Journal Masyarakat, Kebudayaan dan Politik-
Masyarakat, Kebudayaan dan Politik, Volume 31, pp 190-200; doi:10.20473/mkp.v31i22018.190-200
Abstract:Tanjung Karang in Donggala Regency has the potential to be developed using the concept of marine ecotourism. However, the management system tends to be contradictory with the principles of marine ecotourism. The aim of this research is to understand the supporting factors and challenges in implementing marine ecotourism in Tanjung Karang, as well as studying the carrying capacity and human resources. A qualitative research method was used through interviews and participant observation. The research shows that natural potential and traditional socio-cultural activities conducted by the community are both essential in supporting Tanjung Karang as a channel of marine ecotourism. The three management systems supported by the community, government and private sector are capable of making a diﬀerence in relation to marine ecotourism implementation. In building tourism facilities, people tend to ignore the environmental preservation aspect. In addition, the private sector, as one of the tourism developers, also needs to ensure the management of Tanjung Karang that they will provide opportunities for the local community to enjoy nature and the culture oﬀered. This tourism should not be exclusively for international tourists. Although Tanjung Karang has been used as a tourist attraction before, marine ecotourism has not been prioritised as the development framework by the stakeholders. Eﬀorts have been undertaken to support the implementation of marine ecotourism and the stakeholder needs to understand the supporting factors and challenges involved, as well as the carrying capacity, in order to develop Tanjung Karang's marine ecotourism.
Masyarakat, Kebudayaan dan Politik, Volume 31, pp 140-154; doi:10.20473/mkp.v31i22018.140-154
Abstract:Every local government in Indonesia seeks to construct a space/place identity. Competition between identities becomes a key element in relation to recognition, diﬀerentiation, and commodification in the context of decentralisation’s implementation. This article has studied Mojokerto’s identity development as a part of the territorial administration system with regional autonomy. Policymakers designated Mojokerto as the host of Mojopahit House’s identity. The geographical space of Mojokerto competes in terms of identity, which underwent another comparison and intense competition with other regions’ identities. Why was Mojopahit House determined as the identity of Mojokerto by the government at the national, provincial, and municipal levels? Based on such a question, this paper employed the politico-spatial approach using the qualitative analysis method and interpretive approach. This study found that the policymakers viewed Mojopahit House as the most suitable symbol in the identity competition between regions and autonomous regions. It can be turned into a fundamental icon to project political value, economic value, and/or the place attributes. Mojopahit House has becomes a representative of the local-traditional, global, and political economy identity. To conclude, the development of space identity lies within heritage conservation policy and globalisation pressure.
Masyarakat, Kebudayaan dan Politik, Volume 31, pp 128-139; doi:10.20473/mkp.v31i22018.128-139
Abstract:The quality of an election can be measured by the number of violations that can be solved to ensure the legitimisation of the election results. Violations in elections are still a problem since the amount tends to increase, which needs a long period of time to be solved. The enforcement of the regulations, such as the role of Bawaslu, is limited because it only serves as a ‘postman’ who forwards the violation cases to another law enforcement institution. The shifting of electoral supervision towards a more participatory approach has become an opportunity to develop an electoral supervision model that involves the community, especially in the prevention phase. This article describes the emergence of the idea of volunteerism in the context of the election, particularly in the election’s implementation monitoring and supporting the functions of Bawaslu. The article uses qualitative methods to analyse the various regulations in relation to monitoring and supervising the election, as well as various referral sources that contain voluntary practice information. The result of the study shows that an early detection system is an alternative method that can be developed, considering the voluntary spirit which is currently undergone an improvement. Therefore, it is necessary to build an early system in the prevention phase by conducting supervision on the implementation of the overall stages of the election and building public awareness to guard the integrity of the election results.
Masyarakat, Kebudayaan dan Politik, Volume 31, pp 230-240; doi:10.20473/mkp.v31i22018.230-240
Abstract:This research is based on the phenomenon of low construction in coastal village areas, primarily in relation to the economic development sector. This study was conducted in order to determine the low economic level of coastal rural communities and its abundant natural resources (SDA). The government has already issued a public policy related to economic empowerment and coastal zone management. However, the coastal village community’s economy remains very low. The qualitative and phenomenological approach was used to obtain the findings about why society in coastal villages is economically low level. The main cause of the economic problem was the lack of ability of the public to capture the business opportunities that existed. In addition, the constant hereditary lifestyle of the coastal people is one of the triggers of their low economic power. There is a lack of distinct empowerment by the government in order to improve their economy. SDA has not been optimally empowering coastal areas by way of the village communities of the coast and there is a lack of village infrastructure. The concrete participation of the local government is expected in relation to the handling of economic empowerment. One solution that can be undertaken is the revamping of public policy related to the development of coastal villages. The completion of the installation program for paving and street lighting is also a priority. The development and empowerment of the economy should be done immediately. Another thing that can be done by the government is the optimisation of the religious and beach tourism there.
