Animal Husbandry of the Steppe of Ukraine

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ISSN / EISSN: 27866750 / 27866769
Total articles ≅ 39

Latest articles in this journal

S. F. Аntonenko, V. I. Pyskun
Animal Husbandry of the Steppe of Ukraine, Volume 1, pp 50-59;

The article examines the problem of forming groups of heifers in the dairy period in order to obtain cows with high milk productivity, as increasing milk production is an important and complex problem of agricultural science and practice. The results of a study on improving the breeding of heifers of the Ukrainian black-and-white dairy breed in the conditions of the State Enterprise "Kutuzivka" of Kharkiv region are presented.Scientific and economic research was focused on substantiating the effectiveness of the influence of different numbers of heifers in the technological group on their growth and development in the milk period of ontogenesis. It was found that the actual difference in feed consumption in each series of experiments between animals in each group of 5-10-15-20 heads and a den area of 1.8 m2-2.2 m2 on deep straw litter was not. And when comparing technological groups of 5-20, 10-20, 15-20 heads, differences were revealed. In the production conditions of the dairy complex of SE Kutuzivka of Kharkiv region, the experiment was conducted in the spring-summer period. The experimental groups were formed as follows: for research, four technological groups of heifers with a population of 5, 10, 15 and 20 heads in each were selected, which were kept on a deep straw litter with a den area of one head 1.8–2.0 – 2.2 m2. It is experimentally proven that the use of growing heifers from 10 days of age to 6 months. loose on a deep straw litter in group sections of 5, 10 and 15 heads compared to the counterparts of 20 heads, contributed to an increase in live weight gain on average during the experiment by 20.5-22.5 % (P <0.05) . It is established that the technology of cultivation in the spring-summer period in the premises of light type contributes to the increase of the average daily increase from 27.2% to 30.3 % (P <0.05). Under these conditions of growing heifers in the technological groups of 5, 10 and 15 heads in comparison with the analogues of the group of 20 heads there was a reduction in feed consumption per 1 kg of live weight gain by 20.4 –26.5 %. Analysis of the results on the formation of technological groups of heifers in the production conditions of the dairy complex showed that the maintenance of heifers in the technological group of 15 heads and an area of 1.8 m2 per head is the best. Since the results of the comparative analysis of the complex efficiency of each of the options N(Ck)compared to the idealized, showed a significant advantage of this option, for which the target function according to the considered criteria was lower and was 0.0894. Other options were 1.0381 – 3.5839 times worse.
M. D. Berezovskyiy,
Animal Husbandry of the Steppe of Ukraine, Volume 1, pp 103-113;

The results of the study of the genealogical structure and the current state of productivity of various structural elements of the "Bagachanskyi" factory type ten years after its approval and approval are presented. The research was conducted in the conditions of the large white breeding plant of PAF "Ukraine" of the Poltava region and in the selection laboratory of the Institute of Pig Breeding and Agro-Industrial Production. The purpose of the research was to develop a program of selection measures to increase the productivity of pigs of the factory type "Bagachanskyi" of the large white breed. It was established that compared to 2015, the share of animals imported from other farms decreased from 4.3% to zero in sow pedigrees, and from 27.5% to zero in boar pedigrees.This is due to the fact that PAF "Ukraine" acquired the status of a breeding farm, and the pig herd of this farm was involved in the creation and approval of the factory type of pigs "Bagachanskyi". Therefore, after 2010, the importation of boars from other farms took place in a limited number and exclusively for breeding purposes, and after 2014, the stud farm completely switched to self-repair not only with pigs, but also with boars. Thanks to the purposeful breeding work in the herd on development indicators and meat qualities, the consolidation of repair young animals according to these characteristics reached the maximum level (the coefficient of variation is in the range from 0.33 to 1.62%).At the same time, the absence of a significant difference between families complicates the breeding work and reduces the opportunities for intrabreedheterosis. The use of index selection, including based on linear BLUP models, contributed to the achievement of a high level of indicators of reproductive qualities (+14.8-16.0% compared to the requirements for the elite class) without deterioration of indicators based on the characteristics of bacon thickness and the age of reaching a weight of 100 kg . When evaluating the genotype by the BLUP method, it was found that the most productive offspring in terms of reproductive qualities are predicted to be obtained from sows of the Ella family. At the same time, the most significant improvement will occur at the expense of the trait of nest mass, while the sows of the Beatrice family have the highest genetic potential for multifertility. Among boars, the Slavutych line is characterized by the best BLUP breeding value index.
V. S. Kozyr, V. I. Petrenko, A. N. Maistrenko, G. G. Dimchya
Animal Husbandry of the Steppe of Ukraine, Volume 1, pp 95-102;

