Journal of Marine Science and Engineering
Latest articles in this journal
Published: 3 June 2023
Journal of Marine Science and Engineering, Volume 11; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmse11061174
A Vessel Traffic Service (VTS) plays a central role in maritime traffic safety. Regulations are given by the International Maritime Organization (IMO) and Guidelines by the International Association of Marine Aids to Navigation and Lighthouse Authorities (IALA). Accordingly, VTS facilities utilize communication and sensor technologies such as an Automatic Identification System (AIS), radar, radio communication and others. Furthermore, VTS operators are motivated to apply Decision Support Tools (DST), since these can reduce workloads and increase safety. A promising type of DST is anomaly detection. This survey presents an overview of state-of-the-art approaches of anomaly detection for the surveillance of maritime traffic. The approaches are characterized in the context of VTS and, thus, most notably, sorted according to utilized communication and sensor technologies, addressed anomaly types and underlying detection techniques. On this basis, current trends as well as open research questions are deduced.
Journal of Marine Science and Engineering, Volume 11; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmse11061173
This paper proposes a novel motion-tracking control methodology for an underwater cable-driven parallel mechanism (CDPM) that achieves calculation of dynamic tension constraint values, tension planning, parameter linearization, and motion tracking. The control objective is divided into three sub-objectives: motion tracking, horizontal displacement suppression, and cable-tension restriction. A linear model predictive control (LMPC) method is designed to plan cable tensions for motion-tracking and displacement suppression. The robust adaptive backstepping controller converts cable tension into winch speed based on the joint-space method and command filtering. Moreover, the X−swapping method is used to linearize and identify the time−varying nonlinear parameters. An essential prerequisite for restricting cable tension is to obtain cable-tension constraint values. A novel dynamic minimum tension control (DMTC) method, based on the equivalent control concept, is proposed for this aim. The DMTC can adaptively obtain the lower cable-tension threshold through the platform posture and motion status, anchor distribution position, and cable integrity status. Compared to traditional fixed tension constraint values, DMTC can more effectively cope with sudden changes in cable tension than fixed tension constraints. Finally, several simulations are carried out to verify the effectiveness and robustness of the proposed approach.
Journal of Marine Science and Engineering, Volume 11; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmse11061172
Semidiurnal tidal currents can exceed 5 ms
in Minas Passage, Bay of Fundy, where a tidal energy demonstration area has been designated to generate electricity using marine hydrokinetic turbines. The risk of harmful fish–turbine interaction cannot be dismissed for either migratory or local fish populations. Individuals belonging to several fish populations were acoustically tagged and monitored by using acoustic receivers moored within the Minas Passage. Detection efficiency is required as the first step to estimate the probability of fish–turbine encounter. Moored Innovasea HR2 receivers and high-residency (HR) tags were used to obtain detection efficiency as a function of range and current speed, for near-seafloor signal paths within the tidal energy development area. Strong tidal currents moved moorings, so HR tag signals and their reflections from the sea surface were used to measure ranges from tags to receivers. HR2 self-signals that reflected off the sea surface showed which moorings were displaced to lower and higher levels on the seafloor. Some of the range testing paths had anomalously low , which might be attributed to variable bathymetry blocking the line-of-sight signal path. Clear and blocked signal paths accord with mooring levels. The application of is demonstrated for the calculation of abundance, effective detection range, and detection-positive intervals. High-residency signals were better detected than pulse position modulation (PPM) signals. Providing that the presently obtained applies to tagged fish that swim higher in the water column, there is a reasonable prospect that probability of fish–turbine encounter can be estimated by monitoring fish that carry HR tags.
Journal of Marine Science and Engineering, Volume 11; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmse11061171
The idea of this paper comes from the need for a practical layout design for the subsea pipe line network and the power transmission network of offshore wind farms with subsea cables, which are both subsea transmission networks with line-shaped conduction structures. In this paper, this practical need is treated as an location-allocation problem, with the objective of minimizing the total cost, and a mixed-integer linear programming model (MILP) for layout optimization is developed. Through the model, the locations of service centers and theit corresponding sizes, the allocations between customers and service centers, as well as the transmission routes can all be figured out. This work makes two key contributions. First, facilities’ capacity restrictions and the avoidance of subsea obstacles are both integrated, making the description of the layout closer to practical situations. Secondly, a “global to local” search process based on the Delaunay triangulation method is constructed to solve the model, resulting in a high-quality solution. An offshore field layout design scenario is taken as a case study, through which the validity, feasibility, and stability of the proposed model, as well as the solution strategy, are presented. Furthermore, in the case study, the effect of the manifold number on the layout optimization is analyzed, indicating the flexibility of the model’s applications.
