The Indonesian Biomedical Journal

Journal Information
ISSN / EISSN: 20853297 / 23559179
Total articles ≅ 450

Latest articles in this journal

Ahmad Syauqy Tafrihani, Nisa Ul Hasanah, Dhiya Ulhaq Salsabila, Ratih Kurnia Wardani, Ummi Maryam Zulfin, Muthi' Ikawati, ,
The Indonesian Biomedical Journal, Volume 15, pp 150-6;

BACKGROUND: Cardamom (Amomum cardamom) essential oil (CEO) contains monoterpenes with antioxidant activity and is reported to exhibit anticancer activity against some cancer cell lines. Triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) has the lowest prognosis among breast cancer types due to its aggressive characteristics. This study was conducted to explore the potency of CEO in inhibiting 4T1 cell proliferation and migration and compared its activity to sappan (Caesalpinia sappan) wood extract (CSE). METHODS: We used the 4T1 cell line as the TNBC cell model and tested the cytotoxicity of CEO by using a trypan blue exclusion assay. We studied the senescence induction ability of CEO using SA-β-Gal assay, the migratory inhibition activity using scratch wound healing assay, and inhibition of matrix metalloproteinase 9 (MMP-9) expression using gelatin zymography. RESULTS: CEO showed cytotoxicity toward 4T1 cells with the IC50 values of 60 µg/mL. CEO at ½ IC50 and IC50 concentration significantly increased cell senescence, but CSE did not. CEO at IC50 also reduced cell ability to migrate and also considerably reduced MMP-9 activity. Moreover, these activities related to the inhibition of the cell metastasis process were weaker compared than that of CSE. CONCLUSION: CEO showed potency as a chemopreventive agent on the TNBC 4T1 cell line model with moderate cytotoxicity. CEO induced 4T1 cell senescence, inhibited cell migration and suppressed MMP-9 expression. KEYWORDS:Amomum cardamom, Caesalpinia sappan, 4T1, senescence, cell migration, triple-negative breast cancer
Aden Arrafif Bahtiarsyah, Lisna Hidayati, Nastiti Wijayanti,
The Indonesian Biomedical Journal, Volume 15, pp 132-40;

BACKGROUND: Type 2 diabetes mellitus affects glucose metabolism resulting in hyperglycemia. The bark of Cinnamomum burmannii (CB) and the leaves of Aquilaria malaccensis (AM) are believed to be effective for diabetes treatment. This study evaluated the synergistic effect of CB and AM, the extracts' phytochemical profiles, and the interaction between CB and AM metabolites with a-glucosidase through molecular docking. METHODS: The dried material was macerated with ethanol and then tested for a-amylase and a-glucosidase inhibitory activities and glucose diffusion inhibition in varied combination proportions. The extract fingerprinting was performed using a UV-Vis spectrophotometer followed by thin layer chromatography to determine the class of secondary metabolite in the extracts. Human maltase-glucoamylase (MGAM) receptor, ligands from acarbose and selected metabolites of CB and AM were studied in silico using UCSF Chimera, AutoDockTools, Autodock Vina Wizard (PyRx), and Biovia Discovery Studio software. RESULTS: The best ratio of CB:AM for a-amylase and a-glucosidase inhibition was 0.75:0.25 mg/mL, with inhibitory activities of 86.36 and 96.38 %, respectively. The best glucose diffusion inhibition was achieved at a ratio of 0.5:0.5 mg/mL CB and AM. The b-caryophyllene of CB and palustrol of AM had a significantly higher binding affinity of -10.7 kcal/mol and -10.2 kcal/mol, respectively than acarbose, which had a binding affinity of -8.1 kcal/mol. CONCLUSION: A ratio of CB to AM suppresses the activity of diabetes-related enzymes more efficiently. The in silico study suggested that the presence of b-caryophyllene in CB and palustrol in AM supported the synergistic activity. KEYWORDS: Aquilaria malaccensis, Cinnamomum burmannii, diabetes mellitus, a-amylase inhibition, a-glucose inhibition, glucose inhibition
Ratu Purwanti, , Nida Suraya, Maya Marinda Montain, Ines Atmosukarto, Neni Nurainy,
The Indonesian Biomedical Journal, Volume 15, pp 165-70;

