Journal Iconarp International J. of Architecture and Planning

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46 articles
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Arife Deniz Okta? Beycan
Iconarp International J. of Architecture and Planning, Volume 5, pp 151-171; doi:10.15320/ICONARP.2017.21

Ahmet Emre Dinçer, Ibrahim Bektaş, Abdullah Bilgehan Iyican, Abdul Samet Engin
Iconarp International J. of Architecture and Planning, Volume 5, pp 103-116; doi:10.15320/ICONARP.2017.29

Abstract:For the continuation of life, people created various equipment and goods. To create mutual benefits, they’ve exchanged the overpruduced items with different products. This has begun the shopping act. By the increased amount of transactions, a need of defined area for shopping have arisen. For a temporary time, trading areas have been developed at different locations at a certain period. In the course of time, beside trading, these areas served as socio-cultural spaces where the human relations were established. Moreover, demand of being able to immediately access to needed goods have emerged. This situation made having a permanent trading area essential. Therefore, enclosed and permanent trade areas from bazaar, inn, bedesten, arasta to shopping malls have emerged. Next to all these trading areas, traditional bazaar areas keep being established.Nowadays, there is a need of providing some determined comfort conditions to the users for these street alley bazaars. Decreasing the effect of unfavorable weather conditions and providing supportive certain services and units (like WCs, security, cleanliness, etc.) are some of them. As a fundamental solution, without disengaging the user relations with the outside, shade structures are generally provided. Shade structures can support cleaning and similar jobs by gathering and using rainwater besides its purpose of protecting the user from bad weather conditions. Application examples of these systems are gradually increasing. However, it is necessary to develop new approaches, in order to stop these proposed shade structures, become prototypes and to adapt the proposal to its environment and to increase diversity.In this study, a convenient shade structure and its alternatives, which are adapted to environmental conditions, were designed to create a sample model for other bazaar areas. In models, basically, folding design approaches were pursued. For production of these shade structure models, parametric modelling technics (Grasshoppers and Rhinoceros software) were used and different variations of model were generated. Chosen examples of models were evaluated in the aspect of feasibility. A comparison was made between the existing examples and our designed models. Ecological contributions of these models were also taken into consideration and harvestable rainwater amount by this system was calculated. Accordingly, advantages of the system to the bazaar area and to its environment were studied.
Dilek Özdemir Darby, Tuğçe Özata
Iconarp International J. of Architecture and Planning, Volume 5, pp 18-29; doi:10.15320/ICONARP.2017.23

Abstract:In contemporary globalised cities it has become increasingly important, for those of us who live in monotonous so-called cloned-environments, to find a sense of place we can identify with. When ties between inhabitants and places are disrupted, people are estranged from their neighbourhoods. As a result, not only people’s relations with places are harmed, but also their social relations are affected, leading to isolation, alienation and socio-economic disruption.The causes of these relations are analysed through the concept of place attachment. Since the 1970s, research on place attachment has grown considerably. These studies are mostly focused on sense awareness and affectiveness, with the physical attributes of places accorded lesser attention (Lewicka, 2011). In a similar vein Christopher Alexander (et al, 1977) has asserted that, when studying place attachment, influences associated with human feelings only comprise ten percent of total influences, while the rest derive from the physical characteristics of places. And yet these are the least examined objects of study.In this context, the aim of this paper is to examine more closely the spatial qualities of places in the formation of place attachment. For the study, a long-established neighbourhood of Istanbul, Kuzguncuk, has been chosen to analyse the works of Christopher Alexander, Kevin Lynch, Jane Jacobs and John Montgomery. As a result, a matrix showing the spatial/physical qualities which have allowed the inhabitants of Kuzguncuk to develop a stronger attachment to their neighbourhood will be presented.
Hossein Maroufi, Elisabetta Rosina
Iconarp International J. of Architecture and Planning, Volume 5, pp 30-44; doi:10.15320/ICONARP.2017.24