Journal of Marine Science and Engineering, Volume 11; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmse11061170
This paper represents observations on detection of Very High Frequency (VHF) anomalous propagation over the area of the Adriatic Sea. During the research campaign, a Software Defined Radio (SDR) Automatic Identification System (AIS) receiver was employed for collection of AIS data packets at a fixed location in the Northern Adriatic. Data were collected during the 24-h period (25 February 2023 15:32 LT to 26 February 2023 15:32 LT), providing information from 115 AIS targets, or 159 965 AIS packets with 54.3% Packet Error Rate (PER), respectively. Subsequent analysis and post-processing of successfully demodulated signals and decoded packets was presented further. In certain instances, the SDR AIS receiver detected, received and decoded data packets from AIS targets distant several orders of magnitude larger than the VHF nominal ranges. To determine the magnitude of line-of-sight and over-the-horizon radio waves propagation, the great circle distances between the SDR AIS receiver antenna and AIS packets’ decoded positions were calculated, revealing hundreds of Nautical Miles (NM). Possible reasons for these occurrences, including tropospheric scattering, diffraction, ionospheric sporadic E layer and refraction were discussed and evaluated, in accordance, among others, with the previous research. By exclusion criteria and neglection of possible causes, it was concluded that the enhanced, over-the-horizon propagation of AIS signals occurred as a result of refraction effects, namely trapping/ducting, subrefraction and superrefraction. Data from nine World Meteorological Organization (WMO) radiosondes surrounding the greater reception area were collected for the same observation periods. Atmospheric profiles were created using Advanced Refractive Effects Prediction System (AREPS) program, and analysed for each individual station measurement. The results confirmed anomalous, over-the-horizon enhanced propagation and their probable origins, i.e., the occurrence of refractive conditions in the atmosphere over the Adriatic Sea area. These findings provide a solid foundation for further research in the area of propagation of VHF signals and their anomalous features caused by the atmospheric phenomenon effects.
Journal of Marine Science and Engineering, Volume 11; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmse11061169
Characterizing the electrical properties of hydrate-bearing sediments, especially resistivity, is essential for reservoir identification and saturation evaluation. The variation in electrical properties depends on the evolution of pore habits, which in turn are influenced by the hydrate growth pattern. To analyze the relationship between hydrate morphology and resistivity quantitatively, different micromorphologies of hydrates were simulated at the pore scale. This study was also conducted based on Maxwell’s equations for a constant current field. During numerical simulation, three types of hydrate occurrence patterns (grain-cementing, pore-filling and load-bearing) and five types of distribution morphologies (circle, square, square rotated by 45°, ellipse and ellipse rotated by 90°) in the pore-filling mode were considered. Moreover, the effects of porosity, the conductivity of seawater, the size of the pore-throat and other factors on resistivity are also discussed. The results show that the variation in resistivity with hydrate saturation can be broadly divided into three stages (basically no effect, slow change and rapid growth). Compared with the grain-cementing and pore-filling modes, the resistivity of the load-bearing mode was relatively high even when hydrate saturation was low. For high hydrate-saturated sediments (Sh > 0.4), the saturation exponent n in Archie equation was taken as 2.42 ± 0.2. The size of the throat is furthermore the most critical factor affecting resistivity. This work shows the potential application prospects of the fine reservoir characterization and evaluation of hydrate-bearing sediments.
Journal of Marine Science and Engineering, Volume 11; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmse11061168
Structural assessment is a main concern when designing and operating any sort of offshore structure. This assessment is meant to ensure that the structural integrity is preserved along the lifespan of the asset, withstanding the worst sea-states that will be encountered and making sure that the accumulated fatigue damage will not jeopardize its structural integrity neither. The purpose of this paper is to present a fast and reliable hydroelastic model. This model is based on time-domain tight-coupling of a three-dimensional FEM (finite element method) linear structural model and a three-dimensional FEM seakeeping hydrodynamics model. In order to reduce the computational cost of structural dynamic simulations, the high-fidelity structural solution is projected onto the modal basis to obtain the modal matrix system and to extend the response amplitude operators (RAO) to the modal responses (MRAO). From there, the number of structural degrees of freedom can be greatly reduced by retaining only those eigenmodes preserving most of the structural elastic energy. The use MRAOs and/or the large reduction in structural degrees of freedom allows us to: first, quickly analyse the large number of loadcases required on the design stage; and second, to implement a digital twin for structural health monitoring in operational conditions. The paper also presents an application case of the developed methodology.
