Open Journal of Plant Science
Latest articles in this journal
Open Journal of Plant Science, Volume 7, pp 025-033; https://doi.org/10.17352/ojps.000049
Chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) is a very important crop in the world. Portugal was traditionally sown as a spring crop and so extremely affected by long periods of drought and temperature variation throughout the growth cycle. Chickpea grain yields decrease substantially due to increased air temperature and the severity of drought. To face the Mediterranean-type climate pattern, chickpea breeding programs were reoriented to develop chickpea germplasm tolerant/resistant to the main abiotic and biotic stress and adapted to different environments and production systems. This study relates chickpea yields (35 years) with rainfall average in Alentejo, a Southern Portugal region with a Mediterranean-type climate. Our approach shows that selection should apply multiple and complementary criteria. The physiological and morphological studies are important in breeding programs, to combine not only resistance to drought and temperature, and biotic stress but also high yield potential and yield stability. The main objective is to obtain new chickpea varieties for the rainfed conditions of the Mediterranean region. From this work, four chickpea varieties (Kabuli type), were registered on the National Variety Catalogue. Actually, the national chickpea genetic breeding program has already registered 11 varieties.
Open Journal of Plant Science, Volume 7, pp 025-026; https://doi.org/10.17352/ojps.000048
Eleven common bean (Phaseolus Vulgaris L.) varieties that were released in Ethiopia from 1998 to 2014 were evaluated as medium seeded food type common bean varieties. The objectives of this study were to: (1) estimate the genetic progress made in 16 years of common bean breeding in Ethiopia; (2) assess changes in associated traits in the genetic improvement of common bean varieties released in Ethiopia; and (3) assess the reaction of common bean varieties to bean anthracnose [Clletotrichum lindemuthianum (Sacc. & Magnus) Briosi & Cavara]. The study was conducted at two locations, Bako and Gute during the 2014/2015 cropping season in a randomized complete block design (RCBD) with three replications. Days to 50% flowering (DF), Days to 90% maturity (DM), Grain filling period (GFP), Hundred Seed weight (HSW), Biomass yield (BMY), Grain yield per plot (GY), Harvest index (HI), Biomass production rate (kg/ha/day), Seed growth rate (kg/ha/day), Grain yield per day (kg/ha/day) and Anthracnose (1-9) scale data were collected on plot basis and Plant height, Number of pods per plant, Number of seeds per pod, Number of seeds per plant and grain yield per plant data’s were collected on a plant basis. Combined analysis of variance showed highly significant differences among the common bean varieties and between test environments for hundred seed weight. The variety by location (VXL) interaction showed highly significant differences in biomass yield, harvest index, days to flowering, grain filling period, and biomass production rate. Regression analysis of mean performance at both environments on year of varietal release showed positive relationship for Gran yield (r = 0.08), Seed weight (r = 0.08) and Harvest index (r = 0.4) but negative relationship for Biomass yield (r = 0.04) and anthracnose disease severity (r = 0.016). The highest mean grain yield was 3008.7 kg ha-1 for the Haramaya variety and the lowest was 1708.8 kg ha-1 for Ada, with an overall mean of 2271.1 kg ha-1. The annual rate of genetic progress was 22.3 kg ha-1 (0.31% ha-1), 0.56g 100 seeds-1 year-1, 0.006%, 0.19%, and -60 kg ha-1 year-1 for grain yield, seed weight, harvest index, anthracnose disease severity, and biomass yield respectively. Generally, grain yield was slightly increased in the period of genetic improvement. Grain yield day-1 (90%) character explained more for the variation of grain yield but, anthracnose disease severity played the major role as grain yield did not respond significantly increment by (-33%) than seed weight (-0.01%) from stepwise regression results. The yield of medium seeded food type common bean varieties was increased due to grain yield day-1 for the past sixteen years (1998-2014) of breeding. The future crucial consideration will be managing the disease, like anthracnose disease for this common bean class and finally, Haramaya (3008.7 kg ha-1), SER- 125 (2954.8 kg ha-1), and SER-119 (2653.1 kg ha-1) will be recommended for the study area.
