Wacana, Volume 19, pp 122-148; doi:10.17510/wacana.v19i1.621
Abstract:Corpus of the non-standard Kudus Dialect of Javanese (JDK) passive voice construction was constructed in the course of fieldwork in Kudus and was annotated for several syntactic/semantic features. An investigation was undertaken into the di– affix in the JDK which encodes the passive function as compared to the Standard Javanese in a quantitative descriptive analysis. The results indicate the existence of an abbreviated agentive passive which occurs more frequently than the agentive passive; but less frequently than the agentless passive. The results also show that the passives of JDK are in fact likely to have inanimate subjects and have only animate demoted agent. However, human demoted agents appear more frequently than animal agents. Also, there is a tendency that the unmarked passive is most likely to be used as an agentless passive. The results suggest that the less colloquial the genre, the less likely the unmarked passive is to occur.
Wacana, Volume 19, pp 168-190; doi:10.17510/wacana.v19i1.623
Abstract:Contemporary mainstream discourse on youths in Indonesia tends to define it in terms of the popular-culture-oriented notion of youth. This article seeks to show that certain state-formed youth groups, particularly in institutional settings, continue to promote the state-oriented pemuda or nationalist youth identity. By looking at an example of a Paskibra group (Pasukan Pengibar Bendera – the Flag-Raising Troop) from a state vocational high school in Semarang, Central Java, the article seeks to highlight the way in which these youths combine language and symbolic behaviours to present this nationalist identity. Concurrently, these youths also appropriate elements of popular culture in order to present a compartmentalized or separate remaja identity that complements their core nationalist identity. While not prominently visible in Indonesian popular culture, nationalist forms of youth identity, such as the Paskibra, continue to have currency in various state and institutional sectors.
Wacana, Volume 19, pp 149-167; doi:10.17510/wacana.v19i1.620
Abstract:The morpheme -a in Balinese is ambiguous between the third person enclitic pronoun and a passive voice marker. Different views exist as to whether the morpheme can be the pronoun in the presence of a teken agentive phrase. This paper argues that it can and that the construction in which the pronoun -a and a teken phrase co-occur (the hybrid type) is an instance of clitic doubling. A hypothesis is proposed about how the third person pronoun changed into a passive marker and how different passive subtypes came into existence. It is claimed that the hybrid type played a key role in the change. The hybrid type supports the analysis of passives in general as a clitic doubling construction (Baker, Johnson and Roberts 1989). A clitic doubling analysis of passives enables a new typology of passives whereby passives are classified according to how the clitic and its double in a passive clause are expressed.
Wacana, Volume 19, pp 191-218; doi:10.17510/wacana.v19i1.624
Abstract:This paper examines the influence of language contact and multilingualism on the expression of location and space in the heritage variety of Javanese spoken in Suriname. Alongside Javanese, this community also speaks Sranantongo and Dutch. It is found that Surinamese speakers tend to use simple locative constructions more frequently than baseline speakers, at the expense of complex constructions. It is shown that the individual speaker variables age, generation, place of residence, and network play a role in explaining the usage of simple versus complex locative constructions in Surinamese Javanese: the more language contact speakers experience, the more they will use simple constructions at the cost of complex ones.
Wacana, Volume 19, pp 235-256; doi:10.17510/wacana.v19i1.673
Abstract:The policy of sustainable production has encouraged small batik businesses to shift to natural dyes as these are considered eco-friendly. However, the motivation behind juragan batiks’ embracing natural dyes still has some question marks attached. This qualitative study explains the motivation of the juragan batiks in using natural colourants in their production of batik warna alam and explores the significance of batik warna alam to juragan batik. We found the production of batik warna alam tended to be triggered by economic reasons not environmental consciousness. This related to the meaning of batik warna alam to maintaining the economic survival of the juragans. Juragans are convinced that batik warna alam is eco-friendly according to the indicators to which they subscribe: (1) the materials are found in their immediate surroundings; (2) the process causes no pollution or environmental destruction; and (3) the production does not pose a health threat to people, including workers. This study provides the insight that an eco-friendly-labelled production might not necessarily be motivated by a high level of environmental consciousness.
Wacana, Volume 18, pp 692-717; doi:10.17510/wacana.v18i3.633
Abstract:Mabedda Bola is a ritual which has been handed down from the ancestors of the Bugis – Makassarese people in South Sulawesi. At the ceremony which is called menre bola baru, held as part of the ritual inauguration of a new house, the Mabedda Bola, handprints are made on the poles and walls of the new house. In the region in which this custom is still honoured, hand stencils on the walls of the prehistoric caves have also been found. This article examines the significance of handprints in the Mabedda Bola ritual which might possibly be related to the hand stencils on the walls of the prehistoric caves. Using the perspective of analogy, one of the methods of ethnoarchaeology, it has been discovered that handprints and hand stencils take more or less the same form. The similarities between them hint at the same behavioural patterns between the present day and the prehistoric period. The print of the hand palm is meant to mark the ownership of the family or group who dwell in a traditional house or it is thought in a particular cave. Moreover, it is and was to avert danger or the intrusion ofbad influences from outside.
Wacana, Volume 18, pp 791-812; doi:10.17510/wacana.v18i3.637
Wacana, Volume 18, pp 718-745; doi:10.17510/wacana.v18i3.634
Abstract:This paper presents Palu’e storytelling on the basis of the on-going work with the Palu’e audio collection, created in the context of language/oral traditions documentation. The main aim is to show that the collection is a research resource for the humanities by discussing and comparing items which are referenced and accessible in the Kaipuleohone Ethnographic Archive. While the contents of the collection are showcased for this specific presentation, the intention is directed towards the body of digital humanities collections. The problems of what genres should be included, definitions, method of analysis, are discussed and put to the test. Recordings initially focused on oral literature, but expanded to include personal narratives with content related to culture and tradition. The cross-referencing between genres and items demonstrates the benefits of a comparative methodology, and suggests ways of using the collection.
Wacana, Volume 18, pp 746-771; doi:10.17510/wacana.v18i3.635
Abstract:In the past, linguists focused their studies on the description of the varieties of Lamaholot spoken in coastal communities. This article introduces Central Lembata Lamaholot, a Lamaholot variety spoken in the central mountains on the island of Lembata in the Indonesian province Nusa Tenggara Timur (NTT), which possesses features in the nominal and pronominal domains not found in other varieties of Lamaholot described so far. Alienable nouns in Central Lembata have morphological plural and specificity marking, and one sub-set ofthe alienable nouns has two alternating forms which are functionally different. Furthermore, free and bound pronouns in Central Lembata Lamaholot are intertwined with aspect and mood marking. The comparative analysis of these features of Central Lembata Lamaholot shows that they are partly retentions from an earlier stage of the language and partly internal innovations.
Wacana, Volume 18, pp 641-657; doi:10.17510/wacana.v18i3.631
Abstract:Two Old Javanese terms, gaņḍi and tulup, are discussed in detail. While the term tulup appears to be unproblematic, gaņḍi has previously been identified with a score of weapons, including bow, club, war hammer, and sling. I argue that the original meaning of this enigmatic term is ‘projectile, pellet’, while its second, derived meaning refers in most cases to ‘sling’, and, occasionally, to ‘blowgun’. Both weapons are represented in the Old Javanese textual record as the weapons associated with predatory warfare, and with the forces of adharma. I have tentatively suggested that this configuration reflects the pre-modern reality of slingers and the men equipped with blowguns perceived as essentially foreign, non-Javanese elements, and hence possibly identified by pre-modern audiences with mercenaries sourced from Sumatra or other parts of Indonesia where the sling and blowgun were used regularly in warfare.