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Journal Amerta Nutrition

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141 articles
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Mochammad Rizal, Calista Segalita
Published: 1 December 2018
Amerta Nutrition, Volume 2, pp 299-306; doi:10.20473/amnt.v2i4.2018.299-306

Abstract:Background: Citrulline is an ergogenic non-essential amino acid which is able to increase production, efficiency, and use of energy, as well as performance in sport. Purpose: The objective of this literature review was to explain the role of citrulline in improving exercise performance through both aerobic and anaerobic metabolic pathways. Discussion: The results showed evidence that citrulline has role in improving exercise performance. Several articles indicate that the consumption of citrulline either supplement or watermelon given during certain period or acute before the test might increase VO2max, retard muscle fatigue, and decrease delayed onset muscle soreness. Some studies used 6-8 g citrulline before exercise, but lower dose was used in some other studies. Conclusion: Amino acids citrulline either supplement or watermelon is believed to have role in improving exercise performance in athletes although there is no recommendation dose has been found. ABSTRAKLatar Belakang: Sitrulin merupakan asam amino non esensial yang bersifat ergogenik yaitu dapat meningkatkan produksi, efisiensi, dan penggunaan energi serta performa olahraga.Tujuan: Tujuan penulisan kajian pustaka ini adalah untuk menjabarkan peran sitrulin dalam meningkatkan performa olahraga melalui jalur metabolisme baik aerobik maupun anaerobik.Ulasan: Hasil literature review menunjukkan bukti bahwa sitrulin memiliki peran dalam meningkatkan performa olahraga atlet. Beberapa artikel menunjukkan bahwa konsumsi sitrulin baik dalam bentuk suplemen maupun buah semangka yang diberikan selama jangka waktu tertentu maupun sesaat sebelum dilakukan tes latihan fisik mampu meningkatkan VO2max, menunda kelelahan otot, dan mengurangi rasa nyeri otot pasca latihan. Beberapa penelitian menggunakan dosis 6-8 g sitrulin sebelum olahraga, beberapa penelitian lain menggunakan dosis yang lebih rendah.Kesimpulan: Asam amino sitrulin baik dalam bentuk suplemen maupun buah semangka diyakini memiliki peran dalam meningkatkan performa olahraga atlet walaupun rekomendasi dosis baku yang disarankan belum ditemukan.
Rivan Virlando Suryadinata
Published: 1 December 2018
Amerta Nutrition, Volume 2, pp 317-324; doi:10.20473/amnt.v2i4.2018.317-324

Abstract:Background: Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease is diseases caused by exposure to cigarette smoke. Cigarette smoke carries free radicals into the airways which can lead to acute exacerbations in patients.Objectives: explanation of inflammatory processes in the airways in patients with PPOK due to an increase in free radicals.Discusion: In the human body, free radicals are metabolic products from normal cells and function as one of the body's defense systems. Free radicals can be Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS) and Reactive Nitrogen Species (RNS), both of which can be obtained from the inside (endogenous) or from outside the body (exogenous). In the pathological, exposure to cigarette smoke causes an imbalance between the amount of free radicals produced in the body so that it can lead to oxidative stress.Conclusion: An increase in the number of free radicals will directly affect inflammatory mediators in the body. Increased free radicals will trigger the inflammatory process locally in the airways and systemically, so increasing the rate of exacerbations in COPD patients.ABSTRAKLatar Belakang : Penyakit PPOK ditimbulkan akibat paparan asap rokok yang terus menerus. Radikal bebas yang dibawa oleh asap rokok terhirup masuk kedalam saluran napas dapat menimbulkan eksaserbasi.Tujuan : Menjelaskan proses eksaserbasi yang dipengaruhi oleh proses inflamasi pada penderita PPOK akibat peningkatan radikal bebas.Ulasan : Pada tubuh manusia, radikal bebas merupakan produk hasil metabolisme dari sel normal. Pada keadaan normal, Radikal bebas berfungsi sebagai salah satu sistem pertahanan tubuh. Radikal bebas dapat berupa Reactive Oxygen Spesies (ROS) dan Reactive Nitrogen Spesies (RNS), keduanya dapat diperoleh melalui dari dalam (endogen) maupun dari luar tubuh (eksogen). Pada keadaan patologis akibat paparan asap rokok menimbulkan ketidakseimbangan antara jumlah radikal bebas yang dihasilkan dalam tubuh sehingga dapat mengakibatkan terjadinya stress oksidatif.Kesimpulan:Peningkatan jumlah radikal bebas secara langsung akan berpengaruh pada mediator inflamasi pada tubuh. Peningkatan radikal bebas akan memicu proses inflamasi secara lokal pada saluran napas dan sistemik sehingga meningkatkan angka kejadian eksaserbasi pada penderita PPOK.
Syafira Kandinasti, Farapti Farapti
Published: 1 December 2018
Amerta Nutrition, Volume 2, pp 307-316; doi:10.20473/amnt.v2i4.2018.307-316

