Berkala Ilmiah Biologi

Journal Information
EISSN: 08537240
Total articles ≅ 15

Latest articles in this journal

Nafisa Kusumawati, Ignatius Sudaryadi
Published: 15 December 2022
Berkala Ilmiah Biologi, Volume 13, pp 9-18; https://doi.org/10.22146/bib.v13i3.5215

Abstract:
UV (ultraviolet) radiation is one of the radiations that are naturally emitted by the sun. As the result of climate changes, the earth's ozone layer changes and the UV light radiation to the earth's surface increases. The negative effect of UV radiation is increase due to the production of ROS (Reactive Oxygen Species) or free radicals in the body. UV radiation protection can be done by increasing the intake of antioxidant-rich foods as free radical inhibitors. Actinidia deliciosa or kiwifruit is a antioxidants-rich fruit including vitamin C. This research was carried out with Drosophila melanogaster as a animal model because it is easy to breed in the laboratory, has a short life cycle, and produces large numbers of eggs. Drosophila melanogaster or fruit flies are the most commonly used of animal models in the biomedical and pharmacological fields. This study aims to determine the effect of UV radiation on fruit fly survival at the larval, pupa, and imago stages and the morphology changes of male and female reproductive organs, as well as to determine the effect of feeding kiwi fruit extract on survival rate and morphology changes of male and female reproductive organs of UV irradiated fruit fly. This research was conducted by providing UV exposure treatment and without UV radiation treatment to fruit flies for 2 hours on banana and kiwi feed medium. Data analysis was carried out with the One Way Anova test followed by the Duncan test. The results showed that UV radiation could affect the survival and morphology of the reproductive organs of fruit flies. The survival rate in the control treatment was 58%, PK treatment 81%, PPUV treatment 45%, and PKUV treatment 47%.
Siti Rosidah, Indria Wahyuni, Usman, Mahrawi, Dwi Ratnasari, Ika Rifqiawati
Published: 15 December 2022
Berkala Ilmiah Biologi, Volume 13, pp 1-8; https://doi.org/10.22146/bib.v13i3.4819

Abstract:
This research was conducted to provide an amphibian (order Anura) species list in the Ujung Kulon National Park, Banten, Indonesia. The study was conducted in June-July 2021. The location of the study was determined using a purposive sampling method, namely based on the type of amphibian habitat located in four areas of Ujung Kulon National Park, namely Handeulum Island, Cigenter, Peucang Island, and Cidaon. Sampling was carried out in the morning at 07:00-11:00 WIB and in the evening at 19:00-22:00 WIB using the VES (Visual Encounter Survey) method combined with line transects. The observation station has an average temperature of 25-30˚C, soil moisture 62-69%, air humidity 80-89%, light intensity 832-1443 lux, and soil pH 6.5-6.7. The amphibians obtained were 10 species from 5 families. The Family Dicroglossidae is the most found. The most common species found were at station 3 on Peucang Island and station 4 Cidaon. Differences in the composition of amphibians are caused by different habitats at each station and environmental factors.  
Cita Ramadhanti, Aris Subagio, Jani Master
Published: 15 December 2022
Berkala Ilmiah Biologi, Volume 13, pp 19-24; https://doi.org/10.22146/bib.v13i3.5104

Abstract:
Batutegi protected forest has the potential to be butterflies habitat due to the possibility of its richness of host and feed plants. The research was conducted to analyze butterflies diversity and abundance in three different types of vegetation which are shrubs, forest, and Way Sekampung watershed. The methods that used are Shannon-Wiener’s Diversity Index (H’), Simpson’s dominance index (D), and Pielou’s Evenness Index (E). Analysis shows the butterfly diversity up to 3.034; dominance index up to 0.079; and evenness up to 0.823. These results attributed to the highly potential of butterfly diversity, stable evenness, and low butterfly species dominance.
Ninda Nur Amalia, Heri Sujadmiko
Published: 15 December 2022
Berkala Ilmiah Biologi, Volume 13, pp 25-35; https://doi.org/10.22146/bib.v13i3.4944

