Journal Jurnal Tanaman Industri dan Penyegar-
Jurnal Tanaman Industri dan Penyegar, Volume 3; doi:10.21082/jtidp.v3n2.2016.p95-102
Abstract:The long distance between scion and production garden requires storage and transport processes for the scion that are needed in rubber green budding. Therefore, information about the rubber scion storage and packaging technology need to be known. This study was aimed to determine the effect of storage period and packaging types of scion on the success and growth of rubber green budding. The study was conducted at Pakuwon Experimental Station of Indonesian Industrial and Beverage Crops Research Institute, Sukabumi, from February until May 2015. The split plot design with three replications was used in this study. The main plot factor was three levels of scion storage periods, i.e. 3, 4, and 5 days after harvesting the scion. The subplot factor was the 4 techniques of scion packaging: (1) the wood box with five layers of moistened newsprint paper, (2) the wood box with moistened sawdust, (3) the wood box with five layers of moistened newsprint paper and scion wrapped in plastic bags, and (4) the wood box with moistened sawdust and scion wrapped in plastic bags. The variables measured were the success level and bud growth of rubber green budding. The results showed that the success level and growth of rubber green budding from scion stored for 4 days are not significantly different compared to those that stored for 3 days. Meanwhile, the best technique of scion packaging is the woodbox with five layers of moistened newsprint or moistened sawdust medium and the scion wrapped in plastic bags.
Jurnal Tanaman Industri dan Penyegar, Volume 3; doi:10.21082/jtidp.v3n2.2016.p117-126
Abstract:Ephestia cautella is one type of storage pests that causes a decrease in cocoa bean quality. Control of this pest using chemical insecticides is not recommended because it is harmful to the environment and consumer health. The research aimed to examine the repellency and insecticidal activity of several types of extract and botanical oil against E. cautella larvae. The research was conducted in the Plant Protection Laboratory, Indonesian Industrial and Beverage Crops Research Institute, from March to November 2012. Botanical materials used were water extracts from Ageratum conyzoides leaves, Azadirachta indica seeds, and Allium sativum tubers, as well as oil from Reutalis trisperma, Syzygium aromaticum, and Andropogon nardus, with respective concentration of 0.5%. The insects test used was the 3rd instar larvae generated in the laboratory. Preliminary testing of the repellency activity was performed used the multiple-choice method, while subsequent testing used the dual-choice method with the parameters of larvae number remains in each treatment until 72 hours. The insecticidal activity was conducted using residual method on the feed substitute, by calculating mortality rate of the test insects. Observations were made at 24, 48, and 72 hours after treatment. The results showed that water extract from A. sativum bulbs and A. conyzoides leaves have high repellency percentage on the E. cautella larvae, i.e. of 81.33% and 78.67%, respectively. Thus, these two vegetable extracts have the potential to be used as cocoa bean protectant from storage pest attacks. The extracts from A. indica seed, A. sativum bulbs, as well as oil from R. trisperma and S. aromaticum showed insecticidal properties that are able to kill E. cautella larvae.
Jurnal Tanaman Industri dan Penyegar, Volume 3; doi:10.21082/jtidp.v3n2.2016.p103-108
Abstract:Tea (Camellia sinensis (L.) O. Kuntze) is a cross-pollinated plant that has self-incompatible character. Assembly of superior clones through artificial pollination requires information of genetic relationships between accessions as a reference for parental lines selection. The study was aimed to determine the genetic diversity and relationships of 49 tea clones based on leaf morphology and yield components. The research was conducted at Pasir Sarongge experimental garden, Cianjur, West Java, from April to November 2015. The observed morphological characters were leaf length and width, leaf area, leaf angle, number of vein leaf, and internode between first and second leaves. Meanwhile, yield components were pecco number, pecco weight (p+3), banji bud number, banji bud weigth (b+1), and yield. The data were then used for descriptive analysis and grouping using UPGMA method based on dissimilarity matrix by XL-STAT software version 2009. The research showed that 49 clones observed here have variability on yield, leaf area, number of banji bud, and pecco number with coefficient of diversity 27.77%–51.83%. On the other hand, result of cluster analysis divided tea clones into four groups. The first group consisted of 34 clones with morphological characteristics similar to sinensis type (narrow leaves and low productivity). Group II comprised 12 clones with morphological characteristics (wide leaf) and productivity (high) similar to assamica type. Group III and IV, each contained one clone, and have similarity to assamica. The most far genetic relationships was found between group I and II (55.59%), while the closest one observed between group III and IV (5.76%).
