Epj Web of Conferences
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Epj Web of Conferences, Volume 256; https://doi.org/10.1051/epjconf/202125600005
The study of prompt fission γ rays (PFGs) is crucial for understanding the energy and angular momentum distribution in fission, and over the last decade there has been an revived interest in this aspect of fission. We present the new experimental setup at the Oslo Cyclotron Laboratory for detecting PFGs resulting from charged particle-induced fission. Additionally, PFGs from the reaction 240Pu(d,pf) were measured in April 2018, and the fission gated proton-γ coincidence spectrum is shown. In order to explore the dependence of the PFG emission on the excitation energy and angular momentum of the compound nucleus, we plan several experiments where charged particle reactions are used to induce fission in various plutonium isotopes. The final results will be compared to predictions made by the Fission Reaction Event Yield Algorithm (FREYA) in an upcoming publication, to benchmark the current modelling of both the PFGs and the fission process.
Epj Web of Conferences, Volume 256; https://doi.org/10.1051/epjconf/202125600015
Structural effects in the production of light particles in fission are investigated. Most of these effects can be traced back to pairing correlations and shell effects and their dependencies on the composition of the fissioning system and its excitation energy. It is shown that the GEF code is able to reproduce most of these features and to explain their origin on the basis of established properties of nuclear matter as well as concepts and laws of general validity. Predictions for systems with scarce or no experimental information can also be made.
Epj Web of Conferences, Volume 256; https://doi.org/10.1051/epjconf/202125600017
Two models with a deterministic treatment of prompt emission in fission were developed at the University of Bucharest. Both models work with the same ranges of initial fragments and total kinetic energy and they use the same partition of the total excitation energy at full acceleration based on modelling at scission. The main difference between these modelings regards the prompt emission treatment itself. I.e. the Point-by-Point (PbP) model uses a global treatment of sequential emission while the other modeling is based on an event-by-event treatment of sequential emission. Both models are submitted to a rigorous validation. This paper focuses on model results of different prompt γ-ray quantities, which describe very well the existing experimental data. A new method to calculate prompt γ-ray spectra, including a global treatment based on the distribution of prompt γ-ray energy per quanta, is proposed.
Epj Web of Conferences, Volume 256; https://doi.org/10.1051/epjconf/202125600018
In super-heavy nuclei, we may expect to discover new phenomena because of the strong Coulomb force. One example is the true ternary fission. We study the sequential two binary fission of 300120 and 252Cf that produces three fragments. We use the Metropolis method to estimate the probability of the second fission. The probability of the second fission is 10−4-10−3 for superheavy nuclei while it is 10−7−10−6 for heavy actinide nuclei. The most probable mass division is almost symmetric in the case of 300120. We also demonstrate the applicability of the Metropolis method to a non-equilibrium process by comparing it with the Langevin equation.
Epj Web of Conferences, Volume 256; https://doi.org/10.1051/epjconf/202125600009
Several physics mechanisms can lead to the deviation from an isotropic angular distribution for both fission fragments and the neutrons that are emitted during the fission event. Two of these effects have recently been implemented into CGMF, the Monte Carlo fission event generator developed at Los Alamos National Laboratory: angular distribution sampling for fission fragments and pre-equilibrium neutrons (those emitted before the compound nucleus forms). Using these new developments, we show that the anisotropy of the neutrons reflects the anisotropy of the fission fragments, in particular as the outgoing energy of neutrons increases. Correlations between the fission fragment and neutron anisotropies could be used to extract the fission fragment anisotropy from the neutron angular distributions.
Epj Web of Conferences, Volume 256; https://doi.org/10.1051/epjconf/202125600004
The time evolution of the nuclear density of the fissioning system 240Pu during the scission process is obtained from the time-dependent superfluid local-density approximation (TDSLDA) to the density functional theory. A nuclear energy density functional based on the Skyrme force Skm* is used. The duration of the scission process Δt as well as the neck radius (rmin) of the ‘just-before scission’ configuration and the minimum separation (dmin) of the inner surfaces of the fragments in the ’immediately-after scission’ configuration were extracted in order to calculate the multiplicity of the scission neutrons (Vsc) using a phenomenological dynamical scission model (DSM). We find that Vsc=1.347, i.e. half of the prompt fission neutrons measured in the reaction 239Pu(nth; f) are released at scission. After scission, the fragments are left excited and with some extra deformation energy (mainly the heavy one). In this way we can account for the evaporation of the other half and for the emission of γ rays.