Abstract:Background: The prevalence of obesity in all age groups has increased in some countries. Epidemiological studies indicated that the intake of energy and macronutrient over the weekend were increasing rather than on weekdays and contributed to the incidence of obesity. Objectives: The aim of this literature review is to analyze the different between intake of energy and macronutrients in weekdays compared to weekend and how it contributes to obesity . Methode: The literature review method used international journal article that was searched using the electronic database such as Medline NCBI (National Center for Biotechnology Information), embases, and google scholar.Result: The results showed that energy and macronutrient intake were increasing over the weekend than on weekdays. Consumption of unhealthy food on weekend such as foods and beverages with high sugar, high fat and alcohol increase the energy and play a role in the incidence of obesity. Conclusion: The health promotion concerning food intake on weekdays and weekend both in terms of quantity and quality is needed for obesity prevention.ABSTRAKLatar belakang: Prevalensi obesitas pada semua kelompok umur meningkat di hampir seluruh negara di dunia. Studi epidemiologi menunjukkan bahwa asupan energi dan zat gizi makro diakhir pekan meningkat dibandingkan hari biasa dan berperan pada kejadian obesitas.Tujuan: Tujuan dari literatur review ini adalah untuk menganalisis perbedaan asupan energi dan zat gizi makro diakhir pekan dibandingkan hari biasa dan bagaimana kontribusinya terhadap obesitas.Metode: Metode yang digunakan adalah metode penelusuran artikel jurnal internasional yang ditelusuri menggunakan electronic database seperti medline NCBI (National Center for Biotechnology Information), embase, dan penelusuran dengan google schoolar.Hasil: Hasil telaah beberapa artikel menunjukan bahwa rata-rata asupan energi dan zat gizi makro mengalami peningkatan saat akhir pekan dibandingkan hari biasa. Konsumsi unhealthy food di akhir pekan seperti makanan dan minuman dengan kandungan tinggi gula, tinggi lemak, dan alkohol tampaknya menyebabkan peningkatan kalori dan berperan pada insiden obesitas.Kesimpulan: Diperlukan upaya pencegahan obesitas melalui promosi kesehatan masyarakat dengan memperhatikan asupan makanan saat hari libur baik dari segi kuantitas maupun kualitasnya.
Oryza Dwi Nanda, Bambang Wiryanto, Erwin Astha Triyono
Published: 1 December 2018
Amerta Nutrition, Volume 2, pp 340-348; doi:10.20473/amnt.v2i4.2018.340-348

Abstract:Background: Blood glucose level controlling is the important thing for diabetes mellitus treatment. Diabetics patients need to understand the factors which influence blood glucose level such as the compliance of anti-diabetic drug.Objective: Determine the relationship and the risk of between oral anti-diabetic drug consumption adherence and blood glucose level regulation for diabetes mellitus female patients.Method: Case control study design with purposive sampling technique, in order to obtain 26 research samples which consist of two groups, they are case group (unregulated blood glucose) which has 13 samples and the control group (regulated blood glucose) whice has 13 samples. The samples are female respondents aged 45-59 years old suffering diabetes mellitus. This research analyzed the relationshipand risk between anti-diabetic consumption adherence and blood glucose level regulation in diabetes mellitus patients using chi-square test.Results: Patients with unregulated blood glucose showed 46.2% people were obedient and 53.8% were not obedient in consuming anti-diabetic drugs. Patients with regulated blood glucose showed 92.3% people were obedient and 7.7% people were not obedient in consuming anti-diabetic drugs. Chi square test showed that there was a relationship between anti-diabetic drugs consumption adherence and blood glucose level regulstion for diabetes mellitus patients with p = 0.015 (p
Fathia Rabbani
Published: 1 December 2018
Amerta Nutrition, Volume 2, pp 349-355; doi:10.20473/amnt.v2i4.2018.349-355

