both years. In addition, T 5 (control) plots where no IPM treatments were applied showed highest number of infected fruits (3.06 to 4.59%) in both years. Moreover cost-benefit ratio was lowest for the combined treatment (T 4 ) during both years i.e., 2.7:1 for 2015 and 3.08:1 for 2016 as compared to other treatments. Overall results of this field trial demonstrate the significance of integrated pest management strategies in reducing the fruit flies infestation and enhancing citrus fruit yield.
Punjab University Journal of Zoology, Volume 38; https://doi.org/10.17582/journal.pujz/2023.38.1.43.51
| The current research was conducted to investigate the outcome of lactation stage and pregnancy on milk composition and production of Marecha dromedary camel at Camel Breeding and Research Station (CBRS), Rakh Mahni, district Bhakkar of Punjab province, Pakistan. Two comparable groups of she-camels were formed and each group had ten she-camels; one group was selected from early lactation stage (1-3 months) with no pregnancy (G1) and the second group (G2) with end lactation stage (11-14 months) with pregnancy (2-4). Milk yield was recorded in liters. By using Milky Lab Analyzer, the estimated values of milk composition were determined including protein, total solids, fat, density, lactose, and solids not fat (SNF). The difference between composition of milk, and yield was found to be significantly (P<0.05) high. Solids not fat (SNF), protein, and total solids in milk were found to be highly significant (P<0.05) in early lactating and non-pregnant females while milk density and lactose were studied to be highly significant in mid-end lactating and pregnant she-camels. A significant reduction in milk fat, protein, and SNF total solids was studied as the stage of lactation proceed. The results showed that physiological condition like the lactation stage and pregnancy has great significant effects on milk composition and yield.
Punjab University Journal of Zoology, Volume 38; https://doi.org/10.17582/journal.pujz/2023.38.1.53.57
| Thalli Sheep are present in Thall region having qualitative characteristics like roman nose with black mouth, black long ears with different white body parts. Thalli Sheep transferred from different livestock Farms (Livestock Experiment Station Rakh Ghulaman, Government livestock Farm Kallurkot and Wool Sheep Farm 205 TDA Sarai Mohajir to Camel Breeding and Research Station (CBRS) Rakh Mahni for rearing and propagation during period 2014-2016. The farm management worked to improve and propagate the breed of Thalli Sheep. Different management practices like identification, weighing, vaccination, deworming, dipping, spraying, hoof trimming, shearing, breeding, lab screening and weather management were practiced to increase the fertility and decrease the mortality percentage. Average birth weight was improved from 3.5 to 3.6, 4, 4.4 and 4.5 kg in 2014-15, 2015-16, 2016-17, 2017-18 and 2018-19, respectively due to these adopted practices. Average weaning weight was improved from 27 to 28, 30, 32 and 33 kg in 2014-15, 2s015-16, 2016-ddddd17, 2017-18 and 2018-19, respectively. The fertility rate was improved from 97.5 to 162, 165, 172 and 183 % in 2014-15, 2015-16, 2016-17, 2017-18 and 2018-19. While mortality percentage was reduced from 0.8 to 1.8, 0, 0 and 0 in 2014-15, 2015-16, 2016-17, 2017-18 and 2018-19, respectively. Higher fertility and lower mortality percentage up to zero was achieved. These results and prescribed practices could be used to improve the productive and reproductive parameters in sheep husbandry.
Published: 16 February 2023
Punjab University Journal of Zoology, Volume 38; https://doi.org/10.17582/journal.pujz/2023.38.1.27.35
Punjab University Journal of Zoology, Volume 38; https://doi.org/10.17582/journal.pujz/2023.38.1.09.18
Punjab University Journal of Zoology, Volume 38; https://doi.org/10.17582/journal.pujz/2023/188.8.131.52
Punjab University Journal of Zoology, Volume 38; https://doi.org/10.17582/journal.pujz/2023/38.1.01.08
Published: 28 December 2022
Punjab University Journal of Zoology, Volume 37; https://doi.org/10.17582/journal.pujz/2022.37.2.175.182
Published: 24 December 2022
Punjab University Journal of Zoology, Volume 37; https://doi.org/10.17582/journal.pujz/2022.37.2.169.174