Naukma Research Papers. History and Theory of Culture

Journal Information
ISSN / EISSN: 26178907 / 26632160
Total articles ≅ 72

Latest articles in this journal

Yuliia Khlystun
Naukma Research Papers. History and Theory of Culture, Volume 5, pp 38-46; https://doi.org/10.18523/2617-8907.2022.5.38-46

Abstract:
Orthodox churches in the east of Ukraine, built (or restored) during the period of the state independence, are painted either in the style of academic painting or in the Byzantine style. Moreover, the style of academic painting is more typical of temples painted in the 1990s and the early 21st century; and in the last two decades, the customers and icon painters prefer the Byzantine style of painting. Answering the questions related to the reasons for changing the style of painting of Orthodox churches in the east of Ukraine at the turn of the 20th–21st centuries, the author offers her point of view from the standpoint of culturology. In contrast to the style of academic painting, the Byzantine style of painting conveys through visible images the invisible, spiritual, mystical, spiritual, which was the subject of search in the analyzed historical period.The author of the article analyzes the processes taking place in the religious culture and art of our state after gaining independence and comes to the following conclusions.There are several main reasons for the change in the style of painting Orthodox churches in the east of Ukraine at the turn of the 20th–21st centuries: the search for national identity as one of the important and defining processes in the culture of Ukraine, which is relevant for all regions of Ukraine (both for the West and for the East); the perception of Kyivan Rus as the main (in historical retrospect) monument in the history of Ukrainian statehood (the time of Rus, of course, is associated with the Byzantine style of temple painting); the spread of icon-painting schools and the increased interest in canonical (Byzantine) iconpainting; the desire to adhere to the ancient Byzantine statutes in monastic life; the development of religious tourism and exchange of experience between masters.The prospect of further research on this topic can be considered the study of regional features of church painting, creativity, and various components of the work of individual Ukrainian artists, including icon painters.
Nadiia Nikitenko
Naukma Research Papers. History and Theory of Culture, Volume 5, pp 27-37; https://doi.org/10.18523/2617-8907.2022.5.27-37

Abstract:
The article, for the first time in academic research, puts and comprehensively considers a unique phenomenon of picturing seven images stylized under the lily of the prince’s tridents of Volodymyr on the frescoes and graffiti of St. Sophia of Kyiv, which elucidates the time of the cathedral construction and its prince-builder. They are singled out as separate compositions, “inserted” in the center of large narrative scenes of the religious and secular nature. Four tridents of Volodymyr are present in four frescoes of the vestry, decorated with scenes from the cycle of the Virgin; two more are present in the fresco of the north stair tower, which is part of the secular cycle that tells about the conclusion of dynastic marriage between Prince Volodymyr and Byzantine Princess Anna. Two inverted tridents of Volodymyr, drawn by his warriors after the death of the prince, were found in the graffiti of St. Sophia. They appeared around 1017 after Yaroslav’s capture of the Kyiv throne. Volodymyr’s trident on the walls of St. Sophia is a sign of his ownership of the temple and the glorification of the prince in the eyes of contemporaries and descendants. On the wall of the St. Michael’s altar of the cathedral there is a trident of Iziaslav Yaroslavych, similar to the lilies on the frescoes of the cathedral, which in the conditions of feud marked the right of this prince to Kyiv and St. Sophia, its heart. Iziaslav’s trident appeared here during the difficult period between 1068 and 1078. The prince’s tridents did not appear in the graffiti of Sophia spontaneously, as their authors were inspired by the urgent needs of life at that time. Like the oldest dated graffiti on its walls, mosaics, and frescoes, Prince Volodymyr’s tridents confirm the inference that St. Sophia was founded by Volodymyr the Great in 1011, and during his reign the cathedral was built and decorated with mosaics and frescoes. Instead, Yaroslav’s tridents were not found on the walls of St. Sophia.
, Liubov Chukhrai
Naukma Research Papers. History and Theory of Culture, Volume 5, pp 54-60; https://doi.org/10.18523/2617-8907.2022.5.54-60