In red steppe cattle with duodenal and ileocecal anastomoses when fed isoenergetic, isoprotein hay-concentrate rations with different levels of soluble protein (SR), the digestibility of dry matter (SR), crude ash (CW) and crude fat (CW) was studied separately in a complex stomach , small (TnK) and large (TsK) intestinal sections. Different amounts of RchSP in the rations were achieved by feeding grist from natural and roasted peas at a temperature of 105°C. When feeding the experimental ration with a reduced level of RchSP against the background of a decrease in the apparent intensity of digestion, which was manifested in a smaller amount of duodenal and ileocecal chyme, significant changes in the digestibility of SR, SZ and SZ were observed in the postruminal sections of the gastrointestinal tract. According to the general digestibility of SR in the entire alimentary canal and prestomach, in the small and large intestines, there were different directions and degrees of changes in the experimental and control diets. The digestibility of SZ, while being the same in the entire alimentary canal, differed most significantly between rations in the complex stomach and TsK, less so in TnK. On the experimental diet, absorption of dietary fiber in the small and large intestines was 18% lower. The actual level of digestibility of dietary fiber in the animal body did not correspond to the value determined by the formula "feed minus feces" and was 2 times higher in the control diet and 1.4 times higher in the experimental diet. The assimilation of dietary fiber in the studied rations in the alimentary canal had a multidirectional character and, in general, was lower in the experimental ration. The actual digestibility of dietary fiber, compared to the "visible" digestibility of the control diet, was 17% higher, and the experimental diet was 3% lower.
V. V. Vlizlo, M. I. Sedilo
Animal Husbandry of the Steppe of Ukraine, Volume 1, pp 90-94;

The article presents the results of research on the content of trace elements: Cobalt, Zinc, Copper and Manganese in the soils, fodder and blood of cows of the black and spotted Ukrainian breed in farms from the mountain, foothill and plain zones of the Western region of Ukraine. The western biogeochemical zone of Ukraine includes Zakarpattia, Lviv, Chernivtsi, Ternopil, Volyn and Rivne regions. It was established (mg per 1 kg of soil) that the amount of Cobalt was 0.5 mg/kg; Cuprum – 7.2; Zinc – 3.1; Manganese – 6.5; in the foothills – Cobalt – 0.6; Cuprum – 4.5; Zinc – 1.8; Manganese – 32; in the plain – Cobalt – 0.55; Cuprum – 5.0; Zinc – 1.5; Manganese – 39. During the analysis of the rations, it was established that the provision of other mineral substances did not meet the physiological needs. Thus, in the diets of cows from mountain, foothill and plain regions, an excess of Calcium, Magnesium, Potassium and Ferrum and a deficiency of Phosphorus, Sulfur, Zinc, Cobalt, Iodine and Copper were observed. Clinical studies of cows indicate the prevalence of trace element diseases in them. Anemia of visible mucous membranes and non-pigmented areas of the skin was recorded in cows, the number of erythrocytes in animals of the mountain zone was 5.7±0.29 T/l, in the foothills – 5.8±0.29, and in the plains – 6.2±0.30 T / l. The hemoglobin content in the blood of cows in the mountain zone was at the level of 97.0±5.40 g/l, in the foothills – 94.0±5.30, and in the plain zone – 98.0±3.70 g/l. Physiological values of the number of erythrocytes in the blood of cows range from 5.0–7.5 T/l, and the hemoglobin content – 95–125 g/l.
, K. V. Garmatyuk
Animal Husbandry of the Steppe of Ukraine, Volume 1, pp 114-123;

