Journal Jurnal Wilayah dan Lingkungan-
Jurnal Wilayah dan Lingkungan, Volume 6, pp 131-147; doi:10.14710/jwl.6.2.131-147
Abstract:Limited capacity of government on drinking water supply has demanded the implementation of Community Based Water Supply System, one of them in the form of a Drinking Water User Association (Hippam). An important issue in community-based water supply is sustainability, from which institutions play a critical factor in the sustained provision of drinking water. Institutions relate to management, maintenance and financing systems, and contribute to technology selection and decision making. The purpose of this study is to explore the institutional conditions as a determinant factor for the sustainability of community-based water management. The study also aims to develop a framework for sustainable institutional assessment in community-based drinking water supply. In this study Hippam Mandiri Arjowinangun (HMA) in Malang City, East Java Province was chosen as a case study. HMA has been operating since 1994. The sustainability of HMA regarding applying the principles of institutional support for sustainability was very interesting as a case. The research method applied qualitative research by comparing the benchmark of institutional principles of sustainability with institutional principles applied to HMA. The result shows that HMA has applied the principles of institutional support for sustainability. However, some issues should be addressed in the HMA sustainability include the delineation of the water source boundary, specific attributes for the users, and the rules of water utilization. The study has also produced an assessment framework for the sustainability of community-based drinking water supply systems from the institutional perspective.
Jurnal Wilayah dan Lingkungan, Volume 6, pp 88-99; doi:10.14710/jwl.6.2.88-99
Abstract:Food Security and Vulnerability Atlas (FSVA) of Indonesia 2015 categorized the vulnerability to food and nutrition insecurity based on nine indicators covering food availability, food access and food utilization. According to the assessment, 14 districts in priority 1 (severely vulnerable to food insecurity) were all in Papua. Responding to the problems of food insecurity, a multi-year program focusing on two regencies, i.e., Manokwari and Merauke, was conducted from August 2015. The program was developed in cooperation with the Ministry of Villages, Disadvantaged Regions and Transmigration (Kemendes PDTT), Gadjah Mada University Yogyakarta and district governments. This research aimed to examine the problems causing food insecurity and to develop integrative and collaborative macro-scale policy recommendations. The study used a qualitative descriptive method and a pilot project approach to address food insecurity problems in both regencies. It found five main issues related to food insecurity in Papua: the prevalence of stunting among children under five, the ratio of per capita normative consumption towards net cereal production, the population living below poverty line, households without access to clean water, and low-income families. The problems could be overcome by concerning the ratio of normative consumption per capita and the preservation of local food, and local crops should be grown especially tubers. Regarding the problems associated with low-income families, a program that should be implemented is the welfare improvement of the rural low-income families through the optimization of land resources in the integrated and intensive ways in response to many land resources still underutilized. Moreover, water treatment should be encouraged further to tackle clean water issues.
Jurnal Wilayah dan Lingkungan, Volume 6, pp 74-87; doi:10.14710/jwl.6.2.74-87
Abstract:Monoculture farming of arabica coffee plantation does not support environmental sustainability. International market demands arabica coffee product in compliance with an environmentally friendly standard which promotes ecological-based management. This study aims to identify the ecological aspects of specialty arabica coffee cultivation, and to analyze the effect of shade tree population, the use of organic fertilizer, the pruning of coffee crop, land conservation, and the control of coffee berry borer on specialty arabica coffee production. The data of ecological aspect was collected from three regencies in North Sumatera Province, namely Simalungun, North Tapanuli, and Dairi. Production determinant was analyzed concerning farming cultivation in three districts of Simalungun Regency namely Sidamanik, Pamatang Sidamanik, and Dolok Pardamean. The location was determined with multi-stage cluster sampling and the farmer samples with simple random sampling. The ecological aspect was analyzed descriptively while the determinant of arabica coffee production was analyzed with multiple regression method. The result shows that the shaded arabica coffee farming covers only 32% of the total arabica coffee production in the study area with a population of 54 trees/ha. Land conservation conducted by the farmers utilizes coffee fruit mulch (92%), individual terrace (3%), rorak (4%), and bench terrace (1%). The arabica coffee farming system managed by the farmers consists of monoculture (30%), mix farming (24%), shade coffee (32%), and multistrata coffee (14%). The pruning of coffee plants and integrated control of coffee berry borer has a significant effect on specialty arabica coffee production. Land conservation, population of shade tree, and organic fertilizer are an important production determinant on arabica coffee production in the short-term. These three ecological variables play a role to maintain land preservation and support sustainable arabica coffee production in the long-term.
