Journal Jurnal Tanaman Industri dan Penyegar-
Jurnal Tanaman Industri dan Penyegar, Volume 3; doi:10.21082/jtidp.v3n1.2016.p1-10
Abstract:Chemical modification of natural rubber latex by emulsion graft copolymerization with thermoplastic monomer produces thermoplastic natural rubber (TPNR). Ratio composition of natural rubber to thermoplastic monomer determines the TPNR properties. TPNR has good mechanical properties of natural rubber and high processability of plastic material thus enhancing its application in industry. The research, which was conducted at research laboratory of Indonesian Rubber Research Institute, from June to December 2014, aimed to study the effect of the ratio of deproteinized natural rubber (DPNR) latex to vinyl monomer (VM: methyl methacrylate and styrene) on physical and mechanical properties of TPNR produced from batch graft copolymerization. Batch graft copolymerization was conducted at certain ratios of DPNR latex with methyl methacrylate and styrene (70:30; 60:40; and 50:50) at (65°C, 5 hours), and subsequently at (70°C, 1 hour). The result showed that batch technique tend to cause the formation of homopolymer vinyl which also affected the TPNR properties. Visually, the TPNR had white color, hard and brittle texture yet easier to process as shown by low time and energy consumption during compounding. The ratio of DPNR to VM at 70:30 was regarded as the optimum ratio for its balanced properties between elastomeric material of DPNR and thermoplastic material of VM.
Jurnal Tanaman Industri dan Penyegar, Volume 3; doi:10.21082/jtidp.v3n1.2016.p11-20
Abstract:The cocoa beans produced by farmers in Indonesia are mostly nonfermented with unfavourable taste and flavour. Incubating the cocoa beans in acetate buffer medium has been shown to improve the quality of non fermented dried cocoa beans. Pre-incubation treatments of non fermented cocoa beans by physical treatments such as soaking and crushing them prior to the incubation in acetate buffer is expected to improve the beans quality (i.e. fermentation index and polyphenol). The aim of the research was to determine the effect of pre-incubation treatment of non fermented dried cocoa beans in acetate buffer medium on fermentation index and total polyphenols content.The research was carried out in Process Engineering Laboratory, Food Chemical and Biochemical Laboratory, and Postharvest Technology Laboratory at Gadjah MadaUniversity from April to December 2013. The research used three treatments, first: the crushed beans size 4 mm, whole beans soaked in water (45°C; 16 hours), and beans without soaking (control). The incubation was performed in two stages, the first stage was in the acetate buffer medium at pH 2.7; 600 mM for 24 hours, then subconsequently at pH 5.5; 600 mM for 12 hours. The results showed that crushed bean treatment of non fermented cocoa beans prior to incubation increased the fermentation index values, from 1.15 to1.54 and decreased total polyphenol content from 55.69 to 24.16mg GAE/g.
Jurnal Tanaman Industri dan Penyegar, Volume 3; doi:10.21082/jtidp.v3n1.2016.p29-36
Abstract:Grafting is the most common cocoa propagation technique applied by farmers. One of the factors that determine the grafting success in cacao is the compatibility level between the scion and rootstock. The objectives of this research was to evaluate the grafting compatibility of half-sib family of Sulawesi 01 clone as rootstock with five superior cacao clones i.e. Sulawesi 01, Sulawesi 02, Sca 6, MCC 01, and MCC 02 as scions. The research was conducted at Pakuwon Experimental Station, West Java, at the altitude of 450 m above sea level with Latosol type of soil and B type of climate (Schmidt & Fergusson), from April to September 2015. This research used the randomized completely block design with five treatments of grafting combinations and five replications. Observation was taken at 14th, 21st, and 28th days after grafting on the total percentage of surviving graftings, percentage of sprouting grafting, percentage of grafting that have not sprouted, and bud sprouting rates. Data were analyzed by variance, correlation, and regression analysis. The results showed that the surviving grafting, the sprouting grafting and the rate of sprouting up to the 28th days after grafting varied among the scions. Based on the parameters observed, Sulawesi 01, Sulawesi 2, and Sca 6 demonstrated higher compatibility rate compared to MCC 01 and MCC 02. The results is applicable in seedling provision through grafting techniques in order to support cacao rejuvenation and or rehabilitation.