Abstract:
The rich archaeological heritage of Ukraine is represented in museum expositions by various finds. Almost every region of Ukraine has unique archaeological sites. A much higher level of attraction gives the visitor a display in the exposition of the context of the find. However, there are almost no such contextual reconstructions. The purpose of this article is to highlight the place and role of contextual models of metallurgical production of the population of Ukraine in the Late Bronze and Early Iron Ages in the archaeological and historical exposition. Coal pits and ditches, ash pans, metallurgical furnaces, forges, slag dumps, etc. occupy a special place among archaeological objects for mock-ups. The remains of these industries have been studied at many Chimerian, Scythian, and early Slavic sites. Here are the most informative memos containing the remains of metallurgical production and related industries.At the settlement of Lymanske Lake of the Bondarykha culture, a raw-oak forge was found, attached to the wall of the dwelling as a shelter. This is a typical blacksmith’s metallurgical workshop, which can be subjected to a graphic reconstruction and reproduced in a museum exhibition. An oval raw-hearth furnace was discovered at the Sharpov settlement of the Scythian era. A device for slag release was traced, which is the most ancient in Ukraine (the 6th century). Thus, among the Scythians, two types of horns can be traced. The first species has two subspecies. The first subspecies are round forges deepened into the ground and the second subspecies are ground round or oval forges up to 1 m in diameter. Thus, the creation of models of metallurgical and other industries for the archaeological exposition of historical museums is an important component of creating strong museum communication. Due to the absence or impossibility of transferring the monument to the skansen, a full-scale model is the only way to convey outstanding archaeological monuments to visitors.
Naukma Research Papers. History and Theory of Culture, Volume 5, pp 81-86; https://doi.org/10.18523/2617-8907.2022.5.81-86

Abstract:
The proposed article is based on the report presented at the conference “The Days of Science at NaUKMA” on January 26, 2022, just one month before the Russian invasion. Back then it seemed impossible. The active phase of the previous military confrontation ended in 2015 and it transformed into a positional and hybrid warfare. Since then, some representatives of Ukrainian scientific community, under the guise of “science without politics,” continued to cooperate with Russia, from publishing their research in Russian journals to holding joint conferences and more. The author of the article, despite the rejection, did not see this as an intention but rather a misunderstanding of the objective reality. Therefore, the purpose of the report was to prove that hybrid warfare is a covert but real war in the context of post-truth.Post-truth as a mode of meanings functioning is a shift of boundaries between the real and the imaginary; it does not equal lie but rather is negligence, indifference to the truth, which entails uncertainty of positions and substitutions of concepts. Fake, on the other hand, is a specific form of misinformation which has accompanied hybrid warfare. However, on February 24, 2022, the war took the form of an open escalation, the planning of which was denied by Russia in accordance with the genre of hybrid warfare with its cortege of fakes.The choice of the topic focused on the sexual narrative is relevant, in particular due to the public joke of Russian President Putin towards Ukrainian President Zelensky at a press conference in Moscow on February 8, 2022, directly related to rape, which became widely known in the media. As it turned out later, it was not a joke but a certain affirmation, an intention of thinking, which turned into mass rapes of Ukrainian women and children by Russian soldiers in the new stage of Russia’s war against Ukraine.
Naukma Research Papers. History and Theory of Culture, Volume 5, pp 87-93; https://doi.org/10.18523/2617-8907.2022.5.87-93

Abstract:
The Modernism Apocalyptics and an Alternative Path of Civilization for Ukraine. Review: Shchelin Pavel. 2022. “Poslednyaya voyna Moderna, ili Otkrytaya dver v novuyu epokhu.” Khvylia. April 14, 2022
Naukma Research Papers. History and Theory of Culture, Volume 5, pp 21-26; https://doi.org/10.18523/2617-8907.2022.5.21-26