Abstract:Background: The plate waste is one indicator of the success of the food management in hospitals. Currently, there are still many hospitals that have plate waste over 20%. Staple food is a food that is often not eaten by the patient. This can be caused by the level of ripeness that is less appropriate. Objective: To analyze the correlation between level of ripeness with the plate waste of staple food among pediatric patients in Dr. Ramelan Surabaya Naval Hospital. Methods: This study used an observational study design with cross sectional study design. The sample size was 34 respondents. The samples in this study were children aged 2-12 years and treated in second- and third-class hospital wards. This was a cross sectional study involving 34 respondents at the RUMKITAL Dr. Ramelan Surabaya. The samples in this study were children aged 2-12 years old. Plate waste of staple food was collected for measurement using comstock method; level of ripeness were measured using questionnaires. Statistical analysis used was Chi Square test.Results: The average of respondents’ plate waste which shows the level of ripeness as inappropiate, appropriate, and very appropriate are 100%, 62%, dan 33%. This resea rch founds that there is a significant relation between the level of ripeness (p=0.024) with the plate waste of staple food. Conclusions: There is a significant relation between the level of ripeness (p=0.024) with the plate waste of staple food among pediatric patients Rumkital Dr. Ramelan Surabaya. The level of ripeness can cause the texture of the staple food served to be inappropriate so that the pediatric patients become lazy to spend it.ABSTRAKLatar Belakang: Sisa makanan termasuk dalam indikator keberhasilan penyelenggaraan makanan rumah sakit. Sekarang, masih terdapa banyak rumah sakit dengan tingkat sisa makanan dalam kategori banyak yaitu >20%. Makanan pokok merupakan makanan yang paling banyak jumlah sisanya. Hal tersebut dapat disebabkan oleh faktor tingkat kematangan yang kurang sesuai.Tujuan: Untuk menganalisis hubungan antara tingkat kematangan dengan sisa makanan pokok pada pasien anak di Ruang Rawat Inap RUMKITAL Dr. Ramelan Surabaya.Metode: Penelitian ini menggunakan rancangan penelitian cross sectional. Besar sampel penelitian sebanyak 34 responden. Sampel adalah pasien anak berusia 2-12 tahun. Sisa makanan pokok dihitung dengan metode comstock; tingkat kematangan makanan didapat melalui wawancara dan kuesioner. Uji statistik yang digunakan adalah uji Chi square.Hasil: Rerata jumlah sisa makanan responden yang menyatakan tingkat kematangan kurang sesuai, sesuai, dan sangat sesuai yaitu sebesar 100%, 62%, dan 33%. hubungan yang signifikan antara tingkat kematangan (p=0,024) dengan sisa makanan pokok didapatkan melalui penelitian ini.Kesimpulan: Tingkat kematangan memiliki hubungan yang signifikan dengan sisa makanan pokok pada pasien anak Rumkital Dr. Ramelan Surabaya. Tingkat kematangan dapat menyebabkan tekstur makanan pokok yang...
Sakinah Ramadhani, Luki Mundiastuti, Trias Mahmudiono
Published: 1 December 2018
Amerta Nutrition, Volume 2, pp 325-331; doi:10.20473/amnt.v2i4.2018.325-331