Jurnal Tanaman Industri dan Penyegar, Volume 3; doi:10.21082/jtidp.v3n1.2016.p21-28
Abstract:The lump quality produced by farmers in West Sumatra is low dueto limited access to technologies and postharvest facilities,insufficient implementation of Standard Operating Procedures (SOP), and other problems. The research aimed to study the adoption of postharvest SOP of rubber and its impact at farmers level in Dharmasraya Regency, West Sumatera. The experiment was conducted in three districts at Dharmasraya Regency of West Sumatra Province, from March until December 2013, utillizing descriptive survey through demonstration plot and field school. Parameters observed were the adoption level, lump quality, and rubber trade before and after the demonstration and field school. The result showed that the adoption level of rubber postharvest technology varied, from very low to very high. The adoption positively contributed to lump quality improvement at farmers level, thus meeting the SNI requirements. The price of sheet which meets the SNI did not significantly differ from low graded lump so it is less produced by farmers. Further regulation which endorsed industries to buy rubber at processing and marketing unit or farmers supporting market is needed.
Jurnal Tanaman Industri dan Penyegar, Volume 3; doi:10.21082/jtidp.v3n1.2016.p37-44
Abstract:The effectiveness of Trichoderma sp as biocontrol for white root disease is determined by the environment, thus it is best applied as biofungicide. The application of Trichoderma sp. with suitable carrier is expected to suppress pathogen (Rigidoporus microporus) in rubber seedlings. The objective of the research was to study the effectiveness of Trichoderma sp. biofungicide with three types of carriers in controlling white root disease in rubber seedlings. The research was conducted in Plant Protection Laboratory and screen house of Indonesian Industrial and Beverage Crops Research Institute (IIBCRI), Sukabumi, from July to December 2013. The experiment used a factorial design with 2 factors and 3 replications. The first factor is 4 types of Trichoderma, namely Trichoderma virens, T. hamatum, T. amazonicum, dan T. atroviride whereas the second factor is the three types of carrier, namely molasses, compost, and talc. The biofungicide were made of four species of Trichoderma and the three carriers thus resulting in 12 biofungicides. The spora population of Trichoderma sp. was 108 spores/ml from which then 100 ml or gram applied on each plant. Rubber seedlings used were of AVROS 2037 clones, 3 months old clone-grafted seedlings grown in polybag. Observations were on the incubation stage, the intensity of the white root disease attack, the disease suppression, and the population of Trichoderma sp. in soil. The results showed no interactions between types of Trichoderma with types of carrier. The four Trichoderma species studied had similar suppressing effectivity on white root disease in rubber seedlings. Talc, compost, and molasses increased the Trichoderma sp. growth but talc was shown had the highest effectivity in suppressing the disease.
Jurnal Tanaman Industri dan Penyegar, Volume 3; doi:10.21082/jtidp.v3n1.2016.p45-52
Abstract:Altitude defines the climatic elements which in turn affect the soil chemical properties. Growth, productivity, qualities, and coffee flavor determines by a number of factors, one of which is the chemical properties in the soil. The research aimed to analyze the correlation between altitude, soil chemical properties, and physical quality of Arabica coffee beans in highland areas of Garut. The research was carried out in Garut Regency, West Java, from April to Agustus 2014. The research used survey method with purposive random sampling from selected locations. Parameters observed were soil chemical properties, percentage of normal beans and the beans weight at the altitude of 1.000–1.600 m asl. The data were then analyzed using correlation method. The result showed a significant correlation between altitude with soil chemical properties and Arabica coffee beans physical quality in Garut highlands. The higher the altitude, the higher level of soil chemical properties, such as pH, C-organic, N-total, Na, and KTK, in contrary with total P2O5. Higher altitude and chemical properties inline with higher percentage of normal beans and the weight of 100 Arabica coffee beans.
Jurnal Tanaman Industri dan Penyegar, Volume 3; doi:10.21082/jtidp.v3n1.2016.p53-60
Abstract:GMB 7 is a tea variety which has high productivity and a potential source of natural antioxidants, grow well at low, medium, and high altitude. The research aimed to analyze the effect of altitude on antioxidant activity, total phenolic and total flavonoids content of GMB 7 tea variety. The research was conducted at the Biopharmacy Laboratory, Bogor Agricultural University, from November 2014 to February 2015. The treatments tested were of tea shoots extracts taken from three different altitudes at PT Tambi tea plantations,Wonosobo, at 690, 1.280, and 1.890 m above sea level. The tea shoots (100 g) were mixed in aquades with the ratio of 1:10, extracted with hot water (90°C; 30 minutes). The extracts were then filtered and evaporated using rotary vacuum evaporator (50 rpm; 60°C) to obtain a raw dried extract. Total phenolic was tested with Follin-Ciocalteu method at a wavelength of 765 nm while the total flavonoids was tested using AlCl3 method at a wavelength of 510 nm. The antioxidant activity was determined by diphenylpicrylhydrazyl method (DPPH) at a wavelength of 517 nm. The results showed that total phenolics, total flavonoids, and IC50 at an altitude of 690 m asl is higher compared to those at 1.280, and 1.890 m above sea level , respectively by 19%; 290.62 GAE mg/g extract, 125 CE mg/g extract, and 5.48 ppm. The total phenolic and flavonoid content significantly correlated with the antioxidant activity (IC50).