Abstract:
The article examines the phenomenon of the iconic in its connection with everyday, social, and political practices. Based on the distinction between idol and icon, it was found out that violent practices are often disguised as Christian narratives, which should not really be related to violence in their speech about the disadvantaged or in the immediate reality of existence. With the help of the theory of David Bentley Hart, Jean-Luc Marion, and Rene Girard, models for the functioning of totalitarian consciousness were proposed, which under the Christian wrappage conceals the justification of injustice and aggression and legitimizes its own power.An analysis of the “wisdom of this world” as a truth that claims to broadcast non-contextual and nonhistorical “eternal truth” as a “cultural sublime” for its audience was carried out. Using the model of Heraclitus (Dionysian) and Parmenides (Apollonian), different types of violence are analyzed, which imitate their own opposition and rebellion. Due to this, it was found out that in a totalitarian state there are both types of violence, which make it possible to satisfy different categories of people to ensure their loyalty. It is concluded that the narratives of a cultural hero or a tragic hero who destroys the social order are incompatible with the Christian narrative of the Servant God.The phenomenon of metaphysical consciousness and its connection with idolatry and belief in the formless abyss as a deity is also analyzed. It is shown that in the theory of David Bentley Hart, an important place is occupied by the “resurrection” of the aesthetic premise as the only possible reason for the ethical in the modern world. Involving the theory of a sensitive society, an attempt was made to combine the theory of the iconic as a special perception of the world with the possibility of changing social and cultural attitudes for a better future.
Naukma Research Papers. History and Theory of Culture, Volume 5, pp 7-15; https://doi.org/10.18523/2617-8907.2022.5.7-15

Abstract:
The study appeals to two works on Moscow sign boards: F. Distribuendi’s brochure and S. Krzhizhanovsky’s essay were aimed at examining the authors’ final conclusions and visions of both the imperial and soviet in conceptual form, rather than an ideological marker of chronological time of analysis of street sign boards in Moscow. The maximum coverage of the components of each of the stories about the decoration of sign boards guaranteed the presentation of these authorized stories as a completed narrative complex, which excludes the possibility of involving these works in premature, external to the consistent course of each of these stories, comparison.An analysis of Distribuendi’s narrative complex of Moscow signs showed that the continuing deterioration in the artistic level of ordinary signboards could not preserve the legendary history of their origins and preserve the possibility of reviews of these signboards as a new historical monument.A possible reform of the design of signboards in the form of unified completed forms is hindered not by the lack of calculations but only by the lack of omnipotent desire. F. Distribuendi’s vision of the desire for the final basis of the reform in the design of signboards connects this reform to all previous reforms in the empire, which were implemented only by the power and makes the whole narrative complex of Distribuendi’s work an organic imperial vision. Analysis of the narrative complex of S. Krzhizhanovsky’s essay on Moscow signs made it possible to identify a certain core in it, which streamlines the analysis of the presence of signboards in the city. This core was the vision of capturing the signboards of visual attention and memory of the average person as result of the organization of thinking in a pattern.The last option of thinking can level the sense of difference between people and everyday phenomena. Therefore, the liberation of sight and attention of the sign, an instruction of Soviet institutions from the performances of symbolic signs as the most powerful pattern of hunting for the buyer, was proposed to study further, but under the Soviet vision: transmission of knowledge about the final victory over thinking in patterns on sign boards to new generations.
Оleksandr Romanukha, Lilia Bershova
Naukma Research Papers. History and Theory of Culture, Volume 5, pp 61-69; https://doi.org/10.18523/2617-8907.2022.5.61-69

Abstract:
The article draws attention to the development of cultural and cognitive tourism in Ukraine in the context of the spread of the COVID-19 pandemic. The degree of information technologies introduction as an effective form of museum work in the conditions of lockdown is analyzed. The level of activity of “museumvisitor” communications in social networks as the main platform for dialogue and work was assessed. Attention is paid to the role of panoramic photos, virtual tours, online tours as an effective marketing tool for self-promotion and a mechanism for saving the internal visitors in order for them to return in the future.Based on the collected material on traffic congestion, in the number of visits, posts, reposts, and preferences, a cluster analysis of information activity of cultural and cognitive tourism facilities was conducted and four centers were identified: Central-Eastern; Western; Southern; Northern. It was stated that the dynamics of information technology dissemination was more active in the Central-Eastern and Northern regions. The presence of a big number of large museums facilitated the involvement of volunteers or investors to digitize exhibitions or create virtual tours, in contrast to small regional ones which were distributed in the western regions of Ukraine. The seasonality of bursts of interest in information resources during the New Year holidays or summer vacations has been revealed.Statistical analysis of visitors to the information resources of museums by age, sex, geography of residence helped to draw attention to the characteristics of visitors. The data showed that the majority of visitors (80 %) belonged to local users, which suggests the need to promote them, especially in other regions of Ukraine, in order to intensify domestic tourism. This practice will not only increase the tourist flow of Ukraine, but also the cultural and tourist integration of citizens. At the same time, women showed greater interest in information resources, which indicates the need to take into account these features in building the marketing strategy of museums in the information space.
Naukma Research Papers. History and Theory of Culture, Volume 5, pp 16-20; https://doi.org/10.18523/2617-8907.2022.5.16-20

