Journal Buletin Penelitian Tanaman Rempah dan Obat

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Tri Lestari Mardiningsih, nFN Ma'mun
Buletin Penelitian Tanaman Rempah dan Obat, Volume 28, pp 171-180; doi:10.21082/bullittro.v28n2.2017.171-180

Abstract:Citronella, clove and lemongrass oils are known to be toxic and repel certain pests. Mixing different essential oils (EOs) in the form of formula is expected to increase the insecticidal properties. The experiments aimed to examine the effect of EOs mixture formulas on mortality and oviposition deterrent of Helopeltis antonii. The study was conducted at the green house of Indonesian Spices and Medicinal Crops Research Institute. A mixture of two EOs citronella + clove (1:1), lemongrass + clove (1:1), individual EO formulas, and their inert solution (mixture of tween 80, turpentine, and teepol) were tested on H. antonii at 5 and 10 ml.l-1 concentrations. Parameters observed were the number of eggs laid, mortality of adults and nymphs of H. antonii. The citronella + clove and lemongrass + clove formula at 10 ml.l-1 deterred the oviposition of H. antonii by 60.18 % and 46.56 % respectively. These formulas also caused adults mortality at 79.17 % and 62.50 %, as well as the nymphs mortality at 87.50 % and 82.50 % respectively. The citronella + clove and lemongrass + clove formulas tested had the same effectiveness compared to the commercial citronella oil formula. Therefore, these two formulas were potential to be tested in field to control H. antonii.
Albert Husein Wawo, Ning Wikan Utami, Ninik Setyowati
Buletin Penelitian Tanaman Rempah dan Obat, Volume 28, pp 137-144; doi:10.21082/bullittro.v28n2.2017.137-144

Abstract:Gyrinops verstegii is one of agarwoods species, plant with high economic value. However, it is categorized as plant with high risk of extinction, hence it required conservation. This research aimed to examine the effect of thinning and foliar fertilization of G. verstegiiseedling to support its conservation. The study was conducted for 6 months in the glass house of Research Center for Biology, LIPI, at Cibinong Science Center. It was arranged in Factorial Design with two factors and repeated 3 times. The first factor was two thinning treatments (branches prunning): no thinning (P0) and thinning (P1). The second factor was 4 dosages of foliar fertilization : without fertilizer (D0), fertilizer dosages 1 g.l-1 (D1), 2 g.l-1 (D2) dan 3 g.l-1 (D3). Thinning treatment was able to stimulate seedling height and number of seedling branches but inhibited stem diameter as well as foliar fertilization at 2 g.l-1.Thinning and foliar fertilizing at 2 g.l-1 indicated significant effect on height and number of seedling branches but inhibited stem diameter of G. verstegii seedlings.
Sri Yuni Hartati, NFN Sukamto, Nuri Karyani, Nfn Zulhisnain
Buletin Penelitian Tanaman Rempah dan Obat, Volume 28, pp 153-162; doi:10.21082/bullittro.v28n2.2017.153-162

Abstract:Budok is one of the most important patchouli diseases caused by Synchytrium pogostemonis, spread out through seeds, soil, and water. A research to develop botanical pesticides based on essential oils was conducted at Indonesian Spices and Medicinal Crop Research Institute in 2014. The research was aimed to evaluate the efficacy of single formula of clove, eucalyptus, neem, and citronella oil against budok disease. Research was conducted in disease endemic area in Cimanggu Research Installation, Bogor. Single formula of clove, eucalyptus, neem, and citronella oils were tested their efficacy against budok disease. Two synthetic fungicides of benomyl and bourdeaux mixture were used as comparison, and water as control. One month-old healthy patchouli plants were sprayed with each essential oil (5ml.l-1), benomyl (3 g.l-1), and bourdeaux mixture (1%) every two weeks for 5 times respectively. Experiment was arranged in randomized completely block design (7 treatments, 3 replication, and 20 plants/replication). Neem oil was the most effective formula in suppressing budok disease incidence (58.30%) compared to citronella (33.30%), clove (26.65%), and eucalyptus (8.30%), although it was still lower than benomyl (100%) and bourdeaux mixture (100%). Application of neem oil, benomyl, and bourdeoux mixture could inhibit S. pogostemonis infection and budok disease development. However, the application of clove and citronella oils only capable of inhibiting budok disease development. Those tested essential oils are potential to be developed as botanical pesticides to control budok disease of patchouli. However, their efficacy should be increased by producing formula mixtures of those essential oils.
Otih Rostiana, Dyah Manohara, Agus Ruhnayat, Nfn Wiratno
Buletin Penelitian Tanaman Rempah dan Obat, Volume 28, pp 113-126; doi:10.21082/bullittro.v28n2.2017.113-126