Abstract:
Bryophyte grows on various substrates, one of which is rock. Plaosan Temple is composed of andesite stone which has the potential to experience weathering caused by bryophyte. This research aims to determine the diversity of bryophyte, types and classifications of bryophyte, and to determine the bryophyte which are widely and evenly distributed in the rocks of Plaosan Temple, Central Java. Bryophytes samples were collected using the dry herbarium technique and identified at the Plant Systematics Laboratory, Faculty of Biology, UGM. Vegetation analysis was carried out using the quadrat method of 15 x 15 cm plots which were randomly distributed in 52 plots. The environmental parameters measured were air temperature, humidity, and light intensity. Species diversity was analyzed using Shannon-Wiener index. The results obtained 11 types of bryophytes grouped into two classes, namely Hepaticopsida and Bryopsida, including Barbula indica (Hook.) Spreng., Brachymenium exile (Dozy & Molk.) Bosch & Lac., Brachymenium indicum (Dozy & Molk.) Bosch & Lac., Cyathodium smaragdinum Schiffn., Fissidens atroviridis Besch., Fissidens virens Thwait. & Mitt., Fissidens zollingeri Mont., Gymnostomiella vernicosa (Hook.) Fleisch., Hyophila involuta (Hook.) A. Jaeg., Philonotis hastata (Duby) Wijk & Margad., and Riccia hasskarliana Steph. Bryophyte that is widely and evenly distributed is Barbula indica. Keywords: bryophyte; diversity; andesite; Plaosan temple
Sukirno, Fiola Siregar, Aryo Seto Pandu Wiranto, Suparmin Suparmin, Siti Sumarmi, Hari Purwanto, Ignatius Sudaryadi, R.C. Hidayat Soesilohadi, Abdulrahman Saad Aldawood
Published: 15 December 2022
Berkala Ilmiah Biologi, Volume 13, pp 36-42; https://doi.org/10.22146/bib.v13i3.4718

Abstract:
Bacillus thuringiensis is known as a bioinsecticide for controlling taro caterpillar, Spodoptera litura Fab. in cabbage plants. However, Bt. is easily degraded by ultraviolet (UV), so it needs UV protectant. This research aimed to study the synergism of extract of turmeric, moringa, cloves, and red betel as UV protectants for Bt. and to measure the Bt. half lifes. As much as 25 (w/v) of turmeric, moringa, cloves, and red betel extracts was used to make Bt. suspension. The Bt. suspension then was exposed to sunlight for 0, 1, 3, 7, 14, 21, and 28 days then it was tested againts 25 individuals of 1st larval instar of taro caterpillar and each treatment was using three replicates. Pathogenicity of each formulation was observed by calculating larval mortality up to the 7th day after treatment. The results showed that the highest larval mortality was found in the Bt. formulation added extracts at 0-day exposure. Mortality data for each Bt. treatment. showed a decrease from the treatment of 0 to 28-day exposures. After 28 days of exposure, Bt. without extract addition had a pathogenicity of 15.2%, whereas Bt. with clove extract had pathogenicity about 56.4%, which is higher than those on turmeric, moringa, and red betel. The first half life of Bt. added with clove was 32.3 days, while the second half life was 50.7 days. Based on this research, it can be concluded that clove has synergism affect when applied with Bt.
Yunita Ayu Ardilla, Krisna Wahyu Anggreini, Tara Puri Ducha Rahmani
Published: 31 August 2022
Berkala Ilmiah Biologi, Volume 13, pp 42-52; https://doi.org/10.22146/bib.v13i2.4619

Abstract:
Durian (Durio zibethinus) is a type of fruit included in the climacteric fruit, so it needs processing to have a longer shelf life. One of the processed durian fruits is tempoyak. Tempoyak is a traditional fermented durian food well known around Kalimantan and Sumatra. Tempoyak is made from durian, which usually has a good level of maturity. The distinctive aroma and semi-solid texture of tempoyak are produced by the fermentation process by bacteria. Tempoyak processing has involved adding a bit of salt and indigenous lactic acid bacteria, one of which is the bacteria genus Lactobacillus, such as Lactobacillus plantarum and Lactobacillus curvatus. This study aimed to determine the role of lactic acid bacteria from the genus Lactobacillus in the fermentation process of durian into tempoyak, to determine the potential of bacteria from the genus Lactobacillus in other respects, and to determine the health benefits of tempoyak. This research was conducted using a literature study method with several stages, namely article searching, article selection, data synthesis, and ending with report generation. From the literature search, it can be seen that indigenous bacteria from the genus Lactobacillus are found in fermented durian fruit. Lactobacillus plantarum and Lactobacillus curvatus are species of the genus Lactobacillus that can ferment sugar into lactic acid and are usually used in fermented agricultural products and livestock products. Lactobacillus plantarum producing lactic acid is amylolytic because it can directly convert starch to form lactic acid. Lactobacillus curvatus has various functions related to carbohydrate utilization and bacteriocin production, enabling fermentative and antibacterial properties. Tempoyak can be beneficial for digestive health and has the potential to increase the body's immune system. The results obtained prove that the indigenous bacteria of the genus Lactobacillus from tempoyak play a role in the durian fermentation process and have the potential as probiotics that are good for health.
Syifara Chika, Lily Ismaini, Dian Triastari Armanda
Published: 26 August 2022
Berkala Ilmiah Biologi, Volume 13, pp 32-41; https://doi.org/10.22146/bib.v13i2.4692