BACKGROUND: BCG vaccine has been proven to be effective protection against tuberculosis (TB) meningitis and miliary TB. However, for protection against pulmonary TB, the results remains vary widely. Recombinant vaccine consisting of two immunodominant Mtb antigens ESAT-6-Ag85C-polyHistag (EAH) is currently being developed as a new TB vaccine candidate for booster. An immugonecity test for vaccine candidates is required in the initial phase to evaluate cellular immune response. This study was conducted to evaluate the cellular immune response by measuring interferon-gamma (IFN-γ) cytokines produced by T cells after ex vivo stimulation by TB EAH antigen fusion. METHODS: Peripheral blood mononuclear cells supernatant samples were collected from 16 new pulmonary TB subjects, 17 pulmonary TB in treatment subjects, and 10 healthy subjects. Samples were tested for IFN-γ level with enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Kruskal-Wallis test was used to test the differences between IFN-γ levels among three groups, and followed by post-hoc analysis using Mann Whitney. RESULTS: The median of IFN-γ levels for new pulmonary TB, pulmonary TB in treatment, and healthy subjects were 17.09 (2.65-140.14) pg/mL, 4.36 (2.43-21.41) pg/mL, and 2.91 (2.39-3.85) pg/mL, respectively. There were significant differences of IFN-γ levels between new pulmonary TB group and pulmonary TB in treatment group (p=0.012), between new pulmonary TB group and healthy group (p=0.001), and also between pulmonary TB in treatment group and healthy group (p=0.035). CONCLUSION: Results show that TB EAH could stimulate cell-mediated immune responses in the three groups, with the highest IFN-γ levels are found in new pulmonary TB group, suggesting a potential immunodominant antigen fusion for vaccine candidate development. KEYWORDS: Ag85C, ESAT-6, immunogenicity test, IFN-γ, TB vaccine candidate, tuberculosis
Emilia Vivi Arsita, Dwi Aris Agung Nugrahaningsih, Ahmad Hamim Sadewa
The Indonesian Biomedical Journal, Volume 15, pp 124-31;

BACKGROUND: Glutathione S-transferase Mu-1 (GSTM1) is known to undergo polymorphism and plays role in drug metabolism including Paclitaxel (PTX), the first-line chemotherapy for breast cancer. However, the effect of GSTM1 polymorphism against chemotherapy in breast cancer is limited and unexplored. This study was conducted to explore the effects of single and double guide (gRNA) on the GSTM1 knocked out (KO) and its effect on the response of PTX in the 4T1 cell line. METHODS: The preparatory stage was done by culturing and electroporating 4T1 cells using Ribonucleoprotein of clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR)/Caspase 9 (Cas9). KO validation was examined by quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR), Sanger sequencing, and ICE analysis. The 4T1 viability was examined by MTT Assay. RESULTS: The number of base pairs of GSTM1 after being engineered by single or double gRNA was 86 bases. The DNA quantity of GSTM1 engineered by gRNA was more than using double gRNAs. The mRNA expression of GSTM1 engineered by single gRNA was lower than using double gRNAs. IC50 values of PTX between wildtype and KO were not significantly different, in the range of 30 µM. CONCLUSION: The base-pair length of GSTM1 exon 4 that is knocked out with single and double gRNA have the same number of base pairs. The quantity of GSTM1 DNA and mRNA expression are contrary between single gRNA and double gRNA, and IC50 PTX values in the 4T1 cell line of the control group with single or double gRNA knocked out do not differ markedly. PTX efficiency as chemotherapy is not disturbed in the GSTM1 deletion genetic profile. KEYWORDS: GSTM1, gRNA, Paclitaxel, CRISPR, breast cancer
Syanindita Puspa Wardhani, Khilmi Ainun Nadliroh, Al Mazida Fauzil Aishaqeena, Fahriza Abid Sonia, Achmad Guntur Hermawan Suryo Adji, Intan Masyfufah Hanim, Rizkia Milladina Hidayatulloh, Anna Fuji Rahimah, Ardian Rizal, Peter Sugita, et al.
The Indonesian Biomedical Journal, Volume 15, pp 187-93;

