Latest articles in this journal
Cureus, Volume 14; https://doi.org/10.7759/cureus.29522
Surgical aortic valve replacement (SAVR) is the current treatment of choice for good surgical candidates with moderate to severe symptomatic aortic stenosis (AS). As transcatheter aortic valvular replacement (TAVR) has shown an improved one and two-year all-cause mortality, it has been chosen for moderately symptomatic severe AS patients. The purpose of this review was to perform a clinical comparison of TAVR vs. SAVR and to analyze the Health Index Factor (HIF) that makes TAVR a treatment of choice in asymptomatic AS patients. An extensive literature search of PubMed, Cochrane, and Embase databases was performed using the keywords “Aortic stenosis”, “SAVR”, “TAVR”, and “Asymptomatic”. A total of 45 prospective randomized clinical trials in the English language that were published from the year 2000 onwards were included in the final analysis. It has been found that 59.3% of asymptomatic AS patients are likely to die in the next five years without proactive treatment. Multiple studies have proven that early intervention with aortic valve replacement is superior to conservative treatment in severe asymptomatic AS; however, the choice between SAVR and TAVR is not well established. The NOTION Trial, SURTAVI Trail, and PARTNER 3 study have shown the non-inferiority of TAVR over SAVR, during one-year follow-up for low surgical risk patients. Evolut Low-Risk study and Early TAVR are the only two prospective studies performed to date that have enrolled patients with asymptomatic severe AS. The Evolut Trial demonstrated no difference in all-cause mortality at 30 days (1.3% vs. 4.8%. p=0.23), and 12 days (1.3% vs. 6.5%, p=0.11). Additionally, TAVR also decreases the risk of post-procedural atrial fibrillation, acute kidney injury (AKI), and rehospitalization, and leads to significant improvement in the mean trans-aortic pressure gradient. TAVR also showed marked improvement in the 30-day Quality of Life (QOL) index, where SAVR did not report any significant change in the QOL index. However, the official recommendations of Early TAVR are still awaited. TAVR has consistently shown a statistically non-significant difference in case mortality, risk of stroke, and rehospitalization with moderate to high surgical risk patients whereby recent initial trials have shown significant improvement in the QOL index and hemodynamic index for patients with asymptomatic disease. More extensive studies are required to prove the risk stratifications, long-term outcomes, and clinical characteristics that would make TAVR a preferred intervention in asymptomatic patients.
Cureus, Volume 14; https://doi.org/10.7759/cureus.29533
Gene therapy has been one of the most researched topics in the last decade. It has now become a revolutionized therapeutic tool of modern medicine. Gene therapy is the alteration of the defective gene involved in the disease process in the host cells. It delivers therapeutic genetic information via modified viral or non-viral vectors. Ocular gene therapy, in particular, has progressed in treating inherited retinal diseases since the eye is a favourable organ for gene therapy development. The advantage of the eye as a target for gene therapy is attributed to its easy accessibility and blood-ocular barrier. Several ongoing clinical trials are investigating various gene therapies for other ocular diseases, including neovascular age-related macular degeneration, retinitis pigmentosa (RP), Usher syndrome, glaucoma, and several others. However, there are challenges such as ocular inflammation and humoral response, infection by the viral vectors, and insertional mutagenesis. These limitations depend on several factors; whether viral or non-viral vectors are used, which viral vectors were used, the route of administration, whether subretinal, intravitreal, or suprachoroidal, and the dose of vectors and the target tissue. These complications may lead to therapeutic failure and vision loss due to intraocular inflammation. This review aims to summarize existing knowledge about ocular gene therapy and the associated limitations we face, with a special focus on a few ongoing clinical trials.
Cureus, Volume 14; https://doi.org/10.7759/cureus.29538
Colonic bezoar is a rare condition of accumulation of foreign bodies or non-nutritious material in the large intestine, usually presenting with symptoms of obstruction. Colonic lithobezoar is an even more rare type of condition with only 12 cases reported in the literature to date. We present a case of a young, intellectually disabled kid, who was diagnosed incidentally with lithobezoar after a road traffic accident. The first-line treatment for uncomplicated non-obstructed bezoar is a medical treatment with laxatives and fluids. For acutely obstructed bezoars, the treatment of choice is evacuation under general anesthesia. Surgical evacuation may be considered a last resort in complicated or refractory cases. Moreover, regardless of obstruction, all cases must be treated as inpatients and must receive a psychiatric and hematologic evaluation.