Jurnal Tanaman Industri dan Penyegar, Volume 5, pp 87-94; doi:10.21082/jtidp.v5n2.2018.p87-94
Abstract:Zinc deficiency (Zn) in tea [Camellia sinensis (L.) O. Kuntze] may inhibit growth and decreases shoots production. To overcome the deficiency, zinc is generally given in the form of zinc sulphate fertilizer (Zn 22.75%) through foliar application. Today there is a micro-fertilizer with a higher zinc consentration (Zn-30%). The research aimed to determine the effect of dosage and application interval of Zn-30% micro fertilizer on production and yield component of tea shoot. The experiment was conducted in Pasirmalang Estate, Afdeling Wetan Block Pakurendeng II, PT Perkebunan Nusantara VIII Pangalengan Bandung, West Java, altitude ±1,600 m asl, from November 2016 to June 2017. The tea clone used was productive GMB 7. Experiments were designed by randomized block design with 2 factors and 4 replications. The first factor is Zn-30% that consisted of 4 levels i.e. Zn-30% with a dose of 300, 250, and 200 g/ha respectively, and ZnSO4 with a dose of 2 kg as control. The second factor is interval of application that consisted of 2 levels, once and twice applications after plucking. Variables observed were production and yield components of tea shoot. The results showed that application of Zn-30% with a dose of 300 g/ha in one time interval of application after plucking effectively increased shoot production compared to other doses, but not significantly different with ZnSO4 in two time interval of application. Application of Zn, either in the form of oxide salt or zinc sulphate, increased the percentage of pecco shoots and reduces number of banji shoots.
Jurnal Tanaman Industri dan Penyegar, Volume 1; doi:10.21082/jtidp.v1n1.2014.p49-56
Abstract:Perbaikan mutu fisik, biokimia, dan cita rasa berbasis kultivar penting dilakukan saat ini untuk meningkatkan daya saing kopi Indonesia di pasar global. Penelitian ini bertujuan mengevaluasi keragaman ukuran biji, kadar kafein, dan mutu cita rasa lima kultivar kopi Arabika, yaitu ABP-1, ABP-2, ABP-3, AGK-1, dan S-795. Kelima kultivar tersebut ditanam pada tahun 2008 oleh petani di Desa Marga Mulya, Kecamatan Cikandang, Kabupaten Garut, Jawa Barat pada ketinggian 1.300 m di atas permukaan laut. Biji dari masing-masing kultivar dipanen pada bulan Juli-Agustus 2013 melalui prosedur pengolahan basah. Sampel sebanyak 100 biji beras dari masing-masing kultivar diambil secara acak untuk pengukuran panjang, lebar, tebal, dan bobot 100 biji beras. Pengukuran tersebut diulang sebanyak tiga kali. Analisis varian satu arah dan analisis gerombol dilakukan terhadap data hasil pengukuran. Selain itu, sampel sebanyak 500 gram biji beras dari masing-masing kultivar digunakan untuk pengujian mutu fisik, kimia, dan cita rasa. Ukuran biji beras diklasifikasikan berdasarkan standar SNI 01-2907-2008, sedangkan kandungan kafein diuji berdasarkan prosedur Official Method of Analysis AOAC. Penilaian mutu seduhan mengacu kepada protokol Specialty Coffee Association of America (SCAA). Hasil pengujian menunjukkan bahwa biji beras kultivar ABP-1, ABP-2, AGK-1, dan S-795 termasuk dalam kategori besar, meskipun berdasarkan analisis gerombol terbagi ke dalam dua kelompok. Hanya kultivar ABP-3 yang memiliki ukuran biji beras tergolong kecil dan mengelompok sendiri. Kandungan kafein biji kultivar ABP-1, ABP-2, dan S-795 di bawah 1%, sedangkan ABP-3 dan AGK-1 lebih besar dari 1%. Meskipun demikian, semua kultivar yang diuji termasuk dalam kategori spesialti karena nilai akhirnya mencapai > 80,00.Kata Kunci: Kopi Arabika, spesialti, seleksi, spesifik lokasiCultivar-based quality improvement of Arabica coffee is very important in order to increase competitiveness of Indonesian coffee product in global market. The objectives of this study were to identify the diversity of green bean size, levels of caffeine, and quality among five Arabica coffee cultivars that cultivated by farmers in West Java, ABP-1, ABP-2, ABP-3, AGK-1, and S-795. The research was conducted at 1.300 m above sea level in Garut, West Java, Indonesia. Ripe cherries samples of each cultivars grown in the same area was taken in July-August 2013. Seeds were separated from the rind using wet processing procedure. Sample of 100 green beans were randomly taken for measurement of length, width, thickness, and weight of 100 green beans. Measurements were repeated three times and collected data were analyzed with analysis of variance and analysis of clusters methods. In addition, samples of 500 grams of green beans were taken from each cultivars and subsequently used for testing the quality of the physical, chemical and cupping. Green bean size was determined according to SNI 01-2907-2008, while caffeine content was analysed using AOAC Official Method of Analysis. Cupping test protocol was refer to the Specialty Coffee Association of America (SCAA) method. The results showed that green bean size of ABP-1, ABP-2, AGK-, and S-795 cultivars were classified as large, even though they were clustered into two distinct groups. On the other hand, ABP-3 cultivar produced a small green bean size and solely separated into third group. Caffeine content of ABP-1, ABP-2, and S-795 cultivars were of < 1%, meanwhile ABP-3 and AGK-1 cultivars were of >1%. However, the quality and taste of all cultivars have very good cup quality (score> 80) and meets the criteria for specialty coffee.