BACKGROUND: Cardiometabolic syndrome is a risk factor for the development of diseases related to cardiovascular disease and decreased renal function. Ganoderma lucidum polysaccharide peptide (GLPP) has been reported to have anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties. The current study was conducted to investigate the role of GLPP in inflammatory, oxidative stress and renal function markers of cardiometabolic subjects. METHODS: A randomized double-blinded perspective control trial with pre-post design was conducted. Cardiometabolic syndrome subjects were treated with placebo or GLPP for 60 days. Blood serum was collected from each subject before the first capsule consumption and one day after the last capsule consumption. Serum tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, high-sensitivity-C-Reactive Protein (hs-CRP) and malondialdehyde (MDA) levels were measured using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, while superoxide dismutase (SOD) level was measured using colorimetric assay. Serum urea and creatinine levels were measured using a clinical analyzer. The Cockroft-Gault formula was used to calculate estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR). RESULTS: Compared with the control group, the MDA level was significantly reduced, while the SOD level was significantly increased in the GLPP treatment group. Furthermore, serum urea and creatinine were lowered, while eGFR was increased in the GLPP treatment group. CONCLUSION: Treatment of GLPP for 60 days could be beneficial for lowering oxidative stress and improving renal function of patients with cardiometabolic syndrome. KEYWORDS: Ganoderma lucidum, cardiometabolic syndrome, inflammation, oxidative stress, renal function
Ni Putu Sukma Sumantri Prabandari, Ni Kadek Mulyantari, Made Sukmawati, Anak Agung Ngurah Subawa, , , I Nyoman Wande, Ni Nyoman Mahartini
The Indonesian Biomedical Journal, Volume 15, pp 157-64;

BACKGROUND: Early-onset neonatal sepsis (EONS) is an acute infection and sepsis occurring within the first 24 hours of new-born life. An increase in procalcitonin levels, presepsin levels, and neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (NLR) in EONS subjects have been reported. However, whether presepsin levels and NLR affect the procalcitonin levels in EONS patients who have received antibiotic therapy has not been certainly known. This study was conducted to determine the correlation between presepsin levels and NLR with procalcitonin levels in EONS subjects. METHODS: A cross-sectional study involving 52 EONS subjects were conducted, and blood samples from subjects were collected. Presepsin levels were examined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) method, NLR was calculated from the absolute number of neutrophils divided by the absolute number of lymphocytes, and procalcitonin levels were examined by chemiluminescent microparticle immunoassay (CMIA) method. RESULTS: Median of procalcitonin levels and presepsin levels were 0.435 (0.12-9.11) ng/mL and 108.33 (71.43-1287.76) ng/L, respectively. While NLR value was 1.68 (0.2-7.52). There was significant difference between procalcitonin and presepsin levels (p=0.000), and so does between procalcitonin levels and NLR (p=0.001). Based on the multivariate analysis, presepsin levels also affected the procalcitonin levels (p=0.000; 95% CI: 0.001-0.004). CONCLUSION: The results of the study showed that there was significant correlation between presepsin levels and NLR with procalcitonin levels in EONS patients, suggesting that presepsin levels, NLR, and procalcitonin levels are potential candidates for EONS biomarkers. KEYWORDS: EONS, NLR, presepsin, procalcitonin
, Dhania Novitasari, Ratna Asmah Susidarti, Muthi' Ikawati, Jun-Ya Kato, Edy Meiyanto
The Indonesian Biomedical Journal, Volume 15, pp 141-9;