Jurnal Tanaman Industri dan Penyegar, Volume 3; doi:10.21082/jtidp.v3n3.2016.p167-174
Abstract:The yellow Arabica coffee (AGK-1) is a superior local cultivar that has been widely developed in the Garut regency and several other districts in West Java. The advantages of this cultivar are high productivity, large berry size, and specialty flavor quality. One of the obstacles in its development is the coffee berry borer (CBB attack), caused by Hypothenemus hampei, which is the main pest of coffee plants worldwide. The objective of the study was to evaluate the percentage of infestation in Arabica coffee cultivars of AGK-1 both in laboratory and on field studies. The research was conducted from March to August 2016. The observation of CBB infestation level in the field was carried out in Ciawer and Legok Gede Village, Cikajang District, Garut Regency, West Java, taken on 4 years old plants (1,450 m asl), 6 years (1,300 m asl), 9 years (1,350 m asl), and 11 years (1,300 m asl). Infestation testing of CBB was conducted in laboratory of Plant Protection of Indonesian Industrial and Beverage Crops Research Institute (IIBCRI), Sukabumi, using the method of choice and non choice test. The result showed that the percentage of H. hampei infestation on AGK-1 yellow Arabica coffee cultivar on field at all age and altitudes was low (3.24%–6.76%). Whereas laboratory testing showed that infestation level of CBB on yellow Arabica coffee cultivar AGK-1 as the highest, both from the choice and non choice test (51.25% and 17.5% respectively). On the other hand, the berry damage was low and not significantly different from other cultivars/varieties (19.37% and 6.25% respectively).
Jurnal Tanaman Industri dan Penyegar, Volume 3; doi:10.21082/jtidp.v3n3.2016.p135-140
Abstract:The distance between the location of cuttings nursery and scions garden of Robusta coffee is considered as the main obstacle of cuttings viability during distribution period. One alternative to solve the problem is the utilization of packaging to keep the moisture of scions and viability of Robusta coffee cuttings. This study aimed to investigate the packaging technique of scions during the distribution period to maintain the viability. The experiment was conducted in the Integrated Laboratory and Pakuwon Experimental Station, Indonesian Industrial and Beverage Crops Research Institute (IIBCRI), Sukabumi, from January to December 2015. The study used a split plot in time design with 5 replications. The main plot was the distribution periods of scion (7 and 10 days), while the subplot consisted of 3 types of packaging (plastic, paper, and sawdust), and all treatments of packaging type were added with polyacrylamide superabsorbent polymer. Variables observed were the water content; cuttings viability; weight of dry leaves and number of leaves; number, length, volume, and weight of dry roots; auxin and carbohydrate contents at two months after sowing. In addition, the economic effects of packaging types were analyzed. The results showed that the distribution periods of 7 and 10 days were able to maintain the viability of the Robusta coffee cuttings of 55.63%–64.01%. The recommended packaging type is plastic + superabsorbent polyacrylamide polymer for its low cost and the lightest.
Jurnal Tanaman Industri dan Penyegar, Volume 3; doi:10.21082/jtidp.v3n3.2016.p159-166
Abstract:The storage longevity of biofungicide containing Trichoderma virens and T. amazonicum to controll the whithe root diseases (WRD) in rubber plants is important to know to remain effective when applied. The composition of the multiplication medium in the T. virens dan and T. amazonicum biofungicide can affect the longevity and viability of conidia during storage. The objective of the research was to determine the effect of glycerol addition in the multiplication medium of T. virens and T. amazonicum biofungicide during storage. The research was conducted at the Laboratory of Plant Protection, Indonesian Industrial and Beverage Crops Research Institute (IIBCRI), Sukabumi, from January to July 2014. The experiment used a completely randomized design with 8 treatments and 3 replications. The biofungicidal formula consisted of: (1) glycerol addition (0%, 3%, 6%, and 9%) in the multiplication medium of T. virens and (2) glycerol addition (0%, 3%, 6%, and 9%) in the multiplication medium of T. amazonicum. Each multiplication was mixed with a carrier (talc), dried, then packed in a plastic bag and stored for 4 months. Observations were carried out each month, including: the amount of conidia, Trichoderma sp. population, and water content. The results showed that the addition of glycerol to multiplication medium was able to maintain the viability of T. virens and T. amazonicum and the storage longevity of the biofungicide. The addition of 6% to 9% glycerol in the multiplication medium of T. virens and T. amazonicum showed the highest concentration, yielding conidia up to 7.98 x 107 – 8.59 x 107 conidia/g and population abundance of 11.67 x 103 – 14.67 x 103 cfu/g in biofungicide stored for 4 months.
Jurnal Tanaman Industri dan Penyegar, Volume 3; doi:10.21082/jtidp.v3n3.2016.p127-134
Abstract:The composition of basal medium determines the regeneration success of in vitro culture. The study aimed to evaluate the effect of basal medium in the primary callus induction medium and explant type on the formation of cacao somatic embryo. The research was conducted at the Tissue Culture Laboratory of IAARD, Bogor, from June 2014 to December 2015. Primary callus induction derived from staminoid and petal explants of ICCRI 4 clone used two types of basal medium, i.e. DKW+ 9 µM 2.4-D + 1.16 µM kinetin or WPM + 9 µM 2.4-D + 1.16 µM kinetin. After 14 days, callus was subcultured onto secondary callus induction medium (WPM + 2.4-D 9 μM + kinetin 0.58 μM), and then onto DKW medium without growth regulators to induce the formation of somatic embryo. The research was designed in two-factor factorial design with five replications. The first factor was the type of basal medium on the primary callus induction medium (DKW and WPM) and the second factor was the type of explants (petal and staminoid). The results showed significant interaction effect between basal medium type and explant type on the formation of callus and somatic embryo of cacao. The highest percentage of callus formation was derived from staminoid explants on the DKW basal salt medium (92.5%). However, the highest percentage of somatic embryo formation and the number of somatic embryo per explant were obtained from DKW basal salt medium with petal explants (36.5% and 2.3). Therefore, the use of DKW basal salt medium and petal explant were recommended for the induction of somatic embryo of the ICCRI 4 clone.
