Onderstepoort Journal of Veterinary Research
ISSN / EISSN: 00302465 / 22190635
Published by: AOSIS Open Journals
Total articles ≅ 2,160
Latest articles in this journal
Published: 8 November 2022
ONDERSTEPOORT Journal of Veterinary Research, Volume 89; https://doi.org/10.4102/ojvr.v89i1.2042
The Onderstepoort Journal of Veterinary Research (OJVR), is the official publication of the Onderstepoort Veterinary Institute. It publishes scientific papers reporting original research on diseases and disease vectors of livestock and wildlife with a focus on Africa, but with results of more than local interest.
Published: 30 September 2022
ONDERSTEPOORT Journal of Veterinary Research, Volume 89; https://doi.org/10.4102/ojvr.v89i1.2006
Published: 23 September 2022
ONDERSTEPOORT Journal of Veterinary Research, Volume 89; https://doi.org/10.4102/ojvr.v89i1.2010
Published: 9 September 2022
ONDERSTEPOORT Journal of Veterinary Research, Volume 89; https://doi.org/10.4102/ojvr.v89i1.2011
Published: 31 August 2022
ONDERSTEPOORT Journal of Veterinary Research, Volume 89; https://doi.org/10.4102/ojvr.v89i1.1970
Published: 21 July 2022
ONDERSTEPOORT Journal of Veterinary Research, Volume 89; https://doi.org/10.4102/ojvr.v89i1.2007
Published: 10 January 2022
Onderstepoort Journal of Veterinary Research, Volume 89; https://doi.org/10.4102/ojvr.v89i1.2067
Water quality is critical for poultry farming. This study assessed the physical, chemical and microbiological quality of drinking water in small-layer farms in Southern Mozambique and identified potential risk factors for total coliform (TC) and Escherichia coli contamination of drinking water. In 20 farms, 57 samples were collected and examined for pH, nitrate content (NC), nitrite level (NL) and total hardness contents (TH). Furthermore, TC and E. coli growth were assessed at 37 °C. One hundred per cent of the drinking water was of acceptable quality in terms of pH (6.5–8.5), NC (50 mg/L) and NL (3 mg/L). Total hardness contents exceeded the recommended standard in 37.5% of borehole water samples and 91.7% of tap water samples, respectively. Total coliform and E. coli were found in 40% and 15% of water samples. Tap water samples had the greatest contamination, with TC and E. coli levels of 41.7% and 16.7%, respectively. Although not statistically significant, sampling from the beginning of the nipple line (p = 0.101, OR = 7.357, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.678–79.886) and not cleaning the rearing equipment regularly (p = 0.098, OR = 3.966, 95% CI: 0.766–20.280) were factors affecting the TC growth. Sampling from the tank water source (p = 0.001, OR = 0.005, 95% CI: 0.000–0.121) and borehole water source (OR = 13 585) and not cleaning the equipment consistently (p = 0.073, OR = 9.682, 95% CI: 0.810–115.68) were all factors affecting E. coli growth. It is concluded that the TH and microbiological quality of the drinking water of the study region are inadequate. Regular water quality assessments should be incorporated into Mozambican layer farm management to limit the potential for health concerns, and farmers should thoroughly clean and disinfect their rearing equipment. Contribution: We should incorporate regular water quality assessments into Mozambican layer farm management to limit the potential for health concerns, and farmers should thoroughly clean and disinfect their rearing equipment.