The article presents the results of studies concerning pigs’ productivity for purebred breeding and innovative approaches to crossbreeding schemes in the South of Ukraine. In general, sows of all experimental groups had high productivity both in purebred breeding and because of combining different forms with each other however there was no heterosis effect on the sows’ multiplicity in crossbreeding of Large White breed and the complexity of combining the sows of hybrid origin. Young hybrid animals of experimental groups reached a live weight of 100 kg sooner for 2.6-16.4 days or 1.4-8.9 % and feed costs were lower 0.12-0.34 feed units or 3.4-9.7 % per 1 kg gain during the fattening period. The obtained results show that the proposed production of final hybrids with a conditional proportion of blood landrace Ч large white in terms of live weight is the most successful and adapted to the technology of moderate intensity. The use of purebred and local animals related to the so-called "White breeds" - Large White and Landrace, is characterized by increased intensity of formation and indices of growth stress. The obtained results additionally confirm the complexity of adaptation of non-ferrous breeds (Duroc and especially Pietrain breeds) to the technological conditions of domestic pork farms. Young pigs were obtained in combinations where the parental form was the breed: Large White, Landrace or Duroc had the best exterior features that characterize the development of animals in length. In combinations where the parent form was the Pietrain breed, the latitudinal measurements and the meat index were improved against the background of a decrease in body length. A morphological study of carcasses of young pig stock of different origin has proved that implementation of up-to-date crossbreeding schemes with the use of meat-type breeds as paternal lines results in improved carcass dressing percentage and optimised lean-to-fat ratio. As evident out of the physical and chemical analysis of pork obtained from pigs of different breed-of-origin, all investigated parameters are within the current physiological limits. Most parameters have shown no significant difference, though tended to exhibit some peculiarities associated with the impact of genotype on the manifestation of one or another physical or chemical characteristic. The use of Pietrain breed as a sire line results in decreased intramuscular fat content, and hence the energy value of pork, with the back fat having the highest melting point which is indicative of its enhanced storability, though slightly impaired cooking properties as compared to similar products obtained from the offspring of the Large White and Landrace parents. With respect to its pH level and water-holding capacity, the pork from Pietrain-sired offspring is quite similar to PSE (Pale, Soft, Exudative) meat being slightly less tender and paler in colour and exhibiting greater weight loss during thermal processing. Also, a comprehensive sensory evaluation of boiled pork and pork broth obtained from a group of the Pietrain-sired young stock has got the lowest score, which is consistent with most of the physical and chemical properties of pork from pigs of this genotype; therefore, it is 75% purebred Landrace that should be favoured as a terminal sire line in crossbreeding programmes in order to obtain pork and bacon of improved quality in intensive commercial swine production systems. It is recommended to preliminary combine Pietrain and Duroc lines to produce terminal sires (Pietrain Ч Duroc) which will be further mated with two-breed-cross dams (LW Ч L).
P. M. Sklyarov, S. Ya. Fedorenko, S. V. Naumenko
Animal Husbandry of the Steppe of Ukraine, Volume 1, pp 193-200;

The aim of the work was to develop methods for the prevention of reproductive pathologies using drugs containing nanobiomaterials. This is due to the fact that the physiological functioning of the reproductive organs is rich in the state of the antioxidant defense system, the main active component of which are antioxidants that neutralize the negative effects of free radicals – specific products of cell life and their damage factors. Work on the development and manufacture of drugs was performed on the basis of the Department of Veterinary Reproductology of the State Biotechnology University (Kharkov) and the Department of Nanocrystalline Materials of the Institute of Scintillation Materials (Kharkov), implementation – in farms of various forms of ownership. Developed methods for the prevention of reproductive pathologies of animals (normalization of the structure and function of the fetoplacental complex of cows and sheep and increase the development potential of newborn calves and lambs, increase the reproductive capacity of bulls and boars) are based on the use of vitamin and hormonal drugs «Caplaestrol + OV», «Carafest + OV» and «Carafand + OV» containing nanobiomaterial – gadolinium orthovanadate activated by europium, the nanoparticles of which are able to penetrate cells and accumulate in nuclei. The obtained data allow us to conclude that the use of nanobiomaterials ensures the effectiveness of programs for the prevention of reproductive pathologies of animals. In particular, the method of normalizing the structure and function of the fetoplacental complex of cows and sheep and increase the development potential of newborn calves and lambs provides an increase in placental weight by 23,4-24,3 %, newborn weight – by 18,6-29,6 %, increase in the number of cotyledons by 2,9-3,0 % and the area of the hairy part of the chorion – by 13,3-34,7 %, and the method of increasing the reproductive capacity of bulls and boars allows to increase the volume of ejaculate by 4,2-28,7 %, increase sperm motility by 16,7-28,1 %, sperm concentration – by 4,8-13,6 %, testosterone levels – by 16,8-44,2 % and reduce the number of sperm with morphological abnormalities by 1,6-2,4 %.
V. V. Otchenashko
Animal Husbandry of the Steppe of Ukraine, Volume 1, pp 166-170;