Jurnal Wilayah dan Lingkungan, Volume 6, pp 100-114; doi:10.14710/jwl.6.2.100-114
Abstract:The coastal area of Semarang City has a strategic function for regional economic development. Due to land use change, the environmental quality of coastal area is damaged and declining. The environmental quality decline has affected the socio-economic quality of local community. This research aims to investigate the role of local community in sustainable environmental management in Semarang City coastal area. The study takes place in two kelurahans, namely Tugurejo and Mangunharjo, and applies a descriptive qualitative approach to figure out the local community role in the coastal environment rehabilitation. Data collection through a preliminary survey supported with a satellite imagery study covers up an appropriate ecosystem with the research substance. Then the following data analysis and interpretation uses Miles and Huberman interactive analysis method. The results show the significant role of the local community in coastal area quality management and improvement in Semarang City more effectively and efficiently. This relates to their active interactions in various community-based programs including wave-breaking instrument building and mangrove nursery and planting.
Jurnal Wilayah dan Lingkungan, Volume 6, pp 115-130; doi:10.14710/jwl.6.2.115-130
Abstract:Infrastructure disparity is considered as one of the factors that enhances economic inequality between regions. In the Indonesian context, the issue is interesting to be examined, especially the government is currently encouraging infrastructure development in various regions in Indonesia.This study aims at analyzing the dynamics of infrastructure and economic inequalities between regions (provinces) in Indonesia and examining the relationship between the two. This research employs several methods, namely Williamson Index, Klassen typology, and correlation and regression analyses. These methods are to provide an adequate scope of analysis to investigate trends and linkages of infrastructure development and economic imbalances between provinces in Indonesia. The study results find that the economic gap (in term of GRDP per capita) among the provinces in Indonesia was relatively high during the period 2011-2015. It was confirmed by the value of Williamson Index at 0.7 points. The relatively high rate of the gap was mostly associated with the infrastructure gap among the provinces. Strong positive correlation between the gap of GRDP per capita and of infrastructure among provinces. This delivers a strong message to the government to accelerate equal development programs proportionally in lagging regions in order to reduce development bias to more developed regions.
Jurnal Wilayah dan Lingkungan, Volume 6, pp 30-39; doi:10.14710/jwl.6.1.30-39
Abstract:Transit system had been proposed for the urban area of Honolulu. One consideration to be determined is the alignment of the transit system. Decision to set the transit alignment will have influences on which areas will be served, who will be benefiting, as well as who will be impacted. Inputs for the decision usually conducted through public meetings, where community members are shown numbers of maps with pre-set routes. That approach could lead to a rather subjective decision by the community members. This paper attempts to discuss the utilization of grid map in determining the best alignment for rail transit system in Honolulu, Hawaii. It tries to use a more objective approach using various data derived from thematic maps. Overlaid maps are aggregated into a uniform 0.1-square mile vector based grid map system in GIS environment. The large dataset in the GIS environment is analyzed and manipulated using SAS software. The SAS procedure is applied to select the location of the alignment using a rational and deterministic approach. Grid cells that are superior compared to the others are selected based on several predefined criteria. Location of the dominant cells indicates possible transit alignment. The SAS procedure is designed to allow a transient vector called the GUIDE (Grid Unit with Intelligent Directional Expertise) agent to analyze several cells at its vicinity and to move towards a cell with the highest value. Each time the agent landed on a cell, it left a mark. The chain of those marks shows location for the transit alignment. This study shows that the combination of ArcGIS and SAS allows a robust analysis of spatial data and manipulation of its datasets, which can be used to run a simulation mimicking the Agent-Based Modelling. This study also opens up further study possibilities by increasing number of factors analyzed by the agent, as well as creating a composite value of multi-factors.
Jurnal Wilayah dan Lingkungan, Volume 6, pp 15-29; doi:10.14710/jwl.6.1.15-29
Abstract:Aceh Tsunami’s in 2004 has a significant impact on Indonesia disaster management. Shifting of disaster management paradigm has directed to proactive preparedness that is involving some stakeholders including local institution like villages. At any level, the preparedness for the tsunami disaster of a government institution has been studied, including local government. However, in the lower level of local government such as villages have few of studies about that. Villages are institutions that deal directly with local communities. Therefore, the description of the preparedness/readiness of local institutions is needed. This study aims to give an overview of the readiness of local institutions in the face of the tsunami disaster by cases in the Air Manis Urban Village and Purus Village. Both of urban villages are located in the coastal area of Padang City which is one of the areas with high tsunami risk. This study uses descriptive qualitative approach, by using a primary data collection through in-depth interview with the key informant and secondary data collection through documents related to disaster management in Padang City. The local institution preparedness in both areas is identified through physical and non-physical aspects related to tsunami risk reduction. The results of the study showed that physically and non-physically Purus Village has better readiness compared to Air Manis Village. However, from the non-physical aspects of TRANTIB-PB and KSB as a representation of the involvement of local institutions in disaster management, it is still necessary to improve the governance in order not to become a mere formality. These two urban villages as a tourism destination are not considered in disaster management.