Abstract:
In the article we concentrate our efforts on the detailed analysis of “The Lonely Songs of Laren Dorr”, the first fantasy story written by George R. R. Martin in 1976. Before that, he had written science fiction; and by now, we know him as the creator of the famous Game of Thrones. In this very first manifestation of George Martin’s creativity we can see some kind of a draft for future worlds of his own guided by the power of the Seven. They do not represent as yet different avatars of one and the same deity; rather, they are separate gods. Those gods are envious, cruel, and persecutory, which characteristics remind us of Ancient Greek ones. They steal Laren Dorr’s memory and even his dreams. Once he opposed them, and now he sings his lonely songs in a castle. Forever, because he is immortal.As well as immortal is a girl named Sharra who travels between worlds, searching her lost lover. Ancient gods hated excessive happiness of humans, and so do the Seven. The girl must struggle through innumerable gates between innumerable worlds, and after such a struggle she occasionally enters the lonely world of Laren Dorr. He tries to soothe her by his songs and his compassion, so that inevitably two solitary rebels against gods fall in love with each other.But not for a long time, in her case. After a while, she feels remorse and longs to return to her endless and hopeless search. He sighs and shows her a gate in the neighboring tower, explaining that there is always a guardian. Some try to stop her with force, some with lies. Only he tried to detain her with love, but he was true and never sang her false. He shoves her to the door. Now, he sings his lonely loving songs about her.George Martin’s Shakespearian inspiration obvious in the Game of Thrones was not enough to interpret this early story. We had to actualize ancient theories of love, as well as some medieval ones originating from the 12th century. As we know, Martin always combines those types of imagination.In our analysis we used the following concepts: ethics, desire, truth, and sentimentality. The former two are Lacanian and postmodern, the latter two ones lead us to the metamodern world of today. We cannot ignore the date of 1976 which is too early for a conscious metamodern outlook, but we believe in some kind of the writer’s insight of the forthcoming revival of sentimental moods, sometimes silenced and ephemeral, but always true.
Olena Pavlova
Naukma Research Papers. History and Theory of Culture, Volume 5, pp 47-53; https://doi.org/10.18523/2617-8907.2022.5.47-53

Abstract:
The article contributes to the history systematization of the visual anthropology area. The author considers and conceptualizes the stages of this discipline formation not only in accordance with the logic of self-understanding of its representatives, but also taking into account the genesis of optical media. The parameters of video production prove not only the instrumental role of visual anthropology in relation to the field of cultural anthropology, but also allow the latter to be a science in the strict sense of the term; that is, to have not only theoretical generalizations but also a rich empirical base. The inability of textual forms of recording anthropological material to adequately capture the cultural practices of traditional communities has also revealed the preserving and even salvage potential of the video production. However, the dominant of writing as a basic practice of science and its definition as a transparent carrier of scientific discourse did not allow to understand, at the initial stages. the innovative potential of visual anthropology, the specifics of its optics and methodology. The article pays attention both to the specifics of the practice of fixing video products (painting, photography, cinema, and the Internet) and to the forms of the representatives reflection of anthropological thought about their influence on the anthropology subject field. In this article, particular attention is paid to the degree of differentiation of cultural anthropology subject fields and visual anthropology against the background of basic transformations of cultural research. The influence of basic theoretical guidelines, in particular the principle of historical rationalism, participation in the formation of visual anthropology area itself, is also defined. In addition to theoretical principles and procedures of description, as well as comprehension of visual products and guidelines of research communities, the methodological significance of other parameters, formed as basic units of visual anthropology, are analyzed: technical parameters of optical media, the order of signifiers of visual representations, communication between video production and the audience. The author presents the disciplinary and historical context of the genesis of visual anthropology, as well as analyzes the conceptual logic of collective work edited by Paul Hockings “Principles of Visual Anthropology,” which is considered a fundamental work for self-awareness of this research area.
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