Epj Web of Conferences, Volume 256; https://doi.org/10.1051/epjconf/202125600012
In this paper we present results from two recent studies, both related to the emission of prompt fissionγrays. Firstly, we have analyzed data from the reaction235U(n, f) induced by fast neutrons of average energyE̅n= 1.7 MeV. The deduced spectral characteristics are an average multiplicityM̅γ= 7.11 ± 0.44γrays per fission and an average totalγ-ray energy release in fissionE̅γ,tot= 5.51 ± 0.46 MeV, corresponding to an averageγ-ray energyɛ̅γ= 0.77 ± 0.08 MeV. Secondly, we have addressed – and answered – the question how those characteristics in general depend on the width of the chosen prompt time window and the timing resolution, determined by the employed detectors and electronics. The conclusion is that once this is known, it is possible to compare results from different experiments in a more meaningful way.
Epj Web of Conferences, Volume 256; https://doi.org/10.1051/epjconf/202125600006
The shift of the angular distribution of different light charged particles in ternary fission of235U induced by polarized neutrons, the so-called ROT effect, was estimated by modified trajectory calculations, which take into account the rotation of the compound nucleus. In previous publications onlyα-particles were considered. It is shown here that inclusion of tritons significantly improves the agreement of the energy dependence of the ROT effect with experiment while the inclusion of5He particles practically does not influence this dependence. In particular, the change in the magnitude of the ROT effect depending on the energy of incident neutrons is correctly predicted. Also, the ROT effect for gamma quanta and neutrons in binary fission is discussed along the same lines, because all mentioned effects are proportional to the effective angular velocity of the compound nucleus at the moment of scission.
Epj Web of Conferences, Volume 256; https://doi.org/10.1051/epjconf/202125600016
Recent developments, both in theoretical modeling and computational power, have allowed us to make progress on a goal not fully achieved yet in nuclear theory: a microscopic theory of nuclear fission. Even if the complete microscopic description remains a computationally demanding task, the information that can be provided by current calculations can be extremely useful to guide and constrain more phenomenological approaches, which are simpler to implement. First, a microscopic model that describes the real-time dynamics of the fissioning system can justify or rule out some of the approximations. Second, the microscopic approach can be used to obtain trends, e.g., with increasing excitation energy of the fissioning system, or even to compute observables that cannot be otherwise calculated in phenomenological approaches or that can be hindered by the limitations of the method. We briefly present in this contribution the time-dependent superfluid local density approximation (TDSLDA) approach to nuclear fission, approach that has become a very successful theoretical model in many areas of many-body research. The TDSLDA incorporates the effects of the continuum, the dynamics of the pairing field, and the numerical solution is implemented with controlled approximations and negligible numerical errors. The main part of the current contribution will be dedicated to discussing the method, and recent results concerning the fission dynamics. In addition, we present results on the excitation energy sharing between the fragments, which are in agreement with a qualitative conclusions extracted from a limited number of experimental measurements of properties of prompt neutrons.
Epj Web of Conferences, Volume 256; https://doi.org/10.1051/epjconf/202125600014
In the framework of TANGRA-project at the Frank Laboratory of Neutron Physics of the Joint Institute for Nuclear research in Dubna (Russia), two experimental setups (Fig. 1) have been designed and tested for investigation of 14-MeV neutron-induced nuclear reactions on a number of important for nuclear science and engineering isotopes. As a source of 14-MeV “tagged” neutrons we are using the VNIIA ING-27 steady-state portable neutron generator with embedded in its vacuum tube 64-pixel charge-particle detector. The “Romashka” system is an array of up-to 24 hexagonal NaI(Tl)-crystal scintillation probes, while the “Romasha” array consists of 18 cylindrical BGO-crystal detectors of neutrons and gamma-rays. In addition to these detectors there is a HPGe gamma-ray spectrometer and a number of Stilbene detectors that can be added for high-resolution gamma-ray spectrometry and neutron-gamma detection. The main characteristics of the neutron-induced nuclear reaction products can be investigated by commissioning the detectors in suitable for these experiments’ geometries. Both setups can be used for doing basic and applied scientific research, because they permit simultaneously to measure the energy, angle and multiplicity distributions of gamma-rays and neutrons, produced in the competitive neutron-induced nuclear reactions (n, n’γ), (n,2n), (n, xnγ) and (n, f) in pure or complex substances.