Jurnal Tanaman Industri dan Penyegar, Volume 2; doi:10.21082/jtidp.v2n3.2015.p151-158
Abstract:Harga yang diterima oleh petani karet di Indonesia lebih rendah dibandingkan dengan di negara produsen lainnya sebagai akibat dari rantai pasok sistem pemasaran yang belum efisien. Untuk itu, diperlukan upaya untuk meningkatkan kinerja rantai pasok. Penelitian bertujuan menganalisis rantai pasok sistem pada sistem pemasaran karet dan pengaruh manajemen rantai pasok terhadap peningkatan efisiensi pemasaran di setiap lembaga anggota rantai pasok. Penelitian dilakukan di Kabupaten Tebo, Provinsi Jambi, mulai Desember 2014 sampai Februari 2015. Efisiensi sistem pemasaran dianalisis menggunakan pendekatan nilai B/C ratio dan nilai tambah, sedangkan rantai pasok dianalisis menggunakan pendekatan supply chain network (SCN). Hasil penelitian menunjukkan terdapat empat rantai pasok dalam pemasaran karet alam rakyat, yaitu Pola I (petani – pedagang pengumpul desa – pedagang pengumpul kecamatan – pedagang besar – pabrik), Pola II (petani – pedagang pengumpul desa – pedagang besar – pabrik), Pola III (petani – pasar lelang – pabrik), dan Pola IV [petani – Unit Pengolahan dan Pemasaran Bokar (UPPB) – pabrik]. Dari empat pola tersebut, manajemen rantai pasok karet alam rakyat terbaik terjadi melalui pola keempat, yang diindikasikan dengan adanya kesepakatan antara petani dengan pabrik karet untuk menghasilkan kualitas bokar yang lebih bermutu dan harga lebih tinggi, di samping melakukan pembinaan, penyuluhan dan pelatihan. Pola tersebut meningkatkan efisiensi pemasaran dengan indikator B/C ratio sebesar 1,29 dan persentase nilai tambah petani 96,82%. Oleh karena itu, supply chain network pemasaran karet rakyat melalui pola petani-UPPB-pabrik telah mendorong petani untuk menghasilkan bokar yang lebih berkualitas sehingga harganya lebih tinggi. Pemerintah perlu merekomendasikan pola tersebut kepada petani lain untuk meningkatkan pendapatan petani karet. Kata kunci: Efisiensi pemasaran, nilai tambah, rantai pasok, saluran pemasaran Rubber price received by smallholders in Indonesia is lower compared with other countries due to inefficient marketing system. Therefore, it needs an effort to increase in the supply chain performance. The objective of the research was to analyze marketing system of natural rubber and the effect of supply chain management on marketing efficiency. The research was conducted at Tebo Regency of Jambi Province from December 2014 until February 2015. Marketing system was analyzed using B/C ratio and value-added approach, whereas supply chain was carried out using a supply chain network approach. The results showed that there were four patterns in the marketing channels of natural rubber. Pattern I (farmers – village traders - subdistrict traders - district traders - industries); Pattern II (farmers – village traders - district traders - industries); Pattern III (farmers –auction market - industries); and Pattern IV [farmers –Rubber Processing and Marketing Unit (RPMU) – industries]. The supply chain management was only found in the Pattern IV, where there was an agreement between farmers and the RPMU to improve the quality of rubber for higher price. In addition, farmers also received advocation and training from the RPMU. Pattern IV exhibited improvement marketing efficiency as indicated by a B/C ratio at 1.29 and value added at 96.82%. The adoption of SCN framework was able to motivate farmers to produce a better quality of rubber that afforded a higher price. Therefore, the government is necessarily to recommend the addoption of this pattern in increasing farmers’ income.