Open Journal of Plant Science, Volume 7, pp 020-024; https://doi.org/10.17352/ojps.000047
Barringtonia racemosa L. (Putat) was mostly utilized as a treatment for wound infections and other types of skin diseases locally. The leaves of B. racemosa are traditionally used to treat high blood pressure and as a depurative. This study aimed to assess the antimicrobial activities and phytochemical profile of the leaf extracts of Barringtonia racemosa L. (Putat) against selected pathogens. The ethanolic extracts of the leaves were explicitly prepared and applied to two Gram-positive bacteria (Staphylococcus aureus and Bacillus cereus), whereas the Gram-negative bacteria (Escherichia coli) used the disc diffusion method based on the standard procedure. Moreover, among the test microorganisms, only the Gram-positive bacteria were sensitive to the ethanolic extracts of Barringtonia racemosa L. with the diameter of zone of inhibition ranging from 13.81±0.96 mm to 14.85±0.57 mm. The findings of this study suggested that the tribes could explicitly continue utilizing this ethnomedicinal plant as a source of treatment. Thus, the ethanol extracts of the leaves of B. racemosa were found to be effective against several pathogens used in this study, which certainly highlights the potential extremity of herbal drugs and their possible use as local medicine. Hence, there has been a continuing search for new and more potent antibiotics.
Open Journal of Plant Science, Volume 7, pp 014-019; https://doi.org/10.17352/ojps.000046
The study was carried out in the Dodola district of West Arsi Zone, Oromia regional state, Ethiopia. The aim of this study was to evaluate the performance and farmers varieties preference of Linseed at Alantu kebele within the Farmers Training Center (FTC) demonstration plot of Dodola district of West Arsi Zone. Along with their management practices under the Farmers Training Center (FTC) field to enhance farmers’ knowledge and skill on Linseed production performance. The verities used to demonstrate were, improved Linseed varieties namely Kuma, Yadano, Bekoji-14, Kulumsa-1, Kassa-2, and Local check. According to the results, an average yield of 22qt/ha, 22.4 qt/ha 15.6 qt/ha, 19.2q/ha,13.2q/ha, and 9.2q/ha /was harvested from Kuma, Yadano, Bekoji-14, Kulumsa-1, Kassa-2, and Local check Varieties respectively. Yadano variety had a 143.5 %yield advantage over the local check and Kuma had a 139.1% yield advantage over the local check and the variety Kulumsa-1 had a negative 108.7%% yield advantage over the local check and variety Bekoji-14 had 69.6% over the local check and the variety Kassa-2 had 43.5% yield advantage over the local check. The result of the criteria set by the farmers themselves showed that the varieties Yadano, Kuma, Kulumsa-1, Bekoji-14, Kassa-2, and the Local check ranked 1st,2nd,3rd,4th,5th, and 6th respectively. Based on the result of farmers preference ranking and the yield advantages of the Linseed varieties the tested under FTC met the requirements for the recommendation, Therefore, the Authors conclude that the first three (3) varieties namely Yadano, Kuma, and Kulumsa-1 varieties were recommended for the study areas and other areas with similar agro-ecological conditions in the South eastern districts of West Arsi zone as the first, second and third Linseed varieties options respectively. Whereas the remaining 3 (three) varieties namely Bekoji14, and Kassa-2 including the local variety were not recommended due to low productivity in the study area.
