South Asian Journal of Research in Microbiology
Latest articles in this journal
Published: 29 December 2022
South Asian Journal of Research in Microbiology pp 24-33; https://doi.org/10.9734/sajrm/2022/v14i2268
Public health is at risk due to the fact that enterohemorrhagic E. coli (EHEC) is becoming resistant to most antibiotics that demonstrates widespread misuse of antibiotics. The study was aimed at molecularly identify and perform plasmid curing with extracts of Morinda citrifolia (MC) and Xylopia aethiopica (XA) on multidrug resistant EHEC isolates that are obtained from some fecal and water samples in Port Harcourt, Rivers State. After isolation of E. coli, eleven (11) E. coli isolates were identified as EHEC. The Molecular Identification of seven (7) most resistant isolates using PCR confirmed 100% EHEC isolates. Of the 7 resistant EHEC isolates, the AmpC Gene and blaTEM Gene were detected in 71.4% and 42.9% respectively. Results of plasmid curing test revealed that the extracts of Xylopia aethiopica, Morinda citrifolia and Acridine Orange used as the control reduced the total percentage of multiple antibiotic resistant EHEC isolates from 35.61% to 10.61%, 18.18% and 16.67%, respectively. The extracts had the ability to cure plasmids, with X. aethiopica extract being the most successful against resistant EHEC isolates. In conclusion, this investigation revealed the genetic makeup of EHEC strains, detected their resistance genes and demonstrated the curing of the plasmids of resistant EHEC isolates found in fecal and water samples from the study area, both of which constitute a serious risk to public health.
Published: 26 December 2022
South Asian Journal of Research in Microbiology pp 14-23; https://doi.org/10.9734/sajrm/2022/v14i2267
Background and Objectives: Carbapenem-resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa, are among the top tier of the list of antibiotic-resistant priority pathogens that pose the greatest threat to human health. In recent years, the rate of carbapenem resistance in Pseudomonas aeruginosa has increased worldwide and has become of great concern since it significantly restricts the therapeutic options for patients. Therefore this study was undertaken to determine the antibiotic susceptibility profile of the clinical isolate of Carbapenem-resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa.Methodology: A total of five hundred (500) clinical samples were collected from patient’s attending Alex Ekwueme Federal University Teaching Hospital Abakaliki, Ebonyi State (AFEUTHA). The collected samples were analyzed for the presence of Pseudomonas aeruginosa using standard microbiological techniques for isolation and characterization of bacteria. Further strain confirmation was performed using VITEK 2 System. Phenotypic detection of Carbapenem-resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa was performed using Modified Hodge testing. Antibiotic susceptibility was performed by employing Kirby-Bauer disk diffusion method and the results were interpreted using the Clinical Laboratory Standard Institute (CLSI) zone diameter breakpoints. Results: The occurrence rate of Pseudomonas aeruginosa in clinical samples accounted for 119(23.8%) consisting of a high proportion from urine sample 81(27.4%) followed by wound swabs 13(25.5%), high vaginal swabs 17(20.7) while the least occurrence rate was observed against catheter tips 5(12.8%) and sputum 3(9.4%). Modified Hodge testing revealed 31(6.2%) carbapenem-resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa comprising of high proportion of 24(8.1%) from urine samples followed by wound swab 5(9.8%) while Carbapenem-resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa was absent in High Vaginal Swab recording 0(0.0%). Carbapenem-resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolates were highly resistant to amoxicillin-clavulanic 100%, colistin 100%, tetracycline 100%, nitrofurantoin 70.8%, aztreonam 87.5% but were susceptible to nalixidic acid 50.0 %, ofloxacin 75.0%, and ciprofloxacin 100%. Conclusion: As in-vitro susceptibility of carbapenem-resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolates to ofloxacin and ciprofloxacin is known, their judicious utilization will accelerate a significant improvement in the patient's condition. As such, there is a substantial need for the evaluation of a wide spectrum and new therapies in different classes to counteract this imminent crisis of resistance among Carbapenem-resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa.