Abstract:East Kalimantan is one of production center for white blackpepper, known as Samarinda White Pepper products. The variety developed in East Kalimantan is a local blackpepper variety that is not yet known for its characteristics. The research was conducted to observe the production and quality of local blackpepper in East Kalimantan, specifically in Kutai Kartanegara Regency which is the widest blackpepper development area in East Kalimantan. The observation was conducted for two years, at three locations of high yielding block (BPT) in Loa Janan and one non-BPT location in Muara Badak, as a local origin of local East Kalimantan blackpepper which is currently developing in Loa Janan. The environmental design used was a Randomized Block Design, with four trial sites, repeated six times in each location, using the same variety (local blackpepper). The average production for two years of observation reached 2.94 kg fresh berries/tree equivalent to 2.17 tons of white pepper/ha/year. However, the average of spikes containing pepper berries reached only 61.3% per panicle. Therefore, it requires intensive fertilization with appropriate dosage and fertilizer type to increase the expression of its potential genetic because local pepper of East Kalimantan bears fruit continuously throughout the year. Result of yield-quality analysis showed that local white pepper of East Kalimantan contained 11.23% oleoresin and 3.82% piperin, higher than Petaling 1 (10.66% and 3.03%, respectively). The superiority characteristics of local blackpepper of East Kalimantan is a distinctive aroma and spicy flavor, due to the high content of piperin and oleoresin.
Nfn Ermiati
Buletin Penelitian Tanaman Rempah dan Obat, Volume 28, pp 199-209; doi:10.21082/bullittro.v28n2.2017.199-209

Abstract:Botanical pesticides is generally applied to control plant pest in organic farming systems and ginger farmers in Sumedang commonly used it in ginger cultivation. The study aimed to assess the financial feasibility and sensitivity of botanical pesticide use in big white ginger (JPB) cultivation in Tanjungkerta-Sumedang, West Java. Research was conducted in November 2013 with survey method. Price was analyzed by converting the input and output to the price applicable in June 2017. Farmer respondents were determined randomly by selecting 20 respondents from 33 farmers of Gemahrita Farmer Group. The financial feasibility was assessed using Net Present Value (NPV), Benefit Cost Ratio (B/C) and Internal Rate of Return (IRR) analysis. Farming sensitivity was measured with BEP (Break Event Point) of production and price. Pest and diseases found in ginger plantation were leaf spot (Phyllosticta sp.) and ladybug (Epilachna sp), which were controlled by botanical pesticide made by the farmers from greater galangal, citronella, neem leaf and betle vein leaf. The use of natural pesticides was financially feasible with the eligibility criteria of NPV>0 (Rp 32,081,221,-), B/C Ratio >1 (2.15) and IRR 13 % above the prevailing bank rate (1.5% per month). BEP production 9,601 kg.ha-1, BEP price Rp. 1,279,-/kg, 57% below actual productivity and price. This indicated if there was decrease in productivity and price of ginger <57%, JPB farming system using botanical pesticide was still feasible. JPB farming system using self-made botanical pesticide proved profitable, environmentally friendly and safe for farmer health, hence appropriate and advantageous to be developed.
Agus Kardinan, Tri Eko Wahyono, Nurbetti Tarigan
Buletin Penelitian Tanaman Rempah dan Obat, Volume 28, pp 191-198; doi:10.21082/bullittro.v28n2.2017.191-198

