Journal Jurnal Penelitian Tanaman Industri

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Efi Taufiq, Hasim Hasim, Bonny Pw Soekarno, M. Surahman
Jurnal Penelitian Tanaman Industri, Volume 23, pp 18-25; doi:10.21082/littri.v23n1.2017.18-25

Abstract:ABSTRAKPenyakit busuk pucuk vanili (BPV) merupakan salah satu penyakit penting vanili yang berpotensi mengurangi produksi vanili di Indonesia. Penyakit BPV di Indonesia umumnya merusak pembibitan, namun akibat perubahan iklim yang ekstrim, serangan penyakit BPV pada tanaman vanili dewasa di kebun mengalami peningkatan. Penelitian dilakukan untuk mengetahui keefektifan Trichoderma sp. dan Fusarium non patogenik (FusNP) dalam mengendalikan penyakit BPV di kebun vanili. Penelitian lapangan dilakukan di KP Sukamulya, Sukabumi mulai November 2015 - Juli 2016. Pengujian residu fungisida sintetik dilakukan di Laboratorium Residu Bahan Agrokimia Balai Penelitian Lingkungan Pertanian, Laladon Bogor. Penelitian terdiri atas lima perlakuan yaitu pemberian substrat Trichoderma sp. (T), penyemprotan suspensi konidia FusNP (F), kombinasi Trichoderma sp. dan FusNP (TF), fungisida sintetik mancozeb (M) dan kontrol (K). Perlakuan disusun dalam rancangan acak kelompok (RAK), tiap perlakuan diulang sebanyak lima kali. Variabel yang diamati adalah gejala dan keparahan penyakit, curah hujan, dan residu fungisida sintetik. Data dianalisis dengan Uji Tukey pada selang kepercayaan 95%. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa Trichoderma sp. dan FusNP cukup efektif mengendalikan penyakit BPV di lapangan, setara dengan keefektifan fungisida sintetik yaitu kejadian penyakit berkisar 2 - 5%, sedangkan kontrol mencapai 32%. Perkembangan penyakit BPV dipengaruhi oleh curah hujan, semakin tinggi curah hujan semakin tinggi intensitas serangan penyakit BPV. Penggunaan fungisida sintetik secara intensif menyebabkan pencemaran lingkungan berupa residu pestisida pada daun, buah, dan tanah rizosfer vanili..Kata kunci: busuk pucuk vanili, Phytophthora. capsici, agens hayati. ABSTRACTVanilla shoot rot disease (VSR) is one of important disease that potentially reduces Indonesia’s vanilla production. The VSR disease is prevalently developing in the nursery, but due to the extreme climate change, the disease occurrence in the garden has increased recently. A present study was aimed to assess the effectiveness of Trichoderma sp. and non-pathogenic Fusarium (NPF) in controlling the VSR disease in the garden. An experiment was conducted in a vanilla garden at KP Sukamulya, Sukabumi November 2015 - July 2016. The study consisted of five treatments that were application of Trichoderma sp. substrate (T) onto the vanilla tips, spraying the conidial suspension of FusNP (F), a combine application of Trichoderma sp. and FusNP (TF), synthetic fungicide mancozeb (M) and the control (K). The treatments were arranged in a randomized block design, replicated five times each. The variables measured were the incidence and severity of VSR diseases monthly, residue of synthetic fungicides and rainfall. The results showed that application of Trichoderma sp. sp. and NPF reduced the disease severity of VSR 3 % and 5 % respectively than the one of control. While the fungicide application was 3% lower than the control. The VSR disease progress is affected significantly by rainfall period. Keyword: vanilla shoot rot disease, Phytophthora capsici. Bioagent.
Sesanti Basuki, Sudarsono Sudarsono
Jurnal Penelitian Tanaman Industri, Volume 23, pp 36-44; doi:10.21082/littri.v23n1.2017.36-44