Abstract:Background: obesity prevalence in elementary school student increased due to low physical activity rate also excessive food intake. The habit of watching tv, using computer and smartphone is also related to this obesity prevalence.Objective: Analyze physical activity at recess, intensity of smartphone use, and incidence of obesity among students at Full Day Elementary SchoolMethod: Using a case control with 110 elementary school children consisting of two groups, namely the normal nutritional status group of 55 respondents and the obesity status group of 55 respondents.Sampling was done by propotional random sampling. This study will compare physical activity at rest, and the intensity of smartphone use on obesity status and normal nutritional status. Analysis of this study data using chi-square test and logistic regression.Results : The results showed that there was a relationship between physical activity during the first break with obesity (p=0.010) and an OR value of 0.059 with a 95% CI (0.011-0.509) which meant that students who did physical activity first break by sitting at risk 0.059 times less to be obese. As for physical activity at the second rest (p=0.748), intensity of smartphone usage during weekdays (p=0.225), and intensity of smartphone use when there was no correlation with the incidence of obesity.Conclusion: Physical activity at the first break was related to the incidence of obesity in elementary school children Full Day School. As for the second resting activity, the intensity of smartphone usage during weekdays and weekends is not related to the incidence of obesity in elementary school children Full Day School.ABSTRAKLatar Belakang: Peningkatan obesitas disebabkan kurang melakukan aktivitas fisik dan kelebihan asupan makanan. Kebiasaan menonton tv, bermain komputer, dan smartphone yang dikaitkan dengan prevalensi obesitas saat ini.Tujuan: Menganalisis hubungan aktivitas fisik saat istirahat dan intensitas penggunaan smartphone, pada anak dengan status obesitas dan status gizi normal di SD Full Day School.Metode: Mengunakan case control dengan 110 anak Sekolah Dasar yang terdiri dari dua kelompok yaitu kelompok status gizi normal sebanyak 55 responden dan kelompok status obesitas sebanyak 55 responden. Pengambilan sampel dilakukan dengan propotional random sampling. Penelitian ini akan membandingkan aktivitas fisik saat istirahat, dan intensitas penggunaan smartphone pada status obesitas dan status gizi normal. Analisis data penelitian ini menggunakan uji chi-square dan regresi logistik.Hasil: Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa terdapat hubungan antara aktivitas fisik saat istirahat pertama dengan obesitas (p=0,010) dan didapatkan nilai OR sebesar 0,059 dengan CI 95% (0,011-0,509) yang berarti bahwa siswa yang melakukan aktivitas fisik istirahat pertama berisiko 0,059 kali lebih kecil untuk mengalami obesitas. Sedangkan untuk aktivitas fisik saat istirahat kedua (p=0,748), intensitas penggunaan smartphone saat weekdays...
Dwi Agista Larasati, Triska Susila Nindya, Yuni Sufyanti Arief
Published: 1 December 2018
Amerta Nutrition, Volume 2, pp 392-401; doi:10.20473/amnt.v2i4.2018.392-401

Abstract:Background: Stunting is growth failure which commonly occurs among children. In Indonesia, the prevalence of stunted growth is still high. The high number of stunted children is a result of the risk factors, which are early marriage that causes adolescent pregnancy, and non-exclusive breastfeeding.Objectives: To analyze the relationship between teenage pregnancy and a history of exclusive breastfeeding against the incidence of stunting in infants under five years.Method: This research was a descriptive analysis which used case-control method. The samples in this research were 58 children, who were selected using multiple stage sampling, and divided into two groups; stunting and non-stunting. The collected data include the children’s height measurement andquestionnaire of exclusive breastfeeding history, as well as questionnaire of mother’s age at first pregnancy and the respondents’ identity. The data were analyzed using SPSS software with chi square test and WHO AnthroResults: The results of this research revealed significant correlation between adolescent pregnancy and stunted children (p=0.016), with odds ratio of 3.86. Moreover, significant correlation was also manifested between non-exclusive breastfeeding and stunted children (p=0.003), with odds ratio of 3.23. The younger the mother at pregnancy and the absence of exclusive breastfeeding resulted in higher risk of child stunting. Therefore, this research concluded that adolescent pregnancy and non-exclusive breastfeeding might increase the risk of child stunting.Conclusion: This research concluded that adolescent pregnancy and non – exsclusive breastfeeding might increase the risk of stunting in children.ABSTRAKLatar Belakang: Stunting adalah kejadian gagal tumbuh yang sering terjadi pada anak. Prevalensi stunting di Indonesia sendiri masih tinggi. Tingginya jumlah anak yang mengalami stunting merupakan hasil dari tingginya faktor yang memengaruhinya seperti; pernikahan dini yang menyebabkan terjadinya kehamilan pada remaja dan pemberian ASI yang tidak eksklusif.Tujuan: Menganalisis apakah terdapat hubungan antara kehamilan remaja dan riwayat pemberian ASI eksklusif terhadap kejadian stunting pada balita.Metode: Penelitian ini merupakan penelitian analitik, menggunakan metode case – control. Jumlah sampel dalam penelitian ini adalah 58 anak, yang dipilih menggunakan metode multiple stage sampling dan dibagi menjadi dua kelompok yaitu stunting dan non – stunting. Data yang dikumpulkan meliputi pengukuran panjang badan anak dan kuisioner riwayat pemberian ASI eksklusif, kuisoner usia ibu pertama kali hamil dan identitas responden. Analisis data menggunakan software SPSS dengan uji Chi – square untuk menganalisis hubungan variabel dependen dengan independen sedangkan software WHO Antro digunakan untuk menganalisis status gizi balita (TB/U) menurut z – score.Hasil: Hasil dari penelitian ini menunjukan hubungan yang signifikan antara kehamilan remaja dengan kejadian...
Febry Dian Permatasari, Annis Catur Adi, Ratna Candra Dewi
Published: 1 December 2018
Amerta Nutrition, Volume 2, pp 332-339; doi:10.20473/amnt.v2i4.2018.332-339