Abstract:This paper explores pilgrimage in the context of historic holy cities which contain at least one religious complex through which the ritual of pilgrimage takes place. One controversial tension in urban development process of holy cities is the tension between urban growth, on the one hand, and adapting city structure to the needs of pilgrims on the other hand. This paper investigates this issue by referring to experiences of two major holy cities in of Mecca and Mashhad. Both cities are spiritual centers which host millions of pilgrims throughout year. The aim of this paper is to analyze the process of city center transformation in both cities and monitor different policies and interventions that shaped their morphologies up to now. Through historical analysis of urban form, flow of pilgrims has affected the morphology of both cities in similar ways. Accordingly policies and interventions by local officials have shaped the urban center in three similar ways: enlargement and expansion of shrine, vehicular access to shrine, and real-estate speculation. İn the absence of protective and preventive codes and policies both Mecca and Mashhad have lost their historical urban fabric and their cultural patrimonies. Their traditional urban scape and prominence of shrine has been substituted by high rise mega projects. İn a similar way their local crafts and small-scale retails have been replaced by global retail chain.
Murat Oral, Seda H. Bostancı
Iconarp International J. of Architecture and Planning, Volume 5, pp 45-59; doi:10.15320/ICONARP.2017.25

Abstract:In a lifetime, human brain constitutes cognitive models for various conditions and events in order to be able to adapt to the environment and lead a life based on experiences. Based on multidimensional sensory experiences, people create an internal model of a city and they use this model as a mental sketch in their new urban space experiences. Cognitive mapping methods create qualified data for way-finding and the process of classifying the stimuli of the living area and carrying out spatial designs that promote quality of life. Aesthetic perception of the urban pattern consists of keeping the skylines of a city in memory and being able to create an image in mind. Skylines are three dimensional urban landscapes which has a prime role in urban design studies. Urban skylines are the reference points for the historical perception of the environmental image. Urban skylines can be classified basically in three categories as the historical skyline, complex skyline in which new and higher structures are dominant and mixed skyline which is a combination of these two situations. The postcards and information guides for cities are important references in representing the identity for historical cities. The photographs seen in information guide books and postcards are attractive points for citizens and visitors of the cities. The fact that cities are changing constantly shows that cities like İstanbul, which are famous for their coastal skyline can protect the holistic aesthetic value of their very limited textures but cause a dramatic change and a chaotic visual effects within their urban transformation process. One of the major fundamental research areas of this study is to determine how these changes affect the memory. The aim of the study is to investigate how the image created by the skylines of historical cities can be expressed by drawing. The basic differences among the cognitive mapping techniques and the cognitive perception and the schematic display of a skyline can be discussed through this experimental approach. This study aims to do experimental research among a group of architecture students who are strong at drawing and schematic expressions. The selected group of samples will be asked to draw (1) the schematic skyline images of the city they live in and a city they have visited as far as they remember, (2) examined how they draw a skyline and how much time it takes after they are shown a skyline of a historical city chosen in a certain time, (3) watch a video on the streets of two different cities they have seen or haven't seen before, and asked to draw a skyline of the city based on what they have watched. Finally, these different situations will be analyzed. In the experimental study, After 3 days, drawing the best remembered skyline image will be requested from students. And what the sample group have thought in this selection in terms of aesthetics will be measured with the semantic differential and the adjective pairs. Participants will be asked to draw the catchy image of the skyline shown in order to compare the experimental methods and the subjective aesthetic evaluation methods. Observation-based determinations will be realized by the analysis of these drawings and the adjective pairs. In this way, the relation between the skyline perception and the aesthetic experience in urban life will be discussed.
Mustafa Sabah Saleh Mokhtar, Mustafa Korumaz
Iconarp International J. of Architecture and Planning, Volume 5, pp 117-139; doi:10.15320/ICONARP.2017.30

Abstract:Knowledge and memory influence the interpretations of a built environment, implying particular expectations in regard to the built environments and their roles in a society. People and their culture constitute the spirits of a building and a space. Memory also can dominate many heritage users, individuals, social and political groups over many centuries. Memory and spirit of cultural heritage enriches cultural identity under the global development. The adaptive reuse of heritage buildings is valued for the contribution for social and environmental sustainability as well as retaining memory. The inherent value of cultural heritage components and their place within the community’s memory helps to reinforce sense of place. In conservation sense identity, memory and the relationships of people give cultural significance to historical places.Evolution of the built environments bridges past and present to the future and embrace memory. However the cities as organisms are in a dilemma along with the loss of city memories and city spirits. These collective memories that bring spirits to a place play very important role and determine the cultural significance of places. The main contribution of this study is to emphasize the importance of adaptive reuse as a carrier of spirits to have a collective memory in order to sustain the development of a place. This article explores the relations between spirit and memory of a place by focusing of adaptive reuse project in Kirkuk citadel. Aim of this study is to question and evaluate restoration of Kirkuk Citadel in terms of urban identity and sense of place referring the early Kirkuk city and development of it. This paper also intends to put important guidelines for the future restoration projects of Kirkuk citadel – which is very urgently required – and high lights the importance of revitalizing this area, which is now the semi-dead heart of the city. The paper advocates policy makers is to increase the adaptive reuse policy as an integral tool of regeneration and sustainability policies in order not to lose collective memory.
Ahmet Alkan
Iconarp International J. of Architecture and Planning, Volume 5, pp 1-17; doi:10.15320/ICONARP.2017.22