Published: 23 December 2022
South Asian Journal of Research in Microbiology pp 1-13; https://doi.org/10.9734/sajrm/2022/v14i2266
Tomato is a universally consumed vegetable crop. Its spoilage involves changes in which they become less palatable, less attractive to the eyes or even toxic to consumers. These changes may be accompanied by alterations in taste, smell, appearance or texture. The aim of this study is to identify the spoilage pathogens of tomatoes and to ascertain the antimicrobial potential of garlic ethanol extract on the isolates. Spoilt tomato samples were purchased from three markets (Eke Awka, Nnamdi Azikiwe temporary site (Temp. site) and Amenyi) in Awka, Anambra State. They were transported Alpha Laboratory, Awka in a sterile polythene bags for microbial isolation and analysis. The media used for the isolation were Nutrient Agar and Sabouraud Dextrose Agar, both were placed into a conical flask autoclaved at 121ºC at 15psi for 20 minutes and the plates were incubated at room temperature. The bacteria isolated from the tomato fruits were: Pseudomonas sp, Bacillus sp, Staphylococcus sp and Escherichia coli while the fungi isolates were Aspergillus sp, Penicillium sp and Mucor sp. The antimicrobial activity of ethanol garlic extract against these microorganisms isolated from spoilt tomatoes were determined using disc method. Three different concentrations (25%, 50%, 100%) of ethanol garlic extract were used to test for the antimicrobial activity. The result showed that at different concentrations the ethanol garlic extract possess antimicrobial properties on the selected organisms apart from Pseudomonas sp and Penicillium sp where there was no zone of inhibition. The presence of these microorganisms is hazardous to health. Therefore, garlic extract could be used as a beneficial substitute of synthetic chemicals.
Published: 22 December 2022
South Asian Journal of Research in Microbiology pp 36-45; https://doi.org/10.9734/sajrm/2022/v14i1264
Mimosa pudica is a famous ornamental plant commonly known as sleeping grass, sensitive plant, humble plant, shy plant and touch-me not, among other names. The study was aimed at determining the antibacterial activity of Mimosa pudica extract in combination with alum. The plant was obtained, identified, prepared and extracted using both aqueous and methanolic medium. The extracts were reconstituted to final concentration of 250g/ml, 125g/ml, 62.5g/ml (w/v). The bacterial isolates identified were; Pseudomonas aeruginosa NC002516, Staphylococcus aureus FR821779 and Escherichia coli CP031892.1 obtained from wound source at the University of Port Harcourt Teaching Hospital and maintained in stock culture and were further confirmed using biochemical and molecular methods. In-vitro bioactivity of various concentrations of the extracts and in combination with alum were evaluated by measuring diameter of inhibition zones. From the bioassay, the combinations of the aqueous extract and alum demonstrated the highest inhibitory potential; (26.00±0.00mm) at 250g/ml for Staphylococcus aureus FR821779 and the least antibacterial effect was recorded in the consortium extract for Staphylococcus aureus FR821779; (13.00±0.00mm) at same concentration compared with other bacteria (E. coli and P. aeruginosa). The result obtained showed that all the treatments and combination treatments recorded MIC at 0.50g/ml for all the bacteria studied. The composition in percentage of the various phytochemicals were as follows: Flavanoid, 7.96±1.17%, Alkaloid, 9.85±0.21%, Saponin, 7.34±0.35% and Total-phenol, 1.63±0.00%. Alkaloids (9.85±0.21%) had the highest concentrations in the extracts while Total-phenol (1.63±0.00%) was the least in concentration. This study has been able to ascertain the sensitivity profiles of Mimosa pudica leaf extracts and its combination treatment with potassium aluminium sulphate (Alum) on some microbes specifically S. aureus, E. coli, P. aeruginosa.