Abstract:Background: Basketball is sport that requires physical endurance, speed and high energy expenditure. Some college students have problem like low of fitness level because lack of physical activity, so it can inhibit basketball player’s performance. Besides, the irregular consumption of food and drink daily also causes effect nutritional status. Technique and exercise without good nutrition status will not reach optimal achievement.Objectives: This research aims to analyze of correlation between nutritional status and physical activity with fitness level among basketball players in student’s basketball club in Surabaya.Methods: This was study with cross sectional design. The sample was 40 students who were recruited through simple random sampling. The data collection including nutritional status by measuring theweight and height, questionnaire about physical activity and measuring fitness level with bleep test method. Data analysis used was Pearson Correlation. Results: The majority nutritional status respondents was normal in boys (85.7%) and in girls (84.1%). Majority of respondents have high physical activity for both boys (52.4%) and girls (73.7%). While the fitness level was mostly good in boys (28.5%) and girls (26.3%). There was a significant correlation between physical activity and fitness level among basketball players (p=0.046). However, the correlation between nutrition status and fitness level was not statistically significant (p=0.693).Conclusions: Physical activity was significantly correlated with fitness level and but not with nutrition status. Basketball player should maintain their nutritional status together with physical activity through regular exercise and healthy eating. Normal nutrition status without adequate physical activity will not increase fitness level. ABSTRAKLatar Belakang: Olahraga bola basket menuntut ketahanan fisik, kecepatan, dan pengeluaran energi yang besar. Pada mahasiswa, sering muncul masalah rendahnya tingkat kebugaran karena aktivitas fisik yang kurang sehingga dapat menghambat kemampuan olahraga. Selain itu, konsumsi makanan dan minuman yang tidak teratur dapat mempengaruhi status gizi. Teknik dan latihan tanpa dilengkapi dengan status gizi baik tidak akan mencapai prestasi yang optimal.Tujuan: Penelitian ini bertujuan mempelajari hubungan antara status gizi dan aktivitas fisik dengan tingkat kebugaran pemain bola basket di UKM basket Surabaya.Metode: Penelitian ini menggunakan desain penelitian Cross Sectional. Sampel penelitian sebanyak 40 orang diambil secara acak dengan menggunakan simple random sampling. Pengumpulan data meliputi status gizi dengan pengukuran berat badan dan tinggi badan, kuesioner aktivitas fisik dan pengukuran tingkat kebugaran dengan metode bleep test. Analisis data yang digunakan adalah korelasi Pearson.Hasil: Mayoritas status gizi responden normal (85,7%) laki-laki dan (84,1%) perempuan. Mayoritas aktivitas fisik responden adalah tinggi (52,4%) laki-laki dan (73,7%)...
Fauziah Itsnaini Shofiana, Denok Widari, Sri Sumarmi
Published: 1 December 2018
Amerta Nutrition, Volume 2, pp 356-363; doi:10.20473/amnt.v2i4.2018.356-363