Abstract:AbstrakGen PMT adalah gen penyandi enzim putresina N-metiltransferase (PMT) yang berperan dalam lintasan biosintesis nikotin pada tanaman tembakau (Nicotiana tabacum). Sepuluh varietas tembakau yang memiliki perbedaan tingkat kadar nikotin diuji untuk mempelajari: (1) keragaman runutan basa parsial gen PMT dari masing-masing varietas, dan (2) kekerabatan antara sepuluh varietas tembakau yang diuji berdasarkan keragaman runutan basa parsial gen PMT. Keragaman runutan basa dianalisis dengan mensejajarkan data runutan basa dari sepuluh varietas tembakau yang diuji dengan runutan basa dari Ntpmt_Sindoro1 (JQ438825) yang telah tersimpan dalam database genbank NCBI. Hasil pensejajaran digunakan untuk menghitung matriks jarak, yang selanjutnya digunakan untuk menganalisis hubungan kekerabatan diantara sepuluh varietas tembakau. Hasil analisis memperlihatkan adanya variasi ukuran dan jumlah runutan basaparsial gen PMT asal sepuluh varietas tembakau yang dianalisis. Hasil analisis juga memperlihatkan bahwa runutan basa parsial gen PMT tersebut berasal/diturunkan dari sumber (ancestor) yang sama dan terkait dengan biosintesis nikotin pada tembakau. Runutan basaparsial gen PMT dari sepuluh varietas yang dianalisis memisahkan antara kelompok tembakau introduksi (kadar nikotin rendah-sedang) dengan kelompok tembakau lokal (kadar nikotin sedang-tinggi). Dua kelompok memisah berdasarkan level kadar nikotin, danperbedaan/perubahan susunan basa pada situs-situs tertentu dari runutan basaparsial gen PMT yang dianalisis. Informasi tentang mutasi yang terjadi pada situs-situs runutan basa dari parsial gen PMT dapat digunakan untuk mempelajari keterkaitan antara perubahan basa pada fragmen gen PMT dengan kandungan nikotin total tembakau yang terjadi selama proses evolusi.Kata kunci: Analisis pengelompokkan, gen PMT,Nikotin, Nicotiana tabacum Abstract PMT gene is the gene encoded putrescine N-methiltransferase which is related to nicotine biosinthesis in tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum). Ten tobacco varieties with different nicotine level were used inthis study. The aims of this study were: (1) to analyze thepartial PMT gene sequence diversity among ten tobacco varieties, and (2) to evaluate the closed-relationship amongten tobacco varieties based on their partialPMT gene sequences diversity.Sequence diversity was analyzed by multiple sequence alignment between the partialPMT gene sequence of the ten tobacco varietiesand Ntpmt_Sindoro1 sequence deposited in the NCBI gene-bank database.The phylogenetic relationship amongthe sequences was inferred by genetic distancebetween pairs of sequences using the pairwise and multiple sequence alignment analysis. Analysis of the sequences showed that all varieties analyzed had varied in size and number of the PMT gene fragments yielded. The analysis also revealed that thepartialPMT gene sequencesarecoming from the same ancestor which related to nicotine biosynthesis in tobacco. Phylogenetic analysis separated the partialPMT gene sequences into two different branches significantly (bootstrap value = 100), and clustered together based on tobacco types with different nicotine level in whichcould be due to some baseschanged on the specific sites of thePMT gene sequences. This information could be used to study the relationship between some bases changed on the specific sites of thePMT gene sequences and the nicotine content variation yielded by the ten tobacco varieties that is happened during evolution time.Key words: Clustering analysis, PMT gene, nicotine, Nicotiana tabacum
Joko Pitono, Nur Maslahah, Setiawan Setiawan
Jurnal Penelitian Tanaman Industri, Volume 23, pp 55-62; doi:10.21082/littri.v23n1.2017.55-62