Open Journal of Plant Science, Volume 7, pp 009-013; https://doi.org/10.17352/ojps.000045
Aim: Conduct research on the collection of new genotypes of sweet potatoes introduced under growing conditions in the Kharkiv district of Ukraine. Results and discussion: In the conditions in the Kharkiv district of Ukraine, an assessment was made of 13 genotypes of sweet potato a domestic and foreign selection. The genotypes were very different in length of the growing season, biometric parameters of plants, and productivity. The studied genotypes were divided into three ripeness groups. Samples that characterized the three groups - early ripening: V-1, V-6, А-7, В-4; medium ripening: Оr-3, D-2, М-8; late-ripening: B-9, P-11, B-10, J-12, Е-5, Оk-14. A wide range of shapes was obtained along the length of the stem. All genotypes that entered the mid-ripening group formed long, climbing stems. So, plants of the genotype Or-3 formed long stems similar to vines, 214 cm long. The genotypes of the early ripening group were characterized by lengths from 144 cm (V-6) up to 153 cm (А-7). According to the “Quantity of additional shoots” attribute, the variability range was 4–8 cm, and the coefficient of variation was 17%. Significant variation was observed along the length of the internodes (V = 30%). The variability range was 4.39–9.97 cm. According to the “Quantity of leaves” characteristic, the variability range was 40–77 pcs. And the coefficient of variation was 20%. The genotypes of the middle ripening group that had the largest “Quantity of leaves” were 77 pcs./plant (Оr-3) and 71 pcs./plant (D-2). The smallest was 40 pcs./plant (B-10), 42 pcs./plant (B-9), 44 pcs./plant (P-11). The root tubers in genotype V-6 had an oval shape, smooth peel, and pink color. The flesh was a creamy solid color; it was a sample of sweet potato. The shoots were long, climbing, leaves of a dark green color without anthocyanin color, kidney-shaped. The genotype of sweet potato D-2 of Ukrainian selection was a dessert variety. The tubers of the genotype were elliptical, orange with a smooth peel; the flesh was firm and bright orange. The shoots of the plants were very long, very climbing, and light green. The shoots of the leaves were kidney-shaped, light green. The results showed that table genotypes are of greater value for dietary nutrition. Dessert genotypes are conducive to a variety of diets for people with diabetes. A list of genotypes that can be used by people who follow a diet has been provided. Conclusion: In the conditions in the Kharkiv district of Ukraine, 13 introduced genotypes of sweet potato domestic and foreign breeding were evaluated. They already discovered that the genotypes were different in the growing season by biometric parameters of plants and yields. By using clonal selection in vitro culture, two completely new promising genotypes of domestic selection of sweet potatoes V-6 and D-2 were obtained. Tubers of genotype V-6 were oval, skin smooth, and pink. The average weight of one was 351 g. The raw flesh was cream-colored. Long shoots were woven, their length was 144 cm; the leaves were dark green, and kidney-shaped. Another example of a domestic selection of sweet potato D-2 was a dessert type. The root tubers were elliptical and had an orange color with smooth skin. The average weight of the tubers was 410 g. The raw flesh was a solid bright orange color. Shoots were extremely long -198 cm, very creeping, and had a light green color. The leaves were kidney-shaped and light green.
Open Journal of Plant Science, Volume 7, pp 001-008; https://doi.org/10.17352/ojps.000044
The experiment was conducted at Sinana and Agarfa to determine the application rate and frequency of MATICO. Randomized Complete Block Design with three replications was used to lay out the experiment. Logistic model (ln[y/ (1-y)]) was used to estimate r. Correlation and regression analysis were employed to find the relationship between diseases’ severity, yield, and yield-related traits. Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) for diseases parameters has shown significant differences (p<0.05) between treatments. The highest diseases parameters were recorded from unsprayed and plots sprayed with lower rates and frequency and the lowest was recorded from plots sprayed four tines at 2.5 kg/ha. ANOVA for yield and yield-related traits has shown significant variations (P<0.05) among treatments. The highest pods per plant (21), thousand Kernel Weight (664.7g), and grain yield (3319.4kg/ha) were recorded from plots sprayed four times at 2.5 kg/ha. Simple linear regression has revealed a significant association (P<0.0001) between grain yield and diseases severity and the Correlation of grain yield with diseases severity has depicted a significant negative correlation. The highest marginal rate of return (2126.31%) was obtained from plots sprayed twice at 2.5kg/ha. Therefore, two times application of MATICO WP at a rate of 2.5 kg/ha is recommended.