Published: 10 January 2022
ONDERSTEPOORT Journal of Veterinary Research, Volume 89; https://doi.org/10.4102/ojvr.v89i1.2021
Detailed information on specific species of non-aureus staphylococci (NAS) has become a necessity for effective udder health control programs in South Africa. The main objective of this preliminary study was to identify the different NAS species and strains present in dairy herds in South Africa using a cost-effective method. A further objective was to investigate the effects of cow risk factors and farming systems on the NAS isolates identified. A total of 214 NAS, isolated from milk collected from 17 South African dairy herds, were identified using three diagnostic tests (API Staph test, MALDI-TOF and 16s rRNA). There was a good observed agreement between the MALDI-TOF and 16S rRNA sequencing (92.2%) and a poor observed agreement between the MALDI-TOF and API Staph (25.7%). The genetic relatedness within species was investigated in 128 of these isolates using random polymorphic amplified deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) (RAPD), verified by multilocus sequence typing (MLST), and phylogenetic analysis and cow risk factors were investigated on species level. The main NAS species isolated were Staphylococcus chromogenes (75.2%), Staphylococcus epidermidis (9.4%) and Staphylococcus haemolyticus (8.9%). The RAPD test identified 34 Staphylococcus chromogenes, 13 Staphylococcus epidermidis and nine Staphylococcus haemolyticus strains, indicating genetic diversity amongst strains and herds. The presence of NAS intramammary infections was found to be significantly related to the farming systems, composite cow milk somatic cell count (SCC), parity and days in milk (DIM). Significantly more NAS were isolated from primiparous and from older cows. This knowledge could assist with the management of NAS on dairy farms.
Published: 10 January 2022
ONDERSTEPOORT Journal of Veterinary Research, Volume 89; https://doi.org/10.4102/ojvr.v89i1.1978
Diclofenac was responsible for the decimation of Gyps vulture species on the Indian subcontinent during the 1980s and 1990s. Gyps vultures are extremely sensitive (the lethal dose 50 [LD50] ~ 0.1 mg/kg – 0.2 mg/kg), with toxicity appearing to be linked to metabolic deficiency, demonstrated by the long T1/2 (~12 h – 17 h). This is in striking comparison to the domestic chicken (Gallus gallus domesticus), in which the LD50 is ~10 mg/kg and the T1/2 is ~1 h. The phase 1 cytochrome P450 (CYP) 2C subfamily has been cited as a possible reason for metabolic deficiency. The aim of this study was to determine if CYP2C9 homolog pharmacogenomic differences amongst avian species is driving diclofenac toxicity in Gyps vultures. We exposed each of 10 CYP-inhibited test group chickens to a unique dose of diclofenac (as per the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development [OECD] toxicity testing guidelines) and compared the toxicity and pharmacokinetic results to control group birds that received no CYP inhibitor. Although no differences were noted in the LD50 values for each group (11.92 mg/kg in the CYP-inhibited test group and 11.58 mg/kg in the control group), the pharmacokinetic profile of the test group was suggestive of partial inhibition of CYP metabolism. Evaluation of the metabolite peaks produced also suggested partial metabolic inhibition in test group birds, as they produced lower amounts of metabolites for one of the three peaks demonstrated and had higher diclofenac exposure. This pilot study supports the hypothesis that CYP metabolism is varied amongst bird species and may explain the higher resilience to diclofenac in the chicken versus vultures.
Published: 10 January 2022
ONDERSTEPOORT Journal of Veterinary Research, Volume 89; https://doi.org/10.4102/ojvr.v89i1.1968
Aflatoxins are potent hepatotoxic and carcinogenic secondary metabolites produced by toxigenic fungi. The present study investigated the protective effect of methanolic leaf extracts of Monanthotaxis caffra (MLEMC) against aflatoxin B1-induced toxicity in male Sprague-Dawley rats. The rats were randomly divided into 6 groups of 8 animals each. Five groups were administered orally for seven days with three different concentrations of MLEMC (100 mg/kg, 200 mg/kg and 300 mg/kg), curcumin (10 mg/kg) or vehicle (25% propylene glycol). The following day, these groups were administered 1 mg/kg b.w. of aflatoxin B1 (AFB1). The experiment was terminated three days after administration of AFB1. Group 6 represented untreated healthy control. Serum aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, alkaline phosphatase, lactate dehydrogenase, creatinine and liver histopathology were evaluated. Methanolic leaf extracts of M. caffra decreased the levels of aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, lactate dehydrogenase and creatinine in the sera of rats as compared with the AFB1 intoxicated group. Co-administration of MLEMC improved the histological characteristics of the hepatocytes in contrast to the AFB1 treated group, which had mild to severe hepatocellular injuries including bile duct proliferation, bile duct hyperplasia, lymphoplasmacytic infiltrate and fibrosis. Extracts of M. caffra were beneficial in mitigating the hepatotoxic effects of AFB1 in rats by reducing the levels of liver enzymes and preventing hepatic injury.