Abstract:Debates about “being” and “existence” have continued uninterruptedly since ancient times in accordance with the evolution of philosophical thinking albeit at various levels of intensity. “Spatial Planning” which had not constitute a problem area for mankind until the industrial revolution, was linked to “ontology” either. In the post industrial revolution, on the other hand, “Cultural Delay” was regarded as a threshold before harmony in defining social problems mostly as a result of “technology-culture” oriented approaches. Failure to obtain expected results from endeavors to find solution to spatial problems in this manner of relationships paved the way for emergence of new ideas with regard to making use of ontology. However ontology has not been able to find a place for itself within the planning discipline and theory in adequate scope and dimensions in the search for a solution to the problem. This paper will make an attempt at presenting a point of view that can a modest contribution to the planning and ontology relations and try to discuss whether or not such endeavors will evolve into a method.The theme of planning, which began and was tried to be continued as “people-oriented”, also carries an “ontological” approach at the heart of the action. The problem here is to find an answer to the question of how an institutionalized structure or system can be acquired by raising this improvised attitude to the level of consciousness, thereby enabling it to participate effectively in the planning-implementation efforts.We are now faced with the reality that the efforts that were made from the beginning of the industrial revolution, when urban developments gained momentum, to the Euclidian understanding of planning in the 1950s and 1960s based on scientific approaches, to an approach of planning that channelled limited urban lands to profit during the urbanization process, to making “strategic” decisions on the basis of the planning decision theory and gradually evolving into a search for “strategic spatial planning” have not yielded the anticipated results.Can we make use of “ontology” in finding a solution to this deep-rooted and complicated question?If yes, how? Can macro and micro level institutional structures be used as instruments to this end, no matter how utopian they may seem today? Can existing ones be rendered more effective?Is it possible that there might be some among the variables of the planning (dependent and independent) that need to be opened for discussion and repositioned (like time)?Is it possible to redefine ontology within the hierarchical structure of planning?We are going to seek answers to some of these questions within the limited scope of this paper and we are going to offer the rest for discussion by just asking them.In light of these assessments, drawing attention, based on ontological knowledge relying on the wholeness of universe, to the question, on macro level planning, of whether or not the ontological realities of man, energy and movements of thinking can provide macro data for planning on a universal level as important factors affecting mankind will be one of the limited objectives of the paper.
Yüksel Burçin Nur, Yasemen Say Özer
Iconarp International J. of Architecture and Planning, Volume 5, pp 60-76; doi:10.15320/ICONARP.2017.26

Abstract:Istanbul, having hosted many civilizations and cultures, has a long and important past. Due to its geopolitical locations, the city has been the capital of two civilizations—Ottoman and Byzantine Empires—which left its traces in the history of the world. Architectural and symbolic monuments built by these civilizations made an impression in all communities making the city a center of attraction. After each and every damage caused by wars, civil strifes, and natural disasters, maximum effort has been made to restore these symbolic buildings.Attitude of a society to a piece of art or an architectural construction defined as historical artifact is shown in interventions, architectural supplementations and restorations to buildings to keep them alive. As a result of this attitude, it is accepted that buildings are perceived as a place of memory and symbolized with the city.The most important symbolic monument of the city, Ayasofya (Hagia Sophia), was found as the Church of the Byzantine Emperor in the year 360, then converted into the Mosque of the Ottoman Sultan, and now serves as one of the best-known museums of Turkey. With architectural additions requested by Byzantine emperors and Ottoman sultans, restorations and other functional changes; Hagia Sophia had become a monument witnessing its own changes as well as its surroundings while collecting memories. Accordingly, Hagia Sophia can be described as an immortal building. Immortality is out of time notion, however it is a reflection of time effects as well. Immortality is about resisting to time. A construction from the past which appreciates as time passes will also exist in the future preserving its value. The building has been strengthened with the memory phenomenon formed during construction, incidents that the building witnessed in its location, restorations, architectural supplementations and the perception of the world heritage.The main purpose of this presentation is to show how an intangible concept as memory concretizes in an architectural structure within the frames of immortality and time concepts by examining Hagia Sophia.
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