Abstract:Brown planthopper is still a major problem in rice. Control using botanical insecticides is considered less effective, since its persistence in rice plantation is short. Research on the persistence of botanical insecticide residues of pyrethrum and neem in rice has been conducted in green house of Entomology, Indonesian Spices and Medicinal Crops Research Institute, Bogor from January to December 2016. The research was aimed to determine the persistence of botanical insecticide residue on rice by testing it to brown planthopper mortality. The study was arranged in complete randomized design with six treatments and four replications. The treatment consisted of two pyrethrum formulas (EC); two neem formulas (EC); positive controls of synthetic insecticides (a.i. carbosulfan) and negative control (water). The method used was Leaf Residue Method, by spraying the formula into one month-old rice plants, then 10 brown planthopper nymphs of forth instar were introduced into each plant in the first, second, third and fourth day after spraying. The planthopper mortality was observed in the first, third, sixth, 24th and 48th hours after introduction. The residuals of all insecticides tested were still affecting the mortality of brown planthopper until the fourth day after spraying, although the effectiveness decreased by the time. The average mortality on the first day introduction after spraying ranged between 53-73 % and in the fourth day after spraying was 18-25 %.
Dewi Hafidloh, Nfn Warsito, Edi Priyo Utomo
Buletin Penelitian Tanaman Rempah dan Obat, Volume 28, pp 145-152; doi:10.21082/bullittro.v28n2.2017.145-152

Abstract:Citronellal is the main component in kaffir lime oil that has great potential utilization in industrial and pharmaceutical field. Citronellal purification using conventional method, such as destillation, requires lots of solven, special equipment and lots of time. Alternatively, purification method using base catalyst NaHSO3 and Na2SO3 as reagent could be more simple. This research aimed to evaluate the effect of the base catalyst used for hydrolysis in the purification process of citronella using salt reaction with NaHSO3 and Na2SO3 reagents. The experiments was conducted in the Laboratory of Organic Chemistry, Brawijaya University, Malang, from August 2015 to February 2016. The research was arranged a randomized block design with factorial treatments. The first treatments was two types of reagents, NaHSO3 and Na2SO3. The second one was the variations of base catalyst used for hydrolyzing NaHCO3, Na2CO3 and NaOH. The purity of hydrolyzed citronellal was measured by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The highest purity of citronella 89,29 % was obtained with the used of Na2SO3 reagent at the mole ratio 1:2, hydrolyzed by Na2CO3 (pH 10.98). Thus the method, can be recommended in purifying citronellal from kaffir lime oil.
Sunaryo Syam, Idham Sakti Harahap, Nfn Dadang
Buletin Penelitian Tanaman Rempah dan Obat, Volume 28, pp 181-190; doi:10.21082/bullittro.v28n2.2017.181-190

Abstract:Tribolium castaneum is one of the important stored-product pests in tropical countries. Fumigation with phosphine is the most commonly method to control T. castaneum. However, long-term application of phosphine will cause resistance. The aims of this research were to study the effects of fumigant and repellent of peppermint oil Mentha piperita fraction against T. castaneum, and to identify the compounds contained in the active fraction. This research was conducted in Entomology Laboratory Seameo Biotrop and Forensic Laboratory of Indonesian Police Headquarters Jakarta, from January to October 2016. Peppermint oil was extracted by distillation from the leaves of M. piperita. Peppermint oil was fractionated by counter-current distribution method using three solvents: n-hexane, ethyl acetate, and methanol. Then, the three fractions were tested as fumigant and repellent against T. castaneum. The active fraction of essential oils were identified by GC-MS. The n-hexane fraction of peppermint (HFP) was the active fraction caused mortality on larvae and adults of T. castaneum at 72 hours after fumigation. The LC95 values for the adults and larvae was 1.9 % and 9.43 % , respectively. Sublethal concentration of HFP showed inhibitory activity on larvae development. Percentage of pupae transformed from treated larvae was 48.67-74.91 % and percentage of adults emerged was 9.12-16.59 %. The repellent activity of HFP on adults of T. castaneum was 86.7 % at 72 hours after treatment. The dominant compounds of HFP was β-pinene, limonene, isopulegol, menthone, isomenthon, menthol, pulegone, and trans-carane. The HFP or its compounds was potential to be develoved as botanical insecticides.
Erma Suryani, NFN Nurmansyah, Susi Purwiyanti, Otih Rostiana
Buletin Penelitian Tanaman Rempah dan Obat, Volume 28, pp 105-112; doi:10.21082/bullittro.v28n2.2017.105-112

