SSRN Electronic Journal

Journal Information
ISSN / EISSN: 15353532 / 15565068
Published by: Elsevier BV
Total articles ≅ 596,249

Latest articles in this journal

Joshua Karton
Published: 1 October 2022
SSRN Electronic Journal; https://doi.org/10.2139/ssrn.4226289

Abstract:
Multi-tier dispute resolution agreements (also called escalation, step, stepped, cascading, or progressive clauses) are increasingly common in commercial contracts. Such clauses can have real value for parties but are also bedeviled by poor drafting and inconsistent judicial treatment. This article reviews the interpretation and enforcement of multi-tier agreements by Canadian courts, focusing in particular on agreements that culminate in arbitration, in order to derive actionable guidance for parties who are drafting or implementing such clauses, and for arbitrators and judges who are faced with them.
Hajime Shimao, Fei Huang
Published: 30 September 2022
SSRN Electronic Journal; https://doi.org/10.2139/ssrn.4225159

Abstract:
While the fairness and accountability in machine learning tasks have attracted attention from practitioners, regulators, and academicians for many applications, their consequence in terms of stakeholders' welfare is under-explored, especially via empirical studies and in the context of insurance pricing. In this paper, we develop a framework to evaluate the impact of various fairness and accountability regulations on both consumer welfare and firm profit. General insurance pricing is a complicated process that may involve cost modeling, demand modeling and price optimization, depending on the line of business and jurisdiction. The scope of this paper covers the entire insurance pricing process and associated existing and potential regulations on both cost modeling and pricing, which extends the existing work that mainly focuses on cost modeling (technical prices). We apply our approach to the data of auto insurance market and show that the accountability requirement incurs significant cost on the insurer and consumers. Fairness-aware ML algorithms on cost modeling cannot achieve fairness in the market price or welfare, while they significantly harm the insurer's profit and consumer welfare, particularly of females. Our results also demonstrate that the fairness and accountability constrains considered on the cost modeling or pricing alone cannot achieve individual-level fairness (such as the EU gender-neutral insurance pricing) unless we combine the price optimization ban with particular individual fairness notions in the cost prediction.
Leslie Katz
Published: 30 September 2022
SSRN Electronic Journal; https://doi.org/10.2139/ssrn.4217901

Abstract:
On five occasions in the Sherlock Holmes Canon, Holmes uses a map. All five of those occasions, three of them involving an ordnance map, are discussed. Also discussed are two occasions on which Holmes uses a gazetteer.
Nibha Bharti, Sugandha C Huria, Ashley Jose, Kanika Pathania
Published: 30 September 2022
SSRN Electronic Journal; https://doi.org/10.2139/ssrn.4224790

Abstract:
The sudden boom in the e-commerce sector (due to its key players) has been questioned in several economies in the world, particularly so in India. The country’s Traders associations have complained that the sector has been growing at the expense of the offline retail sector, primarily the MSMEs. In this context, this study is one of the first attempts to analytically evaluate the significance of booming online retail on India’s production economy (including both manufacturing and retail segments). The results indicate while e-commerce has assumed a significant role in positively impacting the sales of the overall retail and manufacturing sector of the country (on average) during the period 1992-2020, the same does not hold true for its MSMEs. The impact on MSMEs has been positive, though not significant – indicating the untapped potential for the country to take advantage of the growing online commerce. Similar results hold true for the overall retail and MSME retail when it comes to their GVC intensity. The findings advocate re-considering the country’s e-commerce policy, which is still in its draft stage presently.
Gururaj P, Abhinandan Kulal, Abhishek N, Swarn G Kanchan
Published: 29 September 2022
SSRN Electronic Journal; https://doi.org/10.2139/ssrn.4232723

Abstract:
Tulu language is the mother tongue of people in Karavali (costal) Karnataka. Theinscriptions started that land from Neeleshwara to Ankola as Tulu Rajya; hence there isa need to recognize the Tulu language. Languages are also prime vehicles of culturalexpressions and intangible cultural heritage, essential to the identity of individuals andgroups; safeguarding endangered tongues were crucial in maintaining cultural diversityworldwide. People who are well educated will have an interest in learning new andchallenging things. Paper made an earnest attempt to know the students’ interest inlearning Tulu script, Level of Awareness, and Attitude towards learning Tulu script. Thestudy was carried out in Karnataka by taking 400 students on a random basis. It foundthat there is a positive relation between Interest, Awareness, and Attitude.
Abhishek N, M. L. Ashok, Ambrish Singh, Parameshwar Acharya, Divyashree M. S.
Published: 29 September 2022
SSRN Electronic Journal; https://doi.org/10.2139/ssrn.4233252