Masyarakat, Kebudayaan dan Politik, Volume 31, pp 176-189; doi:10.20473/mkp.v31i22018.176-189
Abstract:This study was conducted based on the socio-economic changes among South Malang’s residents due to the recognition of a new job opportunity, namely the role of migrant worker. The objective of this study is to describe the socio-economic changes in South Malang from a historical standpoint from the 1980s to 2015. In the 1980s, being a migrant worker as a job opportunity was popular, but in 2015, the number of migrant workers started to decrease drastically due to the changing of the economic direction. This study was conducted in eleven sub-districts in South Malang, which is known as the origin place of migrants, and where many of the residents have worked as migrant workers. The data used in this study was collected by interviewing and tracking the archives of the social economic development of the Malang District by way of various institutions. The results of this study indicate that the South Malang residents chose to work as migrant workers based on three main factors. First, are the internal factors that consist of the economic and infrastructure limitations. The external factor consist of the Oil Boom and Asian Miracle’s impact. Second, are the unproductive and costly environmental conditions which forced the residents to move out and find better life prospects. Third, is the socio-cultural context, where the society has only known about monetisation since the colonial era. Thecombination of these factors motivates the rural community of South Malang to work as migrant workers and this changed the socio-economic landscape of the region from plantations and subsistence agriculture to having a capitalist focus in the period 1980 to 2015. The positive impacts brought about by the presence of migrant workers in South Malang include economic progress, socio-economic welfare, and area improvement. On the other hand, the negative impacts include the increasing number of divorce cases, the cases of child abandonment, and the increase in the number of juvenile delinquency cases.
Masyarakat, Kebudayaan dan Politik, Volume 31, pp 119-127; doi:10.20473/mkp.v31i22018.119-127
Abstract:This paper explores the paradigmatic intersections between ‘inclusive development’ and the ‘feminisation of poverty’. Intersections are typical in the development subject, with the extent of the efficacy of inclusive development enabling opportunities addressing gender equality. In the emergent synthesis of inclusive (economic) growth and strategies for poverty alleviation, the challenges and opportunities associated with the paradigmatic shifts are evident. This is the case in the programs that are directed at the women household heads, such as Program Penanggulangan Feminisisasi Kemiskinan or the Feminisation of Poverty Alleviation Program (PFK) in East Java. This paper is based on the research on the implementation of PFK in the Regions of Trenggalek, Lamongan, Nganjuk and Banyuwangi. It highlights the importance of delving deeper into the processes involved and how the program has facilitated economic empowerment through entrepreneurship. Using qualitative research methods involving observation, analysis of relevant documents, and interview with a total of 98 informants, this research finds that in targeting the women household heads as its beneficiaries, the PFK has enabled unforeseen gains in terms of giving a voice to women and heralding a change in their participation and inclusion in relation to community issues and activities. This research also finds that, there is the challenges associated with program’s sustainability. In this, we conclude that, the issue of whether a one-oﬀ cash transfer, though guided, can serve as an impetus for women to lift themselves out of poverty is dependent on a number of factors that requires a more holistic approach to the sustainable capacity of development and mentorship.
Masyarakat, Kebudayaan dan Politik, Volume 31, pp 155-165; doi:10.20473/mkp.v31i22018.155-165
Abstract:Although it is already embodied in Islamic culture, acculturation can still be traced to elements of the supporting cultures. When the religion of Islam entered into Indonesia, the original culture was not brought with them, so the previous culture was continued by Islam. When the mosque concept is embodied as a cultural product, there are various forms and various buildings involved in the mosque. Mosques located in the Middle East are diﬀerent from mosques in Indonesia. The form of the roof overlaps with that taken from the roof of ancient mosques in Indonesia. The form of roof overlap at mosques in South Konawe District has been traced by the author. This study aims to identify and analyse what cultural elements aﬀect the shape of the roof of the mosque and the form of acculturation of the cultures at the mosques in the District of South Konawe. This research was used a qualitative descriptive method. This research concluded that the architecture as part of the Hindu cultural system, Islamic mysticism, and Europe acculturate is displayed in the roof of the mosque in the District of South Konawe. The roof shape of the two-tiered or three-storey mosque (Hindu culture and the Islamic principles of Mysticism) and the roof covered with mustaks shaped like onions (European culture) was formed by the acculturation of the three cultures.