Abstract:The evaluation of growth, productivity and quality of 15 accessions of Ceylon cinnamon (Cinnamomum zeylanicum Blume) at the medium elevation in Laing Research Installation Solok West Sumatra, has been conducted from January 2007 to April 2013. The experiment was arranged in Randomized Block Design with 15 treatments (accessions) and repeated three times. Parameter observed were plant height, stem diameter, number of branches, bark thickness, bark production, leaf production, oil yield and components of oils. The results showed that, the highest plant height was Czl16 (497.67 cm) and Czl30 (478.33 cm). The largest stem diameter was Czl16 (12.33 cm) followed by Czl15 (11.33 cm) Czl02 (11.00 cm) and Czl29 (11.00 cm). The highest branch number was Czl30 (30.00), Czl15 (29.00), Czl22 (29.00) and Czl35 (28.66). The highest production of dry bark was Czl30 (4,350 g.treeˉ¹) and the lowest one was Czl03 (1,800 g.treeˉ¹). The highest leaf production was Czl15 (18,700 g.treeˉ¹ and Czl16 (18366.67 g.treeˉ¹), and the lowest one was Czl03 (7,633.33 g.treeˉ¹). The highest of oil yield was Czl12 and Czl30 0.75 % each and the lowest one was Czl11 (0.27 %). The highest of cinnamaldehyde content was Czl35 (61.24 %), followed by Czl22 (59.38 %) and the lowest one was Czl17 (37.78 %). The chemical components of oils of cinnamon bar analyzed by GCMS from Czl35 accession consisted of 51 components and the primary components were cinnamaldehyde 61.29 %, eugenol 6.87 %, β-caryophyllane 6.59 %, cinnamyl acetate 5.61 %, β-phellandrene 4.79 %, dillapiole 3.39 %, benzoic acid 1.82 %, Linalool 1 %, and 43 other components each below 1 %.
Herwita Idris, NFN Nurmansyah
Buletin Penelitian Tanaman Rempah dan Obat, Volume 28, pp 163-170; doi:10.21082/bullittro.v28n2.2017.163-170

Abstract:Botanical pesticide is one of the alternatives to control pest and relatively safe for the environment. Cinnamon oil and citronella oil commonly used as botanical pesticide to control leaf roller Pachyzancla stultalis attack on patchouli, hence maintaining patchouli productivity. This study aimed to find the best botanical insecticide formula made of cinnamon oil and citronella oil to control leaf roller attack without decreasing the quality of patchouli oil. Research was conducted in patchouli farmer's plantation in Solok Regency, Kenagarian Gantung Ciri from January to October 2013. The research was arranged in Randomized Block Design with four treatments (Pesnab KM 40, Pesnab SW 50, synthetic insecticide deltamethrin 25 EC and without pesticide as control) repeated six times. Botanical pesticide, Pesnab KM 40 and SW 50, were formulated using 40 % cinnamon oil (KM 40) and 50 % citronella oil (SW 50). The plant tested was one month old Sidikalang variety in polybags. The KM 40 botanical pesticide formula was more effective to control P. stultalis larvae pest than control and SW 50 botanical pesticide, and as effective as synthetic pesticide. The herb yield, oil yield, oil content and patchouli alcohol (PA) content of KM 40 treatment were not significantly different compared to synthetic pesticide, but higher than control. Patchouli oil components such as alpha pinene, beta pinene, limonene, copaene, karyophylen, guanen, allo-aromadrene and gurjunen, was not significantly different among treatments. Botanical pesticides made from cinnamon oil can be used as alternative to control P. stultalis larvae attack in patchouli.
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