Open Journal of Plant Science pp 108-117; https://doi.org/10.17352/ojps.000043
Information on combining ability and heterosis of parents and crossings is crucial in breeding efforts. Genetic variety is crucial to the effectiveness of yield improvement efforts because it helps to broaden gene pools in any given crop population. The genotype's ability to pass the intended character to the offspring is referred to as combining ability. As a result, information on combining ability is required to determine the crossing pairs in the production of hybrid varieties. Heterosis is the expression of an F1 hybrid's dominance over its parents in a given feature, as measured not by the trait's absolute value, but by its practical use. To put it another way, heterosis is defined as an increase in the character value of F1 hybrids when compared to the average value of both parents. A plant breeder's ultimate goal is to achieve desirable heterosis (hybrid vigor). In a variety of crop species, heterosis has been widely employed to boost output and extend the adaptability of hybrid types. A crucial requirement for discovering crosses with significant levels of exploitable heterosis is knowledge of the quantity of heterosis in different cross combinations. Any crop improvement program's success is contingent on the presence of a significant level of genetic diversity and heritability. The lack of a broad genetic foundation is the most significant constraint to crop improvement and a major bottleneck in breeding operations. Heterosis is a critical factor in hybrid generation, particularly for traits driven by non-additive gene activity. To get the most out of heterosis for hybrid cultivar production, germplasm must be divided into distinct heterotic groups. Similarly, knowledge on genetic diversity is critical for hybrid breeding and population improvement initiatives because it allows them to analyze genetic diversity, characterize germplasm, and categorize it into different heterotic groupings. In general, general combining ability is used to detect a line's average performance in a hybrid combination, whereas specific combining ability is used to find circumstances where definite combinations perform better or worse than expected based on the mean performance of the lines involved.
Open Journal of Plant Science pp 103-107; https://doi.org/10.17352/ojps.000042
A field experiment on hybrid maize with different plant population density was conducted at the Agronomy field of BARI, Joydebpur, Gazipur during the consecutive rabi season of 2019-2020 and 2020-2021. Five plant population density viz; T1= 66666 plants/ha (75cm × 20cm spacing: 6.67 plants/m2), T2= 83333 plants/ha (60cm × 20cm spacing:8.33 plants/m2), T3=100000 plants/ha (50cm × 20cm spacing:10 plants/m2), T4=125000 plants/ha (40cm × 20cm spacing:12.5 plants/m2) and T5=166666 plants/ha (30cm × 20cm spacing:16.67 plants/m2) were used in the experiment. LAI (leaf area index) and TDM (total dry matter) increased with the increase of plant population, those influenced grain yield of maize. The highest grain yield (10.12-10.78 t/ha) was recorded in T3 (100000 plants/ha) and the lowest (5.02-5.33t/ha) in T5 (166666 plants/ha) treatment. Functional relationship between plant population and grain yield of maize was established as Y = 2.0795x-0.1067x2; (R² = 0.92). The effect of plant population on the grain yield of maize could be explained 92% by the functional model. The co- efficient indicated that increase of one plant/m2 would increase grain yield at the rate of 2.0795 t/ha up to a certain limit. The estimated optimum plant population was 9.74 plants/m2 (974000 plants/ha) through functional model. Then the predicted maximum grain yield would be 10.13 t/ha at that optimum plant population of 9.74 plants/m2 (974000 plants/ha). There existed a good consistency between observed and predicted grain yield of maize (r=0.96 at p<0.01 and R2=0.97; using the developed functional model).
Open Journal of Plant Science pp 099-102; https://doi.org/10.17352/ojps.000041
The medicinal plants contain various chemical constituents which play an important role in the treatment of various diseases. The current review explained the scattered information on medicinal plants used in the treatment of tuberculosis. The review contains four medicinal plants (Allium sativum (L), Aloe vera (L), Acalypha indica (L) and Allium cepa (L)) having anti-tubeculosis effects. Moreover, six medicinal plants (Acorus calamus (L), Curcuma longa (L), Ephedra gerardiana, Glycyrrhiza glabra (L), Hygrophila auriculata, Papaver somniferum (L)) have been checked for their toxicological impacts in the treatment of tuberculosis.
Open Journal of Plant Science pp 091-093; https://doi.org/10.17352/ojps.000039
Herendeen et al. set up a criterion identifying fossil angiosperms while they named five examples of fossil angiosperms in the same paper. Their normal-appearing operation, however, is fundamentally flawed: their exemplar fossil angiosperms did not honor their own criterion. This operation confused their proponents as well as other botanical researchers, hindering healthy progress in study on the origin of angiosperms. Herendeen et al. are obligated to give a plausible explanation for their perplexing operation. *Nature Plants has been informed of the problem in Herendeen et al. (2017). Nature Plants has refused to fix the problem due to reasons, according to the communication with Dr. Chris Surridge, an editor of Nature Plants.