The relevance of the study is due to the limited existing research, mainly on Japanese quails, the lack of data on the dynamics of changes in nutrient use during the productive cycle of meat quails and the impact of energy levels. The aim of the study is to study the dynamics and relationship of feed nutrient digestibility with energy levels of pharaoh laying quails. The experiment was conducted by the method of groups. According to the scheme of the experiment at the age of 45 days, 150 quails were selected, from which, according to the principle of analogous groups, 5 groups were formed – control and 4 experimental, 30 heads (25 females and 5 males) in each. The level of metabolic energy in the feed of the control group was 13.4 MJ / kg, the 2nd group – 10.7 MJ, the 3rd group – 12.1 MJ, the 4th group – 14.7 MJ, the 5th group – 16.1 MJ Quails of all groups received loose complete feed, compiled according to special recipes. During the experiment, three series of physiological experiments were conducted to study the digestibility of nutrients. For this purpose, three laying hens at 116, 200 and 284 days of age were selected from each group according to the principle of analogues. Zootechnical analysis of samples was carried out according to generally accepted methods according to the Weende analysis scheme. It is established that the use of compound feeds with different content of metabolic energy affects the digestibility of nutrients. The highest levels of nutrient utilization were observed when feeding feed with a metabolic energy content of 1.34 MJ. The nature of the changes depends largely on the age of the quails. The absence of a noticeable difference in digestibility during 2-5 months of laying for feeding feeds with an energy content of 1.09 to 1.34 MJ is a prerequisite for the development of special feeding programs aimed at minimizing costs. The presence of insignificant influence of the level of energy nutrition of quails on the digestibility of protein (rs = - 0.34, P> 0.1) was noted. The age of quails is inversely related to protein digestibility (rs = - 0.57; P <0.05).
, , M. Tsap, A. Pylypets, U. Tesarivska, O. Shaian, O. Koleschuk
Animal Husbandry of the Steppe of Ukraine, Volume 1, pp 157-165;

The research was carried out on two groups of broilers ROOS-308, divided into control (1) and experimental (2) groups, in the conditions of industrial cultivation and daily addition to water of nanotechnological citrates J, Se, S for 24-48 days of fattening. The research was aimed to identify the complex combined biological action of nanotechnological citrates J, Se, S in broiler chickens under conditions of their use for 2-3 growing periods. The 7-day changes dynamics in body weight, survival and death rate of chickens, the mass of internal organs and its correlation to chicken body mass at the day 48, the technological slaughter period, were defined as study periods. Blood and internal organs samples were taken to determine biochemical parameters and study its development by mass and mass coefficients at the slaughter period. The corrective effect of nanotechnological J, Se, S citrates on the protein indicators and mineral metabolism, growth and development of the liver, stomach, spleen and thyroid gland of chicken was identified. There was an increase in body weight gain of broiler chickens by 4-4,5 % during growth periods with the use of J, Se, S citrates and 5,2 % for day 48 of life while the mortality decreased by 0,62 % during the study period (Group 1 – 1,64 %; Group 2 – 1,02 %). The average daily gain during 48 days in the control Group 1 was 59,6 g with a body weight of 2859 g and the experimental Group 2 – 62,72 % with body weight of 3009 g respectively.
A. P. Kitaeva
Animal Husbandry of the Steppe of Ukraine, Volume 1, pp 140-149;

