Mathematical and Computational Applications
Latest articles in this journal
Mathematical and Computational Applications, Volume 28; https://doi.org/10.3390/mca28020050
Hydrocyclones are devices used in numerous areas of the chemical, food, and mineral industries to separate fine particles. A hydrocyclone with a diameter of d50 mm was modeled using the commercial Simcenter STAR-CCM+13 computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulation package. The numerical methods confirmed the results of the different parameters, such as the properties of the volume fraction, based on CFD simulations. Reynolds Stress Model (RSM) and the combined technique of volume of fluid (VOF) and discrete element model (DEM) for water and air models were selected to evaluate semi-implicit pressure-linked equations and combine the momentum with continuity laws to obtain derivatives of the pressure. The targeted particle sizes were in a range of 8–100 microns for a dewatering application. The depth of the vortex finder was varied to 20 mm, 30 mm, and 35 mm to observe the effects of pressure drop and separation efficiency. The split water ratio increased toward a 50% split of overflow and underflow rates as the length of the vortex finder increased. It results in better particle separation when there is a high injection rate at the inlet. The tangential and axial velocities increased as the vortex finder length increased. As the depth of the vortex finder length increased, the time for particle re-entrainment into the underflow stream increased, and the separation efficiency improved.
Mathematical and Computational Applications, Volume 28; https://doi.org/10.3390/mca28020049
Let A and B be Borel subsets of the Euclidean n-space with
. This is a survey on the following question: what can we say about the Hausdorff dimension of the intersections for generic orthogonal transformations g and translations by z?
Mathematical and Computational Applications, Volume 28; https://doi.org/10.3390/mca28020048
We propose a new optimal iterative scheme without memory free from derivatives for solving non-linear equations. There are many iterative schemes existing in the literature which either diverge or fail to work when
. However, our proposed scheme works even in these cases. In addition, we extended the same idea for iterative methods with memory with the help of self-accelerating parameters estimated from the current and previous approximations. As a result, the order of convergence increased from four to seven without the addition of any further functional evaluation. To confirm the theoretical results, numerical examples and comparisons with some of the existing methods are included which reveal that our scheme is more efficient than the existing schemes. Furthermore, basins of attraction are also included to describe a clear picture of the convergence of the proposed method as well as some of the existing methods.
Published: 21 March 2023
Mathematical and Computational Applications, Volume 28; https://doi.org/10.3390/mca28020047
This paper demonstrates the effectiveness of a hierarchical design framework in developing environment-specific behaviour for fluid-actuated soft robots. Our proposed framework employs multi-step optimisation and reduced-order modelling to reduce the computational expense associated with simulating non-linear materials used in the design process. Specifically, our framework requires the designer to make high-level decisions to simplify the optimisations, targeting simple objectives in earlier steps and more complex objectives in later steps. We present a case study, where our proposed framework is compared to a conventional direct design approach for a simple 2D design. A soft pneumatic bending actuator was designed that is able to perform asymmetrical motion when actuated cyclically. Our results show that the hierarchical framework can find almost 2.5 times better solutions in less than 3% of the time when compared to a direct design approach.
Mathematical and Computational Applications, Volume 28; https://doi.org/10.3390/mca28020046
Corrugated paperboard is a sandwich structure composed of wavy paper (fluting) bonded between two flat paper sheets (liners). The analysis of an entire package using three-dimensional numerical finite element models is computationally expensive due to the waved geometry of the board that requires the use of a relatively large number of elements in a simulation. Because of this, homogenisation approaches are used to evaluate equivalent homogenous models with similar material properties. These techniques have been successfully implemented by various researchers to evaluate the strength of corrugated paperboard. However, studies analysing the various homogenisation techniques and their ranges of applicability are limited. This study analyses the application of three homogenisation techniques: classical laminate plate theory, first-order shear deformation theory and deformation energy equivalence method in the evaluation of effective elastic material properties. In addition, inverse analysis has been applied to determine the effective properties of the board. Finite element models have been used to evaluate the accuracy of the three homogenisation techniques in comparison to the inverse method in modelling four-point bending tests and the results reported.
Mathematical and Computational Applications, Volume 28; https://doi.org/10.3390/mca28020045
In this paper, a new one-parameter class of fixed point iterative method is proposed to approximate the fixed points of contractive type mappings. The presence of an arbitrary parameter in the proposed family increases its interval of convergence. Further, we also propose new two-step and three-step fixed point iterative schemes. We also discuss the stability, strong convergence and fastness of the proposed methods. Furthermore, numerical experiments are performed to check the applicability of the new methods, and these have been compared with well-known similar existing methods in the literature.