Journal of Marine Science and Engineering, Volume 11; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmse11061167
This paper demonstrates the benefits that high-frequency surface wave radars (HFSWR) are bringing to maritime safety and security in off-shore activities at over the horizon distances. As a primary means for remote sensing of marine and maritime environment, a network of HFSWRs is deployed in the western part of the Gulf of Guinea and covers an area of over 100 km2. Alongside HFSWRs, usual maritime sensors are utilized for vessel tracking as well, however, only satellite automatic identification systems (SAIS) and land automatic identification systems (LAIS) are capable of covering over the horizon distances. Unfortunately, both LAIS and SAIS require vessel cooperation in order to provide any data, which is often abused by vessels conducting illegal activities. Here, analysis is done in which AIS and HFSWR data are compared in order to identify a pattern of behavior of non–cooperative vessels (vessels with onboard AIS devices turned off) so a proper risk assessment may be achieved. It is shown that typical patterns can be easily recognized for two illegal activities which plague the waters where this study is conducted. Those illegal activities are oil bunkering and piracy, both conducted off-shore and out of the reach of the usual coastal sensors such as X or S band radars. Furthermore, tracks created whilst conducting illegal activities are easily distinguishable from others in the overall operational picture. Additionally, it should be pointed out that numerous vessels are switching off their AIS devices when they leave the coastal regions in order to avoid detection by pirate vessels. This behavior can also be easily recognized and must not be mixed with the illegal activities mentioned above.
Journal of Marine Science and Engineering, Volume 11; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmse11061164
The increasing demand for safe and efficient maritime transportation has underscored the necessity of developing effective path-planning algorithms for Unmanned Surface Vehicles (USVs). However, the inherent complexities of the ocean environment and the non-holonomic properties of the physical system have posed significant challenges to designing feasible paths for USVs. To address these issues, a novel path planning framework is elaborately designed, which consists of an optimization model, a meta-heuristic solver, and a Clothoid-based path connector. First, by encapsulating the intricate nature of the ocean environment and ship dynamics, a multi-objective path planning problem is designed, providing a comprehensive and in-depth portrayal of the underlying mechanism. By integrating the principles of the candidate set random testing initialization and adaptive probability set, an enhanced genetic algorithm is devised to fully exploit the underlying optimization problem in constrained space, contributing to the global searching ability. Accounting for the non-holonomic constraints, the fast-discrete Clothoid curve is capable of maintaining and improving the continuity of the path curve, thereby promoting strong coordination between the planning and control modules. A thorough series of simulations and comparisons conducted in diverse ocean scenarios has conclusively demonstrated the effectiveness and superiority of the proposed path planning framework.
Journal of Marine Science and Engineering, Volume 11; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmse11061166
The concentrated inspection campaign (CIC) is a derivative of the port state control (PSC) supplement, which is a fixed single series of deficiency inspections performed for three consecutive months at the end of each year. This study used grey relational analysis (GRA) and the technique for order preference by similarity to ideal solution (TOPSIS) to analyze the data of 71,376 deficiency records with 496 deficiency codes and 21 ship types in the Paris MoU for the last three years so as to improve the existing focus inspection pattern, which uses only the most accumulated number of deficiency series of the previous year’s PSC inspection. It also combines the three-sigma rule to find the inspection items most likely to be found as deficient by the port state control officer (PFSO) of the member country and creates a new rolling CIC scheme with deficiency inspection data for the last three years, which can filter out the significant deficiency codes with high numbers of deficiency inspections and use them as a modified CIC. It can not only solve the existing CIC’s lack of thoroughness, but also avoid the problems of missing important inspection codes, missing substandard ships, and failing to meet the inspection consensus. The new CIC inspection mechanism created in this paper can indeed identify potential substandard ships more effectively and fill the inspection gap of the existing port state control.