Published: 22 December 2022
South Asian Journal of Research in Microbiology pp 23-35; https://doi.org/10.9734/sajrm/2022/v14i1263
Aims: Crude methanolic leaf extract of Vernonia amygdalina was evaluated to determine its bioactive constituents, the antimicrobial properties, measure the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) against some selected bacterial organisms. Place and Duration of Study: The investigation was carried out at University of Maiduguri in Borno State, Nigeria. The herb obtained from Lake Chad Research Institute were identified and validated by the department of Forestry and wild life, Mohammet Lawan College of Agriculture (MOLCA) in Maiduguri, Borno State. Methodology: Crude methanolic leaf extraction of the plant, qualitative phytochemical screening, antimicrobial sensitivity against some disease-causing organisms, minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) were carried out. Results: Phytochemical screening of V. amygdalina leaves extract revealed the presence of tannins, saponins, terpenoids, flavonoid, carbohydrates and cardiac glycosides. The antimicrobial sensitivity shows P. aeruginosa, had the highest sensitivity with effect at all concentrations (26 mm at 1000 mg/ml), the lowest against Salmonella typhi were 9 mm at 1000 mg/ml and 7 mm at 200 mg/ml, while the highest were 17 mm at 400 mg/ml and 14 mm at 200 mg/ml. When tested at all concentrations (200-1000 mg/ml), S. aureus, S. pyogenes, B. subtilis, Corynebacteria species, and K. pneumonia showed greater sensitivity than Salmonella typhi but less sensitivity to P. aeruginosa. Based on the outcomes of the MIC and MBC results, S. aureus was found to be sensitive to the extract at 100 and 200 mg/ml, while P. aeruginosa was found to have the highest sensitivity to the extract at all concentrations (25-200 mg/ml) with the exception of 12.5 mg/ml of the extract. Conclusion: The study highlighted the antimicrobial effects of V. amygdalina leave extracts on some pathogens thereby verifying the traditional healer’s claim. Also, it was concluded that the extract of V. amygdalina contained pharmacologically active phytochemicals which could be responsible for the numerous medicinal properties exhibited by the plant leaf extract.
Published: 20 December 2022
South Asian Journal of Research in Microbiology pp 31-34; https://doi.org/10.9734/sajrm/2022/v14i1262
The Bacteria Associated with cockroaches collected from food centre’s and students cafeteria of Taraba State Polytechnic Jalingo main Campus were investigated in this study between April to May 2016. A total of thirty-seven (37) adult cockroaches were collected using a sticky trap (1.40 cm x 1.50 cm). The samples collected were immediately transported to the laboratory in a conical flask. A ten (10) Told serial dilution was done. The media used were Eosine methylene blue, Salmonella Shigella agar, Nutrient agar, and MacConkey agar. Pour plate techniques was used to culture and incubation was done for 24 hours at 370c. Observable discrete colonies were identified, gram stained and subcultured using the streak plate technique of inoculation. The isolates were identified using standard techniques. The microorganisms isolated were Staphylococcus aureus, Salmonella typhi, Escherichia coli, Klebsietla species and Bacillus species. This study revealed that cockroaches can pose a public health effect. Therefore, routine sanitation and personal hygiene is strongly advocated as some of these isolates are pathogenic.
Published: 17 December 2022
South Asian Journal of Research in Microbiology pp 25-30; https://doi.org/10.9734/sajrm/2022/v14i1261
This study aimed to assess the microbial quality of smoked Clarias gariepinus sold in markets in Yenagoa, Bayelsa State, Nigeria. Fish samples processed using open drums, were purchased from retailers from Agudama, Akenfa, Kpansia Opolo and Tombia markets and analyzed for their microbial quality using viable plate count. Fish samples from Agudama market had total viable count (TVC) of 6.0×105 CFU/g and total fungi count (TFC) of 2.0×105 CFU/g; Akenfa market samples had TVC of 9×105 CFU/g and TFC of 7.0×105 CFU/g; Kpansia market samples had TVC of 3.5×106 CFU/g and TFC of 2.0×105; Opolo market samples had TVC of 3.0×106 CFU/g and TFC of 2.0×105 CFU/g while Tombia market samples had TVC of 2.0×105 CFU/g and TFC of 1.0×105 CFU/g. The bacterial isolates were identified as Bacillus cereus, Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis and Streptobacillus species. while the fungal isolates were identified as Aspergillus fumigatus, Aspergillus terreus, Candida species and Mucor species. The fish samples, except those from Tombia market, had high microbial load and presence of pathogen, which is indicative of the poor conditions of processing, packaging, storage and display in the market. Improvement of processing practice and packaging method are recommended.
Published: 9 December 2022
South Asian Journal of Research in Microbiology pp 17-24; https://doi.org/10.9734/sajrm/2022/v14i1260
The study investigated effects of fermentation and extrusion on the antinutrient composition of unripe plantain and pigeon pea blends. The blended samples were prepared in three combinations (A=100g unripe plantain; B= 70g unripe plantain: 30g pigeon pea; C= 50g unripe plantain: 50g pigeon pea) and separated into four batches (i.e. first batch = preconditioned and fermented; second batch = extruded; third batch = fermented and extruded; and fourth batch = unfermented/unextruded). The blended samples were fermented semi-solid state fermentation. The anti-nutrient content of fermented and extruded blends decreased significantly (P<0.05) when compared to the raw blends. Hence, it can be concluded based from the available information from this study that fermentation and extrusion decreased the antinutrient composition of unripe plantain and pigeon pea blends.