BACKGROUND: Liver cancer is the third leading mortality in cancer. Curcumin shows effective anticancer potency against various cancer including liver cancer. The synthesized curcumin analog compounds Pentagamavunone-1 (PGV-1) and Chemoprevention Curcumin Analog-1.1 (CCA-1.1) have been well studied in breast, leukemia, and colon cancer cells with better potency than curcumin itself, yet their cytotoxic activities were not known in liver cancer cells. Thus, this study was conducted to elevate the anticancer effect of these curcumin analogs against hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) cells in vitro, specifically in MYCN-expressing cells, based on its cellular physiology. METHODS: JHH-7 cells were used as the HCC cell model with high expression of MYCN. The viability of the cells was observed using trypan blue exclusion method while cell cycle profile and intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels were quantified by means of flow cytometry. Chromosomal staining with Hoechst was applied to determine the cell cycle arrest phase, whilst X-gal staining was used to assess the cellular senescence activity. RESULTS: The result of current study presented that the growth inhibitory activity of PGV-1 as well as CCA-1.1 in JHH-7 cells was associated with the cell cycle arrest and cellular senescence. Both curcumin analogs PGV-1 and CCA-1.1 ultimately induced mitotic arrest (p<0.001) better than curcumin. Moreover, PGV-1 and CCA-1.1 similarly increased the senescent cells that partly mediated through ROS elevation. The transcription level of MYCN was not altered upon treatment with curcumin and its analogs in JHH-7 cells, suggesting that molecular mechanism of the inhibitory effect was independent from MYCN signaling. CONCLUSION: Taken together, these observations revealed that both PGV-1 and CCA-1.1 potentially serve as multi-targeted curcumin-based compounds and lead to promising anti-hepatocellular cancer agents. KEYWORDS: Curcumin analogs, hepatocellular carcinoma, mitotic arrest, MYCN
Anastasia Armimi, Afina Firdaus Syuaib, Katherine Vanya, Marselina Irasonia Tan, Dessy Natalia, David Virya Chen, Chikako Ono, Yoshiharu Matsuura, Anita Artarini, Ernawati Arifin Giri-Rachman
The Indonesian Biomedical Journal, Volume 15, pp 179-86;

BACKGROUND: Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infects humans' lower respiratory tracts and causes coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19). Neutralizing antibodies is one of the adaptive immune system responses that can reduce SARS-CoV-2 infection. This study aimed to develop a SARS-CoV-2 neutralization assay system using pseudo-lentivirus. METHODS: The plasmid used for pseudo-lentivirus production was characterized using restriction analysis. The gene encoding for SARS-CoV-2 spike protein was confirmed using sequencing. The transfection pseudo-lentivirus optimal condition was determined by choosing the transfection reagents and adding centrifugation step. Optimal pseudo-lentivirus infection was analysed using fluorescent assay and luciferase assay. The optimal condition of pseudo-lentivirus infection was determined by the target cell type and the number of pseudo-lentiviruses used for neutralization test. SARS-CoV-2 pseudo-lentivirus was used to detect neutralizing antibodies from serum samples. RESULTS: The plasmid used for pseudo-lentivirus production was characterized and confirmed to have no mutations. Lipofectamine 2000 reagent generated pseudo-lentivirus with a higher ability to infect target cells, as indicated by a percentage green fluorescent protein (GFP) of 12.68%. Pseudo-lentivirus centrifuged obtained more stable results in luciferase expression. Optimal pseudo-lentivirus infection conditions were obtained using puromycin-selected HEK 293T-ACE2 cells as target cells. The number of pseudo-lentiviruses used in the neutralization assay system was multiplicity of infection (MOI) 0.075. Serum A samples with a 1:10 dilution had the highest neutralizing antibody activity. CONCLUSION: This study shows that SARS-CoV-2 neutralization assay system using pseudo-lentivirus successfully detected neutralizing antibodies in human serum, which were indicated by a decrease in the percentage of pseudo-lentivirus infections. KEYWORDS: COVID-19, neutralizing antibody, neutralization assay, pseudo-lentivirus, SARS-COV-2
Sonar Soni Panigoro, Sinta Chaira Maulanisa, Ahmad Kurnia, Denni Joko Purwanto, Primariadewi Rustamadji, Herqutanto Herqutanto, Ferry Sandra
The Indonesian Biomedical Journal, Volume 15, pp 171-8;