Masyarakat, Kebudayaan dan Politik, Volume 31, pp 218-229; doi:10.20473/mkp.v31i22018.218-229
Abstract:A qualitative research study using the phenomenology and cultural method was conducted in SMA Negeri 4, in Kupang. The data collection techniques were observation, interviews, and documentation. The data was obtained from the informants, and then processed and analysed by using interactive model analysis. The results of this study are 1) the lack of an optimal role from parents in building Civil Society; 2) schools embed the concept of society in their students but need to strengthen the students’ character; 3) the Civil Society concept in social life is not implemented properly, and 4) there are some obstacles which result in the absence of good civil society, such as the lack of character education, community high dependency on the government, a lack of facilities in relation to the children’s development at school, a lack of political education and political communication, and the practice of nepotism and interests in relation to social justice. The role of society in building a civil society community is still lacking. This is even though, in terms of tolerance and pluralism, parents and schools are already well implemented. However, the aspects of autonomy, democracy and social justice are not working properly, which turn out to be constraints when it comes to civil society formation.
Masyarakat, Kebudayaan dan Politik, Volume 31, pp 201-217; doi:10.20473/mkp.v31i22018.201-217
Abstract:Voter turnout in local elections (pilkada) is a participation indicator. The local election in 2015 was diﬀerent from the local elections pre-2015, as the local election in 2015 was held simultaneously. Regional electoral commissions (KPUD) gave candidates campaign facilities like posters, banners, and debates with the other candidates on local television. This socialisation was expected to increase voter turnout. The purpose of this research to ascertain the level of voter turnout in the local election held in 2015 in Lamongan, and whether it is increasing or declining.KPUD has a new role not only to do with socialisation, but KPUD must also print campaign props in line with the fairness principles. The research methods used in this study were a survey and multistage random sampling for the sampling technique. The voter turnout in the 2015 local election was just 60.47% lower than the voter turnout of the 2014 legislative election(Pileg) that reached 71%. In the local election, the emotional bond between the voters and candidates is more powerful than that in a legislativeelection, but in the Lamongan local election 2015, it was not positively correlated. There are two main factors that inﬂuence the decrease of voter turnout. First, is the material orientation of the voters (sangu). If they do not get“Sangu”, they will not vote and they prefer to work in the fields. Voters thought that leaving their job for the election should get them substitution money. Second, was the indication of cartel politics, embracing all political parties in Lamongan Regency, for them to support the same candidate who was still on duty, namely Fadeli, and two other candidates. The level of voter turnout is inﬂuenced by the material orientation of the voters and cartel politics.
Masyarakat, Kebudayaan dan Politik, Volume 31, pp 166-175; doi:10.20473/mkp.v31i22018.166-175
Abstract:The socio-economic condition of the traditional fishermen in Blimbingsari Village is considered to be less than the optimum. This problem has happened due to the diminishing revenue from fishing activities. The opportunity to work in the oﬀ-fishing sectors available are also limited, thus this creates a problem for thefishermen when it comes to earning an additional income. The objective of this article is to explore the alternative economic resources’ potential, with the aim of increasing the fishermen's revenue, to overcome poverty, and to improve their welfare. This study used a qualitative method to analyse the data. The results of the study reveal that the diminishing revenue of the fishermen is caused by the scarcity of the fishery resources, the unstable weather conditions that aﬀect the ability to sail, and the limited seafaring coverage. On the other hand, the marine eco-tourism sector may have the opportunity to assist in the improvement of the business diversification of fishing. Although the marine eco-tourism sector is running at a limited capacity, this sector is able to accommodate the development of tourism services. The fishermen's family members are able to be involved in their business activities. For instance, by becoming a helper in the fish stall business or even having the chance to establish their own business. The need for a fish supply for the fish stall business can be obtained from the local fishermen. Therefore, a mutual synergy between the eco-tourism and fishing sectors can be created by involving village-owned business, particularly when it comes to organising the local economic potential. This synergy can provide the chance to develop economic opportunities at a wider range. The rearrangement of the coastal area is also necessary to provide an opportunity for the local people to participate in coastal-based economic activities.