ISSN / EISSN: 01448463 / 15734935
Published by: Portland Press Ltd.
Total articles ≅ 5,704
Latest articles in this journal
Bioscience Reports; https://doi.org/10.1042/bsr20222171
Cytochrome c (cyt c) is an electron transporter of the mitochondrial respiratory chain. Upon permeabilization of the mitochondrial outer membrane, cyt c is released into the cytoplasm, where it triggers the intrinsic pathway of apoptosis. Cytoplasmic cyt c can further reach the bloodstream. Apoptosis inhibition is one of the hallmarks of cancer and its induction in tumors is a widely used therapeutic approach. Apoptosis inhibition and induction correlate with decreased and increased serum levels of cyt c, respectively. The quantification of cyt c in the serum is useful in the monitoring of patient response to chemotherapy, with potential prognosis value. Several highly sensitive biosensors have been developed for the quantification of cyt c levels in human serum. Moreover, the delivery of exogenous cyt c to the cytoplasm of cancer cells is an effective approach for inducing their apoptosis. Similarly, several protein-based and nanoparticle-based systems have been developed for the therapeutic delivery of cyt c to cancer cells. As such, cyt c is a human protein with promising value in cancer prognosis and therapy. In addition, its thermal stability can be extended through PEGylation and ionic liquid storage. These processes could contribute to enhancing its therapeutic exploitation in clinical facilities with limited refrigeration conditions. Here, I discuss these research lines and how their timely conjunction can advance cancer therapy and prognosis.
Bioscience Reports; https://doi.org/10.1042/bsr20221546
Blocking of PD-1 or PD-L1 with corresponding antibody to enhance T cell response and mediate antitumor activity has been successfully applied in clinical practice. Several immune checkpoint inhibitors including monoclonal antibodies targeting PD-1 have been approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) in cancer immunotherapy. However, the application of traditional antibodies has limited due to their drawbacks of large molecular weight and low tissue penetration. As the high specificity and strong tissue penetration of nanobodies (Nbs), efforts have been taken to develop Nbs for cancer therapy. Herein, we aim to screen a specific Nb against human PD-1 derived from a naïve camel Nb phage display library and further study its biological characteristic and anti-tumor activity. Finally, an anti-PD-1 Nb with high specificity and affinity was screened and generated, its cytotoxicity and antitumor effect was also confirmed in vitro and vivo. All of these indicate that the anti-PD-1 Nb may provide an alternative and appealing therapeutic agent for cancer immunotherapy.
Bioscience Reports; https://doi.org/10.1042/bsr20220369
Photosystem I (PSI) with its associated light-harvesting system is the most important generator of reducing power in photosynthesis. The PSI core complex is highly conserved, whereas peripheral subunits as well as light-harvesting proteins (LHCI) reveal a dynamic plasticity. Moreover, in green alga, PSI-LHCI complexes are found as monomers, dimers and state transition complexes, where two LHCII trimers are associated. Herein, we show light-dependent phosphorylation of PSI subunits PsaG and PsaH as well as Lhca6. Potential consequences of the dynamic phosphorylation of PsaG and PsaH are structurally analyzed and discussed in regard to the formation of the monomeric, dimeric and LHCII associated PSI-LHCI complexes.
Bioscience Reports; https://doi.org/10.1042/bsr20221699
The lifetime risk for Type-2 diabetes mellitus remains higher in people with spinal cord injuries than in the able-bodied population. However, the mechanisms driving this disparity remain poorly understood. The goal of the current study was to evaluate the impact of a palatable high-fat diet (HFD) on glycemic regulation using a rodent model of moderate thoracic contusion. Animals were placed on either Chow or HFD and tolerance to glucose, insulin, and ENSURE mixed meal were investigated. Important targets in the gut-brain axis were investigated. HFD consumption equally induced weight gain in SCI and naïve rats over CH rats. Elevated blood glucose was observed during intraperitoneal GTT in HFD-fed rats over CH-fed rats. ITT was unremarkable amongst the three groups. Gavage of ENSURE resulted in high GLP-1 release from SCI rats over naïve controls. An elevation in terminal total GLP-1 was measured, with a marked reduction in circulating dipeptidyl peptidase 4 (DPP4), the GLP-1 cleaving enzyme, in SCI rats, compared to naïve. Increased glucagon mRNA in the pancreas and reduced immunoreactive glucagon-positive staining in the pancreas in SCI rats compared to controls suggested increased glucagon turnover. Finally, GLP-1 receptor gene expression in the ileum, the primary source of GLP-1 production and release, in SCI rats suggests the responsivity of the gut to altered circulating GLP-1 in the body. In conclusion, the actions of GLP-1 and its preprohormone, glucagon, are markedly uncoupled from their actions on glucose control in the SCI rat. More work is required to understand GLP-1 in the human.