Published: 8 December 2022
South Asian Journal of Research in Microbiology pp 9-16; https://doi.org/10.9734/sajrm/2022/v14i1259
All around the world today, different types of plastics are used for packaging materials, especially in form of low density polyethylene (LDPE). The aim of the study was to degrade polyethylene using bacteria from waste dump sites in Alakahia and Ogbogoro of Obio/ Apkor Local Government Area, Rivers State. Soil samples were randomly collected from Alakahia and Ogbogoro dump sites in Obio/Apkor Local Government Area, in Rivers state. Polyethylene degraders were determined using microscopy and weight loss methods. The total heterotrophic bacterial counts recorded were 3.03 x 106 CFU/g and 1.12 x 106 CFU/g for Ogbogoro and Alakahia samples. The total count of Pseudomonas recorded were 5.0 x 104 CFU/g and 4.9 x 104 CFU/g for Ogbogoro and Alakahia sample. There was no significant difference (P ≤ 0.05) within the counts of the samples. The bacteria isolated from the soil collected from the dumpsites were Bacillus sp, Klebsiella sp, Pseudomonas sp, Staphylococcus sp, Serratia sp, Escherichia coli, Shigella sp, Salmonella sp. The identified bacteria were Pseudomonas proteolytica NR025588.1, Pseudomonas aeruginosa CP0296051 and Bacillus circulans CP026031.1. From the result of the degradative ability by the individual microorganism using weight loss measurement, Pseudomonas aeruginosa CP0296051 showed a greater percentage of degradation of polyethylene of 5% to 27.03% (after 150 days) followed by Pseudomonas proteolytica NR025588.1 which recorded percentage degradation of 6.0% to 23.28% (after 150 days) while Bacillus circulans CP02603.1 recorded the least percentage of 5% to 19.9% (after 150 days). The result of degradative potential of the microbes in consortium set ups showed that the consortium of Pseudomonas aeruginosa CP0296051 and Bacillus circulans CP02603.1 (B8+B6) showed the highest degradation potential producing degradation percentage range of 8.7 to 46.80% after 150 days of the study and the least degradation potential of polyethylene was observed in Pseudomonas aeruginosa CP0296051 and Pseudomonas proteolytica NRO255SS.1 (B6+B3) with the percentage range of 5% to 27.03% after 150 days. From the study, Pseudomonas sp, Bacillus sp and their consortium showed higher potential to degrade low density polyethylene (LDPE) hence the prospect in remediation of polyethylene.
Published: 1 December 2022
South Asian Journal of Research in Microbiology pp 1-8; https://doi.org/10.9734/sajrm/2022/v14i1258
Extended-Spectrum Beta-Lactamase (ESBL) are a class of plasmid-mediated diverse, complex and rapidly evolving enzymes which hydrolyzes penicillins, monobactams and broad-spectrum cephalosporins. There is increasing prevalence of ESBL-producing bacteria globally with higher prevalence reported in developing countries. The present study was designed to determine the prevalence and antimicrobial sensitivity pattern of ESBL producing bacteria isolates in patients with Urinary Tract Infection (UTI) in Enugu. Urine samples were collected from a total of 284 subjects with self-reported UTI In the Enugu State University of Science and Technology Teaching Hospital, Enugu State, Nigeria between the periods of April to May,2019.Samples were analyzed for the presence of UTI and antimicrobial resistance pattern of ESBL-producing bacteria using standard methods. Data was analyzed by descriptive statistics using SPSS version 23 (IBM Corp Armok, NY). A total of 145 strains of Staphylococcus aureus (n= 19). Escherichia coli (n=52), Klebsiella pneumonia (n=45), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (n =12), Enterococcus faecalis (n=9) and Proteus mirabilis (n=8), were isolated from 132 subjects giving a UTI prevalence rate of 34.6%. Forty-nine (49) ESBL-producing strains comprising Staphylococcus aureus (n=5), Escherichia coli (n=15), Klebsiella pneumonia (n=16), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (n=13), Enterococcus faecalis (n=8) and Proteus mirabilis (n=7) were implicated in UTI accounting for 46.8%ESBL-producing bacteria mediated UTI. There is a high prevalence of ESBL-producing bacteria induced UTI. This portends a great danger to the management of bacterial infections.