Abstract:
Castanopsis argentea (Blume) A.DC. has the local name saninten. This plant is one of the woody plants that has the potential to be developed because it is beneficial for wildlife to nest and is used in reforestation. The seeds of this plant can be used for food by boiling and burning. This plant must be preserved so that it does not become extinct. However, the propagation, so it must use the technique of propagation through tissue culture. This study aims to determine the best sterilization technique for in vitro culture of C. argentea. Eight methods of explant sterilization have been carried out in this study. Methods 1-4 do not use ascorbic acid immersion, while methods 5-8 use the addition of ascorbic acid. Based on observations, it is known that the best sterilization is in the 8th method because the level of contamination and browning is lower than other methods, namely on the fifth day after planting only 20%. The 8th method is graded sterilization. In graded sterilization, explants were gradually immersed in 10% NaOCl, 20% NaOCl, and 30% NaOCl, respectively. Multilevel sterilization is the most effective method of sterilization to reduce contamination and browning. Ascorbic acid acts as an antioxidant and reduces contamination in the enzymatic browning reaction. The combination of sterile substances, time, sequence, and method of immersion affects the sterility of explants.
Ascarti Adaninggar, Anita Restu Puji Raharjeng, Larasshita Putri Adhitya Sani, Jessy Octavia Harahap, Della Blatama, Sandi Francisco Pratama, Ardaning Nuriliani, Bambang Retnoaji, Hendry Tri Sakti Sg Saragih
Published: 26 August 2022
Berkala Ilmiah Biologi, Volume 13, pp 21-31; https://doi.org/10.22146/bib.v13i2.4766

Abstract:
Chlorpyrifos is an organophosphate insecticide, acaricide, and nematicide which is used to control leaf pests and soil pest insects. The insecticide chlorpyrifos works by disrupting the insect's nervous system. The use of insecticides on vegetable crops is generally more intensive than on other food crops so the negative impact on the biotic and abiotic environment becomes greater. The purpose of this study was to determine the negative impact of chlorpyrifos exposure with concentrations of 0.01, 0.1, 1 and 10 ppm on the embryonic development of Wader pari (Rasbora lateristriata). The results of observations at 24 and 48 hours showed that there were abnormalities in the development of the Wader pari’s embryo at the concentration of 0,1, 1 and 10 ppm, indicating that chlorpyrifos causes malformations in the form of defects in the development of the embryo of Wader pari fish.
Siti Assyifa Liany, Wilda Syafira, Adelia Putri, Anis Uswatun Khasanah
Published: 26 August 2022
Berkala Ilmiah Biologi, Volume 13, pp 13-20; https://doi.org/10.22146/bib.v13i2.4396

Abstract:
Cellulose is one of the most abundant polymers on the earth's surface and is often used as the main raw material in various industries. Bacterial Cellulose (BC) is an organic compound produced by certain types of bacteria with various variations and combinations of substrates, including coconut water, rice soaking water, tomatoes, and a mixture of tomato-rice water, coconut-tomato water, and coconut water-rice water. This study aims to determine the optimization of BC formation in various variations and combinations of substrates with organoleptic and physical tests on each sample. This study used experimental methods on each substrate and analyzed descriptively qualitatively. The formula for making BC was 50 mL of each substrate, 5 grams of sugar, 2 grams of ZA (ammonium sulfate), 2 grams of glacial acetic acid, and 2 mL of starter (Acetobacter xylinum). The results of this study obtained organoleptic BC by 90% of panelists liked it, and 10% of panelists disliked it. Meanwhile, the best optimization of BC production obtained the highest thickness and yield on the coconut-rice water substrate treatment of 2.3 cm and 80% yield, the highest water content on the coconut water, coconut-tomato water, and coconut-rice water substrate treatments, respectively, each of 97% and the highest fiber content in rice water, tomato water, and tomato-rice water substrates were 3% each.
Qori Nur Fauziah, Siti Susanti
Published: 9 August 2022
Berkala Ilmiah Biologi, Volume 13, pp 1-12; https://doi.org/10.22146/bib.v13i2.4380

Abstract:
Melinjo (Gnetum gnemon L.) is the only species of the genus Gnetum that is quickly grown and cultivated in Indonesia. Melinjo is also an economically valuable plant, and the most famous product is emping as a potential small industrial sector commodity and brightly projected in the development of non-oil and gas exports. However, taxonomic studies of pollen morphology of Melinjo are rare, and the pollen fertility needs to study to increase Melinjo production and answer the demand for seeds. Morphological characterization can be used for taxonomic studies such as The Pollen Dispersal Units (PDUs), polarity, shape, symmetry, apertura, and skulptur (ornamentation) (Hasanuddin, 2018). Melinjo pollen has a level of germination (if it did without treatment pra-germination) only 1 – 2% during six months, and reach 100% during 12 months (World Agroforesty, 2021). Further, if pollen is saved in an organic liquid, it can increase the level of germination during 11 weeks to reach 80,63% (Kairani, 2010). The experiment aimed to study pollen morphology, ultrastructure, and fertility of pollen Melinjo. Pollen morphology, ultrastructure, and fertility were carried out by removing the blooming strobilus at branch Melinjo trees. Acetylysis method is used to observe the pollen morphology, Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) is used to observe exin ornamentation, and aperture, and tetrazolium staining method is used for fertility test of Melinjo pollen.
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