Cureus, Volume 14; https://doi.org/10.7759/cureus.29532
The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic resulted in a lockdown in South East Scotland on 23 March 2020. This had an impact on the volume of benign elective surgery able to be undertaken. The degree to which this reduced hernia surgery was unknown. The aim of this study was to review the hernia surgery workload in the Lothian region of Scotland and assess the impact of COVID-19 on hernia surgery. The Lothian Surgical Audit database was used to identify all elective and emergency hernia operations over a six-month period from 23 March 2020 and for the same time period in 2019. Data were collected on age, gender, anatomical location of the hernia, hernia repair technique, and whether elective or emergency operation. Statistical analysis was performed using the chi-squared test in R-Studio, with a p-value of <0.05 accepted as statistically significant. The total number of hernia repairs reduced considerably between 2019 and 2020 (570 vs 149). The majority of this can be explained by a decrease in elective operating (488 vs 87), with the percentage of elective repairs reducing significantly from 85.6% to 58.4% (p<0.001). The inguinal hernia subgroup had a 24% rise in emergency operations from 21 to 26 operations, despite a reduction from 270 to 84 total inguinal repairs. There were just two elective hernia repairs carried out in the first three months of the 2020 study period (5.6% of all operations for April-June) compared to 265 (87.7%) for the same period in 2019 (p<0.001). No statistically significant differences were observed in the rates of laparoscopic versus open operating techniques across the two study periods on any analysis. The age and gender of the patients were similar over the two time periods. The COVID-19 pandemic led to a marked reduction in the number of elective hernia repairs (especially incisional hernia surgery), with the effect most pronounced over the first three months of lockdown. Despite an overall reduction in total emergency operative figures, possibly due to more widespread use of non-operative strategies, there was still an increase in emergency inguinal hernia repairs during the lockdown. Further studies are needed to evaluate if the delays to elective operating will result in a long-term increase in the rates of emergency presentation.
Cureus, Volume 14; https://doi.org/10.7759/cureus.29543
Background: Studies exploring factors predicting postoperative ICU requirement in patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19)-associated mucormycosis (CAM) were not found in the literature. The aim was to evaluate the demographic profile, comorbidities, pattern of steroid received, airway assessment, and intraoperative hemodynamic perturbations associated with ICU requirement amongst patients scheduled for sinonasal debridement. Methods: This is a retrospective cohort study. All CAM patients of ≥18 years were included. The patients’ characteristics, comorbidities, pattern of steroid received, airway assessment, intraoperative hemodynamic perturbations, and outcome data were retrieved. Results: A total of 130 patients were included. Thirty got admitted to ICU, out of which 26 expired. Amongst the various comorbidities, diabetes was the most common (93.85%) and was associated with higher chances of ICU requirement. Of patients with a history of steroid intake, 71% had a significantly higher risk of ICU admission. Out of 30 patients admitted to ICU, 87% (n=26) received invasive ventilation, and the rest were admitted for observation only. Conclusion: Middle age, uncontrolled diabetes, history of steroid intake, increased levels of serum creatinine with low potassium, and increased total leucocyte count are the independent risk factors predicting postoperative ICU admission amongst patients with CAM scheduled for sinonasal debridement.
Cureus, Volume 14; https://doi.org/10.7759/cureus.29523
A limited soft tissue injury known as Morel-Lavallée syndrome is brought on by the violent segregation of the dermis and subcutaneous tissue layer. Shear injury causes perforating arteries and lymphatics to burst, potentially releasing serosanguinous fluid, blood, and necrotic fat into the area. Morel-Lavallée lesions (MLL) can be accompanied by pelvic or acetabular fractures or by blunt trauma without a fracture. MLL is distinguished by enlargement, tightness, and tenderness of tissue. The skin around the lesion is frequently associated with diminished sensory perception. Plain radiography, USG, CT scan, and MRI are some of the imaging modalities that can be utilized. MLLs have a distinct location in the US, anterior to the muscle layer and posterior to the hypodermis. Morel-Lavallée lesions are frequently associated with complications as a result of delayed or inappropriate diagnosis. Surgical drainage and debridement are the standard surgical treatments for the lesion. Physiotherapy rehabilitation helps in reducing pain and regaining functional activities after the syndrome. This documentation includes the case of a 55-year-old male patient who had complaints of difficulty in moving their left leg and inability to walk. The patient was diagnosed with Morel-Lavallée syndrome left thigh and was advised physiotherapy. This study found that by employing strengthening exercises and other physical therapy interventions, after four weeks of therapy, joint degree of movement, muscular strength, and daily functioning, as well as cardiovascular and pulmonary capabilities all significantly improved.