Mathematical and Computational Applications, Volume 28; https://doi.org/10.3390/mca28020044
Diagnosis of faults in a rotor system operating in a fluid is a complex task in the field of rotating machinery. In an ideal scenario, a forced shutdown due to rotor-stator contact failure would necessitate the replacement of the rotor or stator. However, factors such as time constraints, economic considerations, and the aging of infrastructure make it imprudent to abruptly shut down machinery that can still be safe to operate. The purpose of this paper is to present an experimental study that validates the theoretical results of the dynamic behavior and friction detection using the wavelet synchrosqueezing transformation (WSST) method for recurrent rotor-stator contacts in a fluid environment, as presented in a previous study. The investigation focused on the analysis of whirl orbits, shaft deflection, and fluctuation frequency during passage through critical speeds. The WSST method was used to decompose the dynamic responses of the rotor in the supercritical speed zone into several supercomponents. The variation of the high-frequency component was studied based on the fluctuation of the instantaneous frequency (IF) technique. Additionally, the fast Fourier transform (FFT) method, in conjunction with the WSST technique, was used to calculate the variation in the amplitude of high-order frequencies in the vibration signal spectrum. The experimental study revealed that the split in resonance caused by rubbing effects is reduced when the rotor and stator interact with an inviscid fluid. However, despite the effects of elasticity and fluid boundaries generating self-excitation at low frequencies and uneven motion due to stator clearance, the experimental results were consistent with the theoretical analysis, demonstrating the effectiveness of the contact detection method based on WSST.
Published: 18 March 2023
Mathematical and Computational Applications, Volume 28; https://doi.org/10.3390/mca28020043
Metallurgical processes are characterized by a complex interplay of heat and mass transfer, momentum transfer, and reaction kinetics, and these interactions play a crucial role in reactor performance. Integrating chemistry and transport results in stiff and non-linear equations and longer time and length scales, which ultimately leads to a high computational expense. The current study employs the OpenFOAM solver based on a fictitious domain method to analyze gas-solid reactions in a porous medium using hydrogen as a reducing agent. The reduction of oxides with hydrogen involves the hierarchical phenomena that influence the reaction rates at various temporal and spatial scales; thus, multi-scale models are needed to bridge the length scale from micro-scale to macro-scale accurately. As a first step towards developing such capabilities, the current study analyses OpenFOAM reacting flow methods in cases related to hydrogen reduction of iron and manganese oxides. Since reduction of the oxides of interest with hydrogen requires significant modifications to the current industrial processes, this model can aid in the design and optimization. The model was verified against experimental data and the dynamic features of the porous medium observed as the reaction progresses is well captured by the model.
Published: 15 March 2023
Mathematical and Computational Applications, Volume 28; https://doi.org/10.3390/mca28020042
The study numerically investigated the noise dissipation, cavitation, output power, and energy produced by marine propellers. A Ffowcs Williams–Hawkings (FW–H) model was used to determine the effects of three different marine propellers with three to five blades and a fixed advancing ratio. The large-eddy Simulations model best predicted the turbulent structures’ spatial and temporal variation, which would better illustrate the flow physics. It was found that a high angle of incidence between the blade’s leading edge and the water flow direction typically causes the hub vortex to cavitate. The roll-up of the cavitating tip vortex was closely related to propeller noise. The five-blade propeller was quieter under the same dynamic conditions, such as the advancing ratio, compared to three- or four-blade propellers.
Published: 10 March 2023
Mathematical and Computational Applications, Volume 28; https://doi.org/10.3390/mca28020041
Traumatic dental injuries (TDI) are frequent among individuals of all ages, with a prevalence ranging from 12–22%, with crown and crown–root fractures being the most common. Fragment reattachment using light-cured nanocomposites is the recommended method for the management of these fractures. Though there are several clinical studies that have assessed the efficacy of such materials, an in-silico characterization of the effects of traumatic forces on the re-attached fragments has never been performed. Hence, this study aimed to evaluate the efficacy of various adhesive materials in crown and crown–root reattachments through computational modelling. A full-scale permanent maxillary anterior tooth model was developed by segmenting 3D scanned cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) images of the pulp, root, and enamel precisely. The full-scale 3D tooth model was then subjected to a novel numerical cutting operation to describe the crown and crown–root fractures. The fractured tooth models were then filled computationally with three commonly used filler (or adhesive) materials, namely flowable composite, resin cement, and resin adhesive, and subjected to masticatory and traumatic loading conditions. The flowable composite demonstrated a statistically significant difference and the lowest produced stresses when subjected to masticatory loading. Resin cement demonstrated reduced stress values for crown–root fractures that were masticatory loaded after being reattached using adhesive materials. During traumatic loading, resin cement demonstrated lower displacements and stress values across both fractures. The novel findings reported in this study are anticipated to assist dentists in selecting the most appropriate adhesive materials that induce the least stress on the reattached tooth when subjected to second trauma, for both crown and crown–root fractures.