The article presents the results of the research on feeding zoster, sea grass-urea (MTM) and urea in feeding Tsygay breed rams, as well as the effectiveness of using East Friesian rams on Tsygay breed ewes. The experimental part of the work was carried out in the agricultural formations of the Odesa region. In the main diet, a certain amount of digestible protein and mineral substances was replaced by an appropriate amount of zoster, nitrogen-containing feed product MTM and urea. The diet of the I experimental group contained 25 g of zoster, the II experimental group – 50 g of MTM, the III experimental group – 10 g of urea, the control group did not contain any impurities. 50 g of MTM contained 25 g of zoster and 10 g of urea. Research on meat and wool productivity (live weight, absolute live weight gain; wool shear in physical weight and washed fiber, wool length) was carried out according to generally accepted methods. In order to determine the effectiveness of the use of East Friesian rams on Tsigai ewes, an experiment was conducted to study the milk yield of crossbred ewes and the intensity of growth of newborn lambs. In cross-breed lambs obtained from rams of the East Friesian breed and ewes of the Tsigai breed, the intensity of growth of live weight in the age aspect, slaughter qualities and amino acid composition of the meat were studied. The milk yield of crossbred dams was studied by the amount of milk obtained during the suckling period, during the period after the lambs were weaned, and during the entire lactation period. Meat and dairy productivity were studied according to generally accepted methods. The digital material was processed by the method of variational statistics according to V. P. Kovalenko et al. (2010). It was established that balancing the diet in terms of protein, minerals and vitamins due to feeding zoster, MTM and urea ensures an increase in live weight of 10-month-old goats by 2.9–7.2%, wool shearing in physical weight by 52.8–55.5 %, in washed fiber by 51.1–53.5 %. The use of rams of the East Friesian breed on ewes of the Tsigai breed contributes to the production of cross-breed animals with well-developed economic and useful traits. In cross-breed rams, compared to Tsigai rams, the pulp yield per 1 kg of pre-slaughter mass is 5.2 % higher, and the slaughter yield is 5.11 %. The high milk yield of cross-bred mothers contributed to better growth and development of lambs. During the period of growth from birth to yearling, the local young outnumbered the purebred Tsygayskii in terms of live weight: lambs by 16.9 %, yaks by 22.7 %, and by average daily growth by 18.1 % and 24.6 %, respectively.
I. S. Luchyn
Animal Husbandry of the Steppe of Ukraine, Volume 1, pp 171-179;

The article presents the results of research on the productivity of rabbits of different genotypes (growth and development, slaughter and meat indicators, fur productivity); a comprehensive evaluation of the productivity of rabbits in the process of industrial hybridization was carried out. The following research methods were used in the work: zootechnical (productivity, growth and development, reproductive capacity), genetic, biometric (determination of average values and their errors, probabilities of research results). The study was carried out in the FG "Elit" of the Kolomyia district; PE "Western Ukrainian Gardens" of Halytsky District; PP Havrylyuk O. Ya. Bogorodchansky district. The method of pairs of analogues was used in the studies. Their selection took into account genotype, sex, age, live weight, origin, physiological state, lactation period, fertility, productivity (reproduction of female rabbits, fattening and slaughter indicators, etc.). Analogous animals in different groups had maximum similarity, and some differences were allowed within the group. The productivity of female rabbits and young rabbits was evaluated according to the index of reproductive qualities of the female rabbit (Luchin, 2004) and the index of comprehensive assessment (PKO) (Luchin, 2005). The received materials of scientific research were processed by the methods of variational statistics according to V.P. Kovalenko et al. (2010). It was established that different variants of crossing the maternal and paternal forms of the three-breed genotype of rabbits 4/8 white giant 3/8 local chinchilla 1/8 Flanders had different effects on the reproductive indicators of female rabbits and subsequent fattening indicators of young rabbits, in particular, average daily growth and waist width. A successful combination of maternal and paternal forms of rabbits (group 2) was revealed, which in the process of industrial hybridization ensured an increase in multifertility by 8.1 head or 2.5 % (р<0.05), high fertility by 64g or 6.25 % (р<0.05), milk yield by 2.8 kg or 7.2 % (p<0.05), nest weight at 35 days old by 13.4 % (p<0.01). The hybrid young obtained from female rabbits of group 2 (IVYAK + 5 %) was characterized by a higher body weight by 43.8 g or 10.3 % (p<0.001) and waist width by 6.15 cm or 12.2 % (p< 0.001) to 3 control groups. The positive result was achieved due to the effective combination of the initial forms, which in turn ensured high productivity of the stock (heterosis) of the final hybrid and its resistance to climatic and technological conditions of keeping.
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