Abstract:
Communication of high-quality business and financial information to decision-makers helps to get clear insights on the business outlook and assists them in making timely decisions. Financial reporting acts as a media to disseminate the information of the business to various interested parties by providing operating and financial insights through financial statements, notes to accounts and other footnotes and narratives in the Annual Business Report (ABR). Today stakeholders of the business are very keen in getting both financial and non-financial information in a single report i.e., ABR. Therefore, the companies are required to communicate enhanced information in their ABR to facilitate and assist the stakeholders in their decision-making process. The method of dissemination of both business and financial information in a single ABR is EBR Model (Enhanced Business Reporting Model). The EBR model of communication is only possible by the application of XBRL (Extensible Business Reporting Language). The purpose of present paper is to analyze the impact of XBRL on the quality of financial reporting. For this purpose, the study analyzed the financial reporting pattern of 23 select companies in India through the analysis of their annual reports from 2005 to 2020. To derive valid conclusions Tukey test, dummy variable regression analysis techniques were employed and concluded that XBRL has made a significant impact on the quality of financial reporting of select companies.
Robert W. McGee, Serkan Benk
Published: 28 September 2022
SSRN Electronic Journal; https://doi.org/10.2139/ssrn.4231721

Abstract:
This chapter summarizes the results of 7 studies that were conducted on the relationship between confidence in the police and attitude toward bribery. Additional summaries will be published in the second volume of this series, The Ethics of Bribery: Country Studies.
Ruichang Lu, Anand Srinivasan, Jingmeng Zhang, Xiaojun Zhang
Published: 28 September 2022
SSRN Electronic Journal; https://doi.org/10.2139/ssrn.4232200

Abstract:
We examine the effect of a firm’s political risk on its customer concentration. Using firm-level political risk measures, we find that suppliers' political risk leads to lower customer concentration. We address challenges to a causal interpretation of these findings by utilizing exogenous increases in political firms that are affected by redrawing of electoral district boundaries after the decennial census of 2010. Firms with higher default risk, less differentiated products as well as firms with a lower duration of relationships with their customers are more responsive to political risk by reducing their customer concentration. Overall, our empirical evidence indicates that political risk significantly a firm’s operational risk strategy in terms of managing its customer concentration risk.
Pietro Masina
Published: 28 September 2022
SSRN Electronic Journal; https://doi.org/10.2139/ssrn.4232222

Abstract:
At the 47th G7 summit held in Cornwall in June 2021, President Biden announced a US-led multilateral plan to counter the Chinese Belt and Road Initiative (BRI). This plan was named “Build Back Better World” (B3W), mimicking the Build Back Better initiative adopted at home by the Biden Administration to revive the post-Covid American economy. A few months later on 1 December 2021 the European Union launched its own response to the Chinese BRI with a 300-billion-euro project called Global Gateway, seemingly coordinated with the American B3W. This paper locates the two Western initiatives in the context of a global quest for hegemony in which China has successfully challenged the existing geopolitical frameworks in Africa, Latin America and – even more importantly – in East and Southeast Asia. The Belt and Road Initiative was announced by President Xi Jinping in 2013 as a modern Silk Road, making clear China’s ambition to return to its historical role as a world superpower. To improve infrastructure to facilitate world trade (and obviously trade with China) was the official aim of the ambitious plan. After almost a decade since its launch, however, it is evident that the project was not only about infrastructure. It responded to the needs of a rapidly expanding economy in transition from a global manufacturing hub to an industrially advanced country. The BRI simultaneously addressed three major challenges: finding profitable investment opportunities for the immense Chinese financial reserves of foreign currencies; securing strategic commodities; and opening new markets for Chinese exports. The BRI also was (and still is) a major international foreign policy initiative aimed at projecting China into a leadership role in a context of declining American hegemonic power. The American Build Back Better World (B3W) and the European Global Gateway will not only need to compete with China in terms of trade and infrastructure, but also with China’s quest for hegemony that sees its main leverage in her regional prominence in East Asia.
Robert W. McGee, Serkan Benk
Published: 28 September 2022
SSRN Electronic Journal; https://doi.org/10.2139/ssrn.4231725

Abstract:
This chapter summarizes the results of 6 studies that were conducted on the relationship between confidence in the justice system and attitude toward bribery. Additional summaries will be published in the second volume of this series, The Ethics of Bribery: Country Studies.
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