Jurnal Tanaman Industri dan Penyegar, Volume 3; doi:10.21082/jtidp.v3n3.2016.p151-158
Abstract:Coffee "Sidodadi" is the Robusta coffee clone, selected by farmers, widely developed in the Bengkulu region. The clones are distributed at different altitudes, i.e. 600, 900, and 1,200 m asl and presumably have different phenotyphic expression due to different growth environment. This study aimed to determine the influence of altitudes on the phenotypic expression of coffee "Sidodadi". The study was conducted at (1) 600 m asl (Sukarami subdistrict, Bermani Ulu district, Curup Regency), (2) 900 m asl (Airsempiang subdistrict, Kabawetan district, Kapahiang Regency), and (3) 1,200 m asl (Airles subdistrict, Muara Kemumuh District, Kapahiang Regency), from January 2014 to October 2015 with a survey method. A total of 5 trees were randomly assigned to each experimental unit and each was repeated 5 times. Phenotypic characters observed including vegetative morphology and yield components (data obtained using the difference test of two average t-Students on the 5% level), caffeine content, and cupping-test score. The sample of coffee beans used was 500 g with a water content of 10%–10.9% taken at three different altitudes. The results showed a significant effect of altitude on vegetative growth and yield components of "Sidodadi" Robusta coffee. Altitude of 1.200 m asl produces vegetative, generative, and higher-yielding coffee yields, but with lower caffeine content than those grown at 600 and 900 m asl. Meanwhile, the best flavor quality with a score of 85.25 is indicated by "Sidodadi" Robusta coffee grown at an altitude of 900 m asl which delivered high body, long aftertaste, dark chocolate aroma, and caramelly flavor.
Jurnal Tanaman Industri dan Penyegar, Volume 3; doi:10.21082/jtidp.v3n3.2016.p141-150
Abstract:Phytophthora palmivora Butl. is a causal pathogen of black pod rot of cocoa (BPR) which leads to severe crop losses. Control of P. palmivora using biological agents such as endophytic fungi is most recommended for its environmentally friendly benefits. The aim of this research was to obtain endophytic fungi from cacao plant that works as biological agent against P. palmivora. The research was conducted at Plant Protection Laboratory, Indonesian Industrial and Beverage Crops Research Institute (IIBCRI), Sukabumi, from January to July 2015. The exploration for endophytic fungi was carried out in cacao producing regions such as Southeast Sulawesi, West Java, and Lampung. The samples taken were of leaves, pods, and branches of a number of cacao varieties and clones. Isolated endophytic fungi were then being sterilized, selected, and studied in vitro using PDA medium and in vivo using cacao pod. The exploration obtained 269 endophytic fungi, consisted of 195 isolates from Southeast Sulawesi, 41 isolates from West Java, and 33 isolates from Lampung. The evaluation of endophytic fungi isolated from P. palmivora showed that there were 4 species of Trichoderma isolates which have potentials for biological agents to control P. palmivora, namely SWI, STII, PB5, and SWII with inhibitory effect of 70.33%; 68.89%; 67.43%; and 66.67%, respectively.
Jurnal Tanaman Industri dan Penyegar, Volume 3; doi:10.21082/jtidp.v3n3.2016.p175-184
Abstract:The use of post tin mining land for agricultural purpose is constrained by the coarse soil texture (sand), low C-organic, acid pH and low nutrient content which can be rehabilitated with soil ameliorant treatment. The research objective was to determine the best soil management of post tin mining land through the use of soil ameliorant, fertilizer, and mycorrhiza application for rubber plant growth. The research was conducted in Mandor District, Landak Regency, West Kalimantan, from 2014 until 2015. The experiment design was a split plots with 3 replications. The main plot was the use of ameliorant i.e M1 (16 kg of compost + 24 kg of quartz tailings), M2 (16 kg of clay soil + 24 kg of quartz tailings), M3 (8 kg of compost + 8 kg of clay soil + 24 kg of quartz tailings), and control (without soil ameliorant). Subplot was fertilizer dosage i.e D1 (100% of the recommended doses), D2 (100% of the recommended doses + 100 g of mycorrhiza), D3 (125% of the recommended doses), D4 (125% of the recommended doses + 100 g of mycorrhiza). The study was conducted at altitude of 50 m asl, type A climate, annual rainfall at 2.600 mm, sandy soil (82.2%) with very low N (0.09%), very low K (0.08 cmol (+)/kg), and low P (9.24 ppm). Variables observed were the rubber plant growth (plant height, stem diameter, and number of leaves). Result showed that optimizing the rubber growth at post tin mining land needs soil ameliorants application such as compost and clay. Meanwhile, the optimal dose of fertilizer is 125% of the recommended dose plus 100 g of mycorrhiza.