BACKGROUND: Chemotherapy has reported to stimulate immune system through direct activation of cluster of differentiation (CD)8+ T cells. Neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NAC) is known to improve the clinical response of locally advanced breast cancer (LABC) patients. However, the immune response-related factor evaluation of NAC in LABC patients has not been routinely performed. Therefore, current study was conducted to evaluate the correlation of NAC-induced CD8+ T cell with chemotherapy response based on Miller Payne grading and World Health Organization (WHO) criteria. METHODS: LABC patients were recruited and data regarding age, gender, tumor, nodal stages, histopathological grade, estrogen receptor (ER), progesterone receptor (PR), human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) and Ki67 were obtained. Biopsy and mastectomy tissues were collected and processed for hematoxylin-eosin and CD8 immunohistochemical staining. CD8+ T cell expression in peritumoral and intratumoral areas were documented and measured. Clinical responses based on Miller Payne grading and WHO were analyzed and correlated with CD8+ T cell expression. RESULTS: There were more subjects with high expression of total (80%), intratumoral (82.5%) and peritumoral (65%) CD8+ T cell expressions. The total (p=0.013) and intratumoral (p=0.015) CD8+ T cell expression, but not peritumoral CD8+ T cell expression, were significantly correlated with Miller Payne Grading. The total (p=0.009) and intratumoral (p=0.001) CD8+ T cell expressions were also significantly correlated with WHO clinical response. CONCLUSION: Total and intratumoral CD8+ T cell expressions are correlated with Miller Payne grading and WHO clinical response of NAC. Therefore, total and intratumoral CD8+ T cell expressions could be suggested as a predictive marker for clinical response of NAC. KEYWORDS: breast cancer, neoadjuvant chemotherapy, CD8, clinical response, Miller Payne, intratumoral, peritumoral
Anna Meiliana, Andi Wijaya
The Indonesian Biomedical Journal, Volume 15, pp 106-23;

BACKGROUND: Many chronic disorders, including vascular diseases, metabolic syndrome, and neurological diseases, are known to share a common factor of excessive inflammation. It takes a lot of energy to heal damaged tissue, which is a complicated process. The outcome is often suboptimal, with some degree of fibrosis, depending on the tissue's ability to regenerate and the strength of the inflammatory response. We may get new insights into disease causation and therapeutic strategies by better understanding endogenous regulatory points within the inflammatory response. CONTENT: Despite of the benefit in raising an inflammatory response, it also have unfavourable effects. Unresolved inflammation can over accumulate collagenous connective tissue and induce fibrosis, promote tissue dysfunction, and finally organ failure. Currently, the resolution of inflammation was described in terms of contemporary molecules as a different mechanisms from anti-inflammatory, since in resolution, the pathogen and apoptotic cells crumbs will be cleared and the macrophages will set back the tissue homeostasis. An active transition in the mediators that predominate in exudates occurs in conjunction with the remission of inflammation. These groups of inborn pro-resolution named resolvins, maresins, and protectins work to reduce inflammation by triggering certain pathways that support homeostasis rather than by suppressing the immune system. SUMMARY: The resolution of inflammation, once believed to be a passive process, is now understood to entail active biochemical programs that allow inflamed tissues to regain equilibrium. In this review, we spotlight the resolution to inflammation as a strategy to prevent tissue fibrosis and hinder the organ damage. KEYWORDS: inflammation, resolution, fibrosis, wound healing, specialized pro-resolving mediators
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