Abstract:Tanaman hydraulic lift (HL) dilaporkan dapat memasok air pada tanaman lain di sekitarnya saat periode kekeringan. Hasil studi sebelumnya menunjukkan jambu mete memiliki kemampuan HL, namun belum diketahui potensi pasokan airnya. Penelitian ini dilakukan di komplek rumah kaca Cimanggu antara Mei-November 2016 dengan tujuan mengevaluasi kemampuan pasokan air dari hydraulic lift jambu mete pada periode kekeringan dan efeknya terhadap status air jaringan jagung yang tumbuh di sekitarnya. Jambu mete varietas B-02 dan jagung varietas Lamuru ditanam berdampingan pada pot dengan desain khusus, yang diatur dalam tiga kondisi perlakuan, yakni selalu berkecukupan air (B), kekeringan tanpa ada akses HL jambu mete (K), dan kekeringan dengan akses HL jambu mete (H). Ketiga perlakuan kondisi tanaman tersebut ditempatkan di rumah kaca dalam rancangan acak kelompok dengan sembilan ulangan. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan HL jambu mete dapat memasok air pada jagung, sehingga pada periode kekeringan tingkat lanjut, lengas tanahnya menjadi lebih tinggi ± 2,5% dibandingkan jagung tanpa akses HL jambu mete. Adanya pasokan air tersebut menyebabkan status air jaringan jagung selama periode kekeringan menjadi lebih baik dengan tingkat penurunan nilai dari kondisi kecukupan air pada potensial air daun, transpirasi, dan fotosintesis berturut-turut hanya sekitar 30%, 36%, dan 32%, dibandingkan penurunan nilai tersebut pada kondisi tanpa akses HL jambu mete yang mencapai 40%, 70%, dan 66%. Hasil penelitian ini memperlihatkan pasokan air pada jagung oleh HL jambu mete cukup efektif pada periode kekeringan, dan membantu meringankan efek stres kekeringan pada jagung sehingga dapat memelihara status air jaringannya tetap baik.
M. Machfud, Emy Sulistyowati, Siwi Sumartini, Sujak Sujak, Suhadi Suhadi
Jurnal Penelitian Tanaman Industri, Volume 21; doi:10.21082/littri.v21n4.2015.189-198

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Lili Suryani, Khursatul Minibah, Santun R.P. Sitorus
Jurnal Penelitian Tanaman Industri, Volume 21; doi:10.21082/littri.v21n4.2015.175-188

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I Ketut Ardana, Ketut Kariyasa
Jurnal Penelitian Tanaman Industri, Volume 22; doi:10.21082/littri.v22n3.2016.125-134

Abstract:Indonesian government within the framework of the Master Plan for the Acceleration and Expansion of Indonesian Economic Development (MP3EI) have established oil palm as the main commodity to be developed in the so-called corridor of Kalimantan. This is mainly due to the commodity role as Indonesia's main export commodities as well as the tipping point of regional economic development in ensuring the welfare of local farmers in a sustainable manner. West Kalimantan is one of the centers of the development of oil palm in Kalimantan, after Central Kalimantan. This study aimed to analyze the role of the superior technology and use of production inputs to improve the productivity of oil palm and the factors that influence the adoption of new technologies at the farm level. Results of decomposition analysis of productivity showed that the productivity of oil palm plantations increased by 45.59%. The role of the difference in the applied technology is 22.62% and 22.97% came from the difference in input use. Quality of seeds available/planted by farmers contributed significantly to the level of productivity. Adequate provision of improved seed policies must be the top priority in efforts to improve the productivity of oil palm in the future. The policy needs to be accompanied by quality control and distribution of improved seed is strictly and continuously. The next priority policies should be aimed at encouraging farmers to use production inputs as recommended . In order for the policy to be effective, it needs to be supported by the trading system improvements to ensure the feasibility of palm oil prices at the farm level.
Antonius Kasno, L. Anggria
Jurnal Penelitian Tanaman Industri, Volume 22; doi:10.21082/littri.v22n3.2016.107-114

Abstract:Fertilization is a very important factor of production. Fertlizer on oil palm nurseries seed to consider the soil used as a medium. Excessive or insufficient fertilization resulted in inferior growth. The aim of this research was to study the effects of compound fertilizer NPK 11-7-12 on the growth of oil palm seedlings and determine the optimum dose for oil palm nursery seedlings. The research was conducted in a greenhouse at Soil Research Institute, Laladon, Bogor, in October 2012 -June 2013. The design was randomized complete block, 6 treatments and 5 replications. The treatment consisted of 4 (1) NPK 11-7-12, (2) single NPK fertilizer (Urea, SP-36, KCl), (3) NPK 15-15-15, and (4) control treatment (without NPK). Doses of NPK fertilizer was 0.00, 2.50, 5.00, 7.50, and 10.00 g NPK/tree. Beside NPK fertilizer, each polybag was added with Kieserite 1 g/tree. Urea, SP-36, KCl, Kieserite and NPK was given 12 times. Fertilization was performed at 1 week after transplanting, and then performed every 2 weeks up to 12 times. The results showed that NPK fertilizer either single or compound able to increase the growth of oil palm plantations. Effect of NPK 11-7-12 fertilizer was the same with NPK 15- 15-15 and better than the single NPK fertilizer. The optimum dosage of NPK 11-7-12 fertilizer for oil palm seedling is 5 - 6 g/tree.
Salwa L. Dalimoenthe, Restu Wulansari, Erdiansyah Rezamela
Jurnal Penelitian Tanaman Industri, Volume 22; doi:10.21082/littri.v22n3.2016.135-141