Bioscience Reports, Volume 42; https://doi.org/10.1042/bsr20221165
Granzymes comprise a group of proteases involved in the killing of infected or cancerous cells by the immune system. Although best studied in T cells and natural killer (NK) cells, they are also expressed in some innate immune cells. Granzymes B and C are encoded in the mouse chymase locus that also encodes a number of mast cell-specific proteases. In line with this, mast cells can express granzyme B, although how this is regulated and their ability to express other granzymes is less well studied. We therefore examined how IL-33, a cytokine able to activate mast cells but not induce degranulation, regulated granzyme B and C levels in mast cells. Granzyme C, but not B, mRNA was strongly up-regulated in bone marrow-derived mast cells following IL-33 stimulation and there was a corresponding increase in granzyme C protein. These increases in both granzyme C mRNA and protein were blocked by a combination of the p38α/β MAPK inhibitor VX745 and the MEK1/2 inhibitor PD184352, which blocks the activation of ERK1/2. ERK1/2 and p38α activate the downstream kinases, mitogen and stress-activated kinases (MSK) 1 and 2, and IL-33 stimulated the phosphorylation of MSK1 and its substrate CREB in an ERK1/2 and p38-dependent manner. The promoter for granzyme C contains a potential CREB-binding site. Bone marrow-derived mast cells from either MSK1/2 double knockout or CREB Ser133Ala knockin mice were unable to up-regulate granzyme C. Together these results indicate that IL-33-induced granzyme C expression in mast cells is regulated by an MSK1/2-CREB-dependent pathway.
Bioscience Reports; https://doi.org/10.1042/bsr20221680
Cancer metastasis often leads to death and therapeutic resistance. This process involves the participation of a variety of cell components, especially cellular and intercellular communications in the tumor microenvironment (TME). Using genetic sequencing technology to comprehensively characterize the tumor and TME is therefore key to understanding metastasis and therapeutic resistance. The use of spatial transcriptome sequencing enables the localization of gene expressions and cell activities in tissue sections. By examining the localization change as well as gene expression of these cells, it is possible to characterize the progress of tumor metastasis and TME formation. With improvements of this technology, spatial transcriptome sequencing technology has been extended from local regions to whole tissues, and from single sequencing technology to multimodal analysis combined with a variety of datasets. This has enabled the detection of every single cell in tissue slides, with high resolution, to provide more accurate predictive information for tumor treatments. In this review, we summarize the results of recent studies dealing with new multimodal methods and spatial transcriptome sequencing methods in tumors, to illustrate recent developments in the imaging resolution of micro-tissues.
Bioscience reports; https://doi.org/10.1042/bsr20221713
DNA damage signaling response and repair (DDR) is a critical defense mechanism against genomic instability. Impaired DNA repair capacity is an important risk factor for cancer development. On the other hand, upregulation of DDR mechanisms is a feature of cancer chemotherapy and radiotherapy resistance. Advances in our understanding of DDR and its complex role in cancer has led to several translational DNA repair targeted investigations culminating in clinically viable precision oncology strategy using PARP inhibitors in breast, ovarian, pancreatic and prostate cancers. Whilst PARP directed synthetic lethality has improved outcomes for many patients, the lack of sustained clinical response and the development of resistance pose significant clinical challenges. Therefore, the search for additional DDR directed drug targets and novel synthetic lethality approaches is highly desirable and is an area of intense pre-clinical and clinical investigation. Here we provide an overview of the mammalian DNA repair pathways and then focus on current state of PARP inhibitors and other emerging DNA repair inhibitors for synthetic lethality in cancer.
Bioscience reports, Volume 42; https://doi.org/10.1042/bsr-2019-0680_ret
Bioscience reports, Volume 42; https://doi.org/10.1042/bsr20220285
The essential role of the endothelium in vascular homeostasis is associated with the release of endothelium-dependent relaxing and contractile factors (EDRF and EDCF, respectively). Different from arteries, where these factors are widely studied, the vasoactive factors derived from the venous endothelium have been given less attention. There is evidence for a role of the nitric oxide (NO), endothelium-dependent hyperpolarization (EDH) mechanism, and cyclooxygenase (COX)-derived metabolites as EDRFs; while the EDCFs need to be better evaluated since no consensus has been reached about their identity in venous vessels. The imbalance between the synthesis, bioavailability, and/or action of EDRFs and/or EDCFs results in a pathological process known as endothelial dysfunction, which leads to reduced vasodilation and/or increased vasoconstriction. In the venous system, endothelial dysfunction is relevant since reduced venodilation may increase venous tone and decrease venous compliance, thus enhancing mean circulatory filling pressure, which maintains or modify cardiac workload contributing to the etiology of cardiovascular diseases. Interestingly, some alterations in venous function appear at the early stages (or even before) the establishment of these diseases. However, if the venous endothelium dysfunction is involved in these alterations is not yet fully understood and requires further studies. In this sense, the present study aims to review the current knowledge on venous endothelial function and dysfunction, and the general state of the venous tone in two important cardiovascular diseases of high incidence and morbimortality worldwide: hypertension and heart failure.
Bioscience reports; https://doi.org/10.1042/bsr20211997
In healthy muscle, the rapid release of calcium ions (Ca2+) with excitation-contraction (E-C) coupling, results in elevations in Ca2+ concentrations which can exceed 10-fold that of resting values. The sizable transient changes in Ca2+ concentrations are necessary for the activation of signaling pathways which rely on Ca2+ as a second messenger, including those involved with force generation, fiber type distribution and hypertrophy. However, prolonged elevations in intracellular Ca2+ can result in the unwanted activation of Ca2+ signaling pathways that cause muscle damage, dysfunction, and disease. Muscle employs several calcium handling and calcium transport proteins that function to rapidly return Ca2+ concentrations back to resting levels following contraction. This review will detail our current understanding of calcium handling during the decay phase of intracellular calcium transients in healthy skeletal and cardiac muscle. We will also discuss how impairments in Ca2+ transport can occur and how mishandling of Ca2+ can lead to the pathogenesis and/or progression of skeletal muscle myopathies and cardiomyopathies.