Cureus, Volume 14; https://doi.org/10.7759/cureus.29529
Displaced fractures of the neck of femur in elderly patients usually require surgical intervention, with either bipolar hemiarthroplasty (BHA) or total hip replacement (THR). However, there is still controversy regarding the optimal prosthesis. The present study was performed to compare the functional outcome of BHA versus THR in elderly patients with displaced fracture of the neck of femur. This prospective study was conducted between December 2019 and December 2021. This study included 40 patients with displaced fracture of the neck of femur. All patients were more than 60 years of age. The patients were randomly allocated to be treated with either BHA or THR. Functional assessment was done using Harris hip scores at one month, three months, six months, and one year postoperatively. In our study, at all follow-ups, the Harris hip score was found to be more in patients in the THR group than in the BHA group. In the BHA group, the mean Harris hip scores were 59.95, 66.25, 68.80, and 75.70 at the follow-up visits at one month, three months, six months, and one year, respectively, while in the THR group, the mean Harris hip scores were 65.06, 69.40 72.50, and 78.19, respectively. THR is a better option as compared to BHA in the management of elderly patients with fracture of the neck of femur on account of less complication rates and higher Harris hip scores.
Cureus, Volume 14; https://doi.org/10.7759/cureus.29539
The novel coronavirus SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19) affects all three branches of Virchow's triad. It increases the risk of thrombosis and thromboembolic events. Pulmonary embolism and stroke are most commonly reported. However, there is an increasing number of cases demonstrating thrombosis in otherwise uncommon anatomical areas. In this presentation, we will explore the potential causes of pulmonary vein thrombosis secondary to COVID-19.
Cureus, Volume 14; https://doi.org/10.7759/cureus.29545
Superficial abscesses are common surgical emergencies and unless complicated, are considered a low-priority emergency often leading to delayed primary treatment. Patients who are clinically stable benefit more from an ambulatory-care approach to their treatment. This is a retrospective study to investigate the current practice of treatment of superficial abscesses at West Suffolk Hospital, United Kingdom, and evaluate the potential impact of implementing care via the ambulatory pathway to improve patients' experience, optimise the use of hospital resources and identify areas for service improvement. A total of 76 patients who required inpatient care for drainage of their superficial abscess under general anaesthesia over six months were a part of the study. Admission, procedure, and hospital stay characteristics were evaluated as well as our proposed superficial abscess ambulatory-care pathway (SAAP) criteria. The mean age was 39 ± 18 years. Perianal and pilonidal abscesses accounted for 53% of the procedures. Only 24% of the patients had a C-reactive protein (CRP) >100 at admission. The average waiting time before intervention was 19 hours (± 16.25) with patients spending two days on average in the hospital for a procedure that lasted an average of 31 minutes. Overall, 39.5% of the patients received drainage of their abscess on the same day of presentation to the hospital with only five discharges on the same day of admission. Of the total patients, 52.6% met our SAAP criteria for ambulatory care and could have avoided inpatient care and benefitted from same-day discharges. Ambulatory care of a superficial abscess is a safe, feasible approach. We recommend establishing an ambulatory care pathway for the management of superficial abscess cases with our SAAP criteria serving as a useful objective guide for effective and safe triage of patients with reduced hospital stay and more efficient utilisation of resources.
Cureus, Volume 14; https://doi.org/10.7759/cureus.29525
Lisfranc injury is extremely rare in the pediatric population and little evidence exists to guide the treatment at this age. We present a clinical case of a rare Lisfranc fracture-dislocation at pediatric age. An 11-year-old male was admitted to the emergency department, in October 2020, after a motorcycle incident. He was diagnosed with a Lisfranc fracture-dislocation of the right foot: Myerson type B2. Fourteen days after the injury, he underwent surgical treatment with open reduction and internal fixation with 3.5 mm solid fully threaded screws. At 18 months postoperative, the patient was asymptomatic, didn’t present any limitations, presented an American Orthopedic Foot and Ankle Score (AOFAS) midfoot score of 93%, and excellent results of the 12-Item Short Form Survey (SF-12) - PCS-12 (Physical Score): 52.52277 and MCS-12 (Mental Score): 62.12820. The foot maintained a good configuration without significant malalignment, however, a screw breakage occurred before the implant removal, and a premature physeal arrest developed on the base of the first metatarsal bone. Clinical and radiographic evaluation of Lisfranc injuries may be challenging in the pediatric population. Regarding the treatment, anatomical alignment is mandatory, and good or excellent outcomes have been achieved with anatomical reduction and internal fixation. We recommend early implant removal to avoid screw breakage and avoid the use of screws in the first metatarsal physis, due to the risk of premature physeal arrest.