Abstract:Rainfall is one of the climate elements influence the growth and leaves productivity of tea plant. During 2005-2014 El-Nino has been happen with strong intensity in late 2009 and early 2010. El Nino influence on changes in rainfall patterns and decreasing leaves production. This experiment was conducted to determine the impact of climate change on leaves productivity at each elevation level of tea plantation. The experiments conducted in 9 tea plantation in West Java, grouped in to 3 different elevation levels based on Schoorel 1974, low elevation level plantaion (1200 above MSL) and presented in histogram and graphic to descript the annual distribution pattern. The results showed that the decreasing rainfall pattern in high and middle elevation tea plantation in 2010-2014 (after El-Nino) compare to 2005- 2009 (before El-Nino). The productivity of the tea plant at each elevation in 2011-2014 was lower than in 2005-2008. In high elevation tea plantation there is a close relationship between decreased in rainfall patterns followed by a decrease in productivity with linear regression value R2 = 0.85.
Mamat H. S.
Jurnal Penelitian Tanaman Industri, Volume 22; doi:10.21082/littri.v22n3.2016.115-124

Abstract:Sustainability analysis of rubber tree (Hevea brasiliensis) farming system aimed to assess the sustainability of the application of farming models which was developed in a pilot project in degraded peatland, which is located in Village/District Jabiren, Regency Pulangpisau (Central Kalimantan). Research was conducted by a structural survey method with 30 selected respondent farmers around the plots. The analysis was performed with the multidimentional scaling (MDS) approach, including social, economic and environmental dimensions. The level of (lkb) farming system sustainability of rubber trees in degraded peatland based on values of sustainability index of multidimensional in the Jabiren District showed sustained considerable scale with an index value of 66.69, meaning that farming models developed are quite sustainable farming. In other words that farming models are economically beneficial, socially acceptability to society, and ecologically not damage the environmental. The social dimension is more dominant determine the sustainability of farming that contributes to IKB amounted to 72.65 compared with the economic and environmental dimension with a contribution value of each 68.11 and 57.25. Sensitive factors affecting the sustainability, include: the intensity of extention (the social dimension), the stability of the prices of the farmers surplus productivity (the economic dimension), the water pH and water level fluctuations (the ecological dimensions).
Ms Agus Wahyudi
Jurnal Penelitian Tanaman Industri, Volume 22; doi:10.21082/littri.v22n3.2016.142-151

Abstract:Clove is used for spice and a raw materialof kretek cigarret industry. In the last five years (2010-2014) the price of clove was relatively higher, hence encourage farmers to improve the crops and increase productivity that are currently relatively low. Programs that can be rolled out are rejuvenation, intensification and rehabilitation in which technological innovation applied. Development funding for the program is possible if the farming isfinancially feasible. This study aimed to analyze the current projected costs, revenue and financial feasibility of clove farming with the application of innovation in line with rejuvenation, intensification and rehabilitation program to improve clove productivity and development funding for the three programs. The financial analysis method was used to analyze input and output values based on market prices. Data of inputs were obtained through a survey of farming in Bogor and Sukabumi in late 2014 and implementation of appropriate innovation for rejuvenation, intensification, and rehabilitation. Data of outputs are projected with basic data obtained from the survey with a corresponding innovation in rejuvenation, intensification, and rehabilitationapplied. The analysis showed that the program of rejuvenation, intensification, and rehabilitation generate revenue streams that were greater than the current cost and can generate sufficient excess (profit) indicated by higher value of NPV, B/C ratio and IRR. Thus the three programs were eligible to apply to external financing through micro-financing. Financing may be granted for investments and working capital, and can be full or partial.
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