Abstract:Background: Anemia is a major nutritional problem in Indonesian, one of the occurs in pregnant women. Therefore the government issued prevention and control program of iron deficiency anemia through consecutive iron supplementation for at least 90 days during pregnancy.Objectives: This study aimed to analyze the influence of age, education and knowledge of consumption of iron tablets.Methods: This research was conducted in Maron Public Health Center, District of Probolinggo using a cross sectional design. A sample of 40 pregnant women in their last trimester who have received 90 iron tablets was recruited with a simple random sampling technique. The influence of age, education, and knowledge was analyzed using logistic regression test with significance value < 0,05.Results: The results showed that the knowledge of pregnant women affected of consumption of iron tablets (p=0.026), but age (p=0.914), education (p=0.419) did not affected of consumption of iron tablets. Conclusion: The conclusion of this research is that consumption of iron tablets in pregnant women is influenced by knowledge of pregnant women. The lack knowledge of the mother, the lower the level consumption of iron tablets. ABSTRAKLatar Belakang: Anemia merupakan masalah gizi utama di Indonesia, salah satunya terjadi pada ibu hamil. Oleh karena itu pemerintah mengeluarkan program pencegahan dan pengendalian anemia defisiensi besi melalui suplementasi besi berturut-turut selama setidaknya 90 hari selama kehamilan.Tujuan: Tujuan penelitian ini untuk menganalisis pengaruh usia, pendidikan, dan pengetahuan terhadap konsumsi tablet tambah darah.Metode: Penelitian ini dilakukan di Puskesmas Maron, Kabupaten Probolinggo menggunakan desain cross sectional, sampel sebanyak 40 ibu hamil TM III yang mendapatkan 90 tablet besi dengan teknik simple random sampling. Pengaruh usia, pendidikan, dan pengetahuan dianalisis menggunakan uji regresi logistik dengan nilai signifikansi
Annisa Fidya Lestari, Ratna Setyaningsih
Published: 1 December 2018
Amerta Nutrition, Volume 2, pp 364-372; doi:10.20473/amnt.v2i4.2018.364-372

Abstract:Background: Sustainable Reserve Food Garden Area (KRPL) is program that to increase family dietary diversity, such as children. Children’s dietary diversity can affect to nutritional adequacy and can impact to growth process. The factor that can affect successful of KRPL program is parents’ education level.Objectives: The purpose of this study was to identify the difference between children’s dietary diversity level, household income level, and parents’ education level in sustainable reserve food garden area (KRPL) and non KRPL household in Kamal sub-district, Bangkalan district, Madura. Method: This was an observational study with case control comparative study design was conducted among 25 children in KRPL area and 25 children in non KRPL area with mother or other family member as respondents. Simple random sampling method was used to select the samples. Children and parents’ characteristic were asked to answer structured questionnaire. Children dietary diversity level was asked by Individual Dietary Diversity Score (IDDS) instrument. The data was analyzed with Mann Whitney statistic test. Result: Children that involved in this study, either in KRPL or non KRPL area, was less than the same 35 months old (52%). Children from KRPL area was mostly girls (64%), while children from non KPRL area was mostly boys (56%). Children dietary diversity condition in KRPL area was low (52%), while children dietary diversity level in non KRPL area was sufficient (64%). Children who lived in KRPL area not always have diverse intake. The result showed that there was no difference between children dietary diversity level in KRPL and non KRPL area (p=0.259). Household income level on KRPL area was higher (68%) if compared to household on non KRPL area (44%). Parents’ education level in KRPL area was classified high (father=88%, mother=88%), while that parents’ education level in non KRPL area classified low (father=88%, mother=100%) (p=0.000). Parents in KRPL area have higher education level compare to parents in non KPRL area. Conclusion: Children dietary diversity in KRPL area are not different with non KRPL area. Children who lived in KRPL area not always have diverse intake. There is difference between household’s income level and parents’ education level. Household in KRPL area have higher income and parents in KRPL area have higher education level compare to households and parents in non KPRL area. ABSTRAKLatar Belakang: Kawasan Rumah Pangan Lestari (KRPL) merupakan program yang bertujuan untuk memperbaiki dan meningkatkan keragaman pangan keluarga, salah satunya balita. Keragaman pangan pada balita dapat berpengaruh pada kecukupan kebutuhan gizi dan berdampak pada proses pertumbuhannya. Salah satu faktor yang dapat mempengaruhi keberhasilan program KPRL adalah tingkat pendidikan orang tua.Tujuan: Tujuan dari penelitian ini adalah untuk mengidentifikasi perbedaan tingkat keragaman pangan balita dan tingkat pendapatan keluarga, dan...
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