Jurnal Wilayah dan Lingkungan, Volume 6, pp 58-73; doi:10.14710/jwl.6.1.58-73
Abstract:Lampung Province is facing energy crisis problems. Due to the deficit of electricity supplies which is up to 200 Megawatt (MW), power shutdowns have emerged in many areas of Lampung Province. As one of the districts in South Lampung Regency, Jati Agung is located adjacent to Bandar Lampung City. Jati Agung has access to Trans-Sumatera Highway which is indicated by the entrance and exit gate of the highway. Moreover, there is a new educational activity, Institut Teknologi Sumatera, and a governmental activity called Kota Baru. As a potential fast-growing district in Lampung Province, Jati Agung needs a community resilience strategy to cope with the current threat of electricity crisis in Jati Agung, South Lampung. This research aims to map the community resilience dimension to the threat of electricity crisis in Jati Agung, South Lampung based on the community perception. In this study, the community is represented by household units which are located in the study area. This study is expected to examine how resilient of each dimension about the electricity crisis in the study area. The community resilience dimension has four categories, i.e. 1) Health and Wellbeing, 2) Economy and Society, 3) Infrastructure and Environment, and 4) Leadership and Strategy. This research conducts a descriptive statistics analysis by using a Likert scale to assess community resilience for each driving factor in each dimension. The result shows that “Leadership and Strategy” dimension has the lowest score and classified as a “poor resilience” dimension.
Jurnal Wilayah dan Lingkungan, Volume 6, pp 1-14; doi:10.14710/jwl.6.1.1-14
Abstract:The coastal areas of both Jayapura Municipality and Regency which is directly opposite to the Pacific Ocean with the multifunctional use is a vulnerable area to disasters. The coastal vulnerability is determined by considering some influential factors, that is geomorphology and elevation to minimize the coastal damage impacts. The purpose of this study is to determine the coastal vulnerability index of Jayapura City and Regency focusing on the coastal geomorphology and elevation. The study area covers a coastal area of 241.86 km along the coastlines of Jayapura Municipality and Regency. The study method includes data collection on the coastal geomorphology and elevation characteristics. The value of coastal vulnerability index of each parameter is determined by dividing into five categories of coastal vulnerability. The result shows territorial division as follows: 145.88 km (61.18%) was not vulnerable, 33.14 km (13.90%) was less vulnerable, 29.03 km (12.17%) was a moderate vulnerability, 12.12 km (5.08%) was vulnerable, and the remaining 18.29 km (7.67%) was very vulnerable. The coastal vulnerability of Jayapura City coastal areas categorized into three classes, i.e. not vulnerable, moderate vulnerable and vulnerable, while the Jayapura Regency coastal areas felt into the following classes: not vulnerable and moderate vulnerable. The most vulnerable areas were of Abepura District, South Jayapura District and Muaratami District, all in the Jayapura Municipality administration. Those areas with high elevation level were not vulnerable at all.
Jurnal Wilayah dan Lingkungan, Volume 6, pp 40-57; doi:10.14710/jwl.6.1.40-57
Abstract:Poverty and poor settlement problems seem inseparable from the urban living space including in Semarang City. One of the Semarang City Government policy innovations to tackle the poverty problems along with urban settlement improvement has been introduced in “GERBANG HEBAT” Program through the formation of kampung tematik (thematic kampong). In line with city development acceleration, thematic kampong needs a comprehensive planning for ensuring its sustainability. Representing a thematic kampong, Hydroponics Kampung in Tanjung Mas Subdistrict is dealing with high poverty level issue. The chosen hydroponics theme has in fact brought forward development complexity in nature against the existing coastal area characteristics. This study aims to examine the implementation of thematic kampong concept as well as the affecting factors towards its ineffectiveness. The research method applies qualitative descriptive data analysis. The results indicate the implementation process of kampong thematic concept in Hydroponics Kampung failed to encourage community empowerment. Hydroponic cultivation to which community welfare improvement sought for has no longer attractive and sustainable. The failure is caused by several factors such as poor kampong improvement planning, poor technical implementation process, the chosen thematic mismatch to the kampong potentials, and the lack of community knowledge and awareness.