Journal Jurnal Ilmu Ternak dan Veteriner

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Simson Tarigan, . . Sumarningsih, J. Ignjatovic
Jurnal Ilmu Ternak dan Veteriner, Volume 20; doi:10.14334/jitv.v20i2.1167

Iwan Herdiawan, Endang Sutedi
Jurnal Ilmu Ternak dan Veteriner, Volume 20; doi:10.14334/jitv.v20i2.1165

Abstract:Acid soil which contains Al3+ and Mn2 is generally unfavorable for crop including the tree legumes. The minerals are toxic to the plants resulted minimalization of growth and crop production. Caliandra calothyrsus, Indigofera zollingeriana, and Gliricidia sepium were tree legumes those are generally used for forage. The aim of this study was to compare their tolerancy to Al3+ and growth production on acid soil. The plants were grown in ultisol soil with 4.57 of pH collected from Palm Oil plantation, Sei-Putih, Medan. The experiment was carried out using completely randomized design (CRD) with kind of plants as the treatment and 12 times replication. The data were analyzed by ANOVA using the SPSS and excel program, followed by LSD test when the data was significantly difference. Variables measured were plant morphology, concentration of Al 3+ in the plant tissues, plant height, stem diameter, number of stem branches, root length, plant production, nutrient content, energy and in vitro digestibility. The highest Al 3+ contents in leaves, stem and root were significantly observed in those G. sepium, while the lowest contents was observed from those of I. zollingeriana. G. sepium was the most dwarf plant and its stem diameter was comparable with the one of C. calothyrsus, but was lower than that of I. zollingeriana. The highest number of branches was significantly observed in I. zollingeriana, while the lowest one was at G. sepium. The root length of C. calothyrsus was comparable with that of I. zollingeriana, while G. sepium root was the shorthest one. Root nodulation was only formed at I. zollingeriana. The highest biomass production was observed at I. zollingeriana which also had highest protein content and the best digestibility. Data from Al3 + concentration in tissues of leaves, stems and roots showed that I. zollingeriana was the most tolerant plant to acid soils. This tolerancy also affected higher plant growth, biomass production, nutrient concentration, and digestibility. Key Words: Avian Influenza, Cleavage Site, Hemagglutinin, Pathogenicity, Phylogenetic
Heni Rizqiati, Cece Sumantri, Ronny Rachman Noor, E. Damayanthi, E. I. Rianti
Jurnal Ilmu Ternak dan Veteriner, Volume 20; doi:10.14334/jitv.v20i2.1163

Abstract:Buffalo milk is a source of various lactic acid bacteria (LAB) which is potential as culture starter as well as the probiotic. This study was conducted to isolate and identify LAB from indigenous North Sumatra river buffalo milk. Lactic acid bacteria was isolated and grown in medium De Man Rogosa Sharpe Agar (MRSA). The isolation was conducted to obtain pure isolate. The identification of LAB was studied in terms of morphology, physiology, biochemistry and survival on low pH. Morphology tests were conducted by Gram staining and cell forming; physiology tests were conducted for growing viability at pH 4.5 and temperature at 45oC; whereas biochemistry tests were conducted for CO2, dextran and NH3 productions. Determination of LAB species was conducted using Analytical Profile Index (API) test CHL 50. Results of identification showed that 41 isolates were identified as LAB with Gram-positive, catalase-negative, rod and round shaped characteristics. Resistance test done to low pH (pH 2) for the lactic acid bacteria showed decrease of bacteria viability up to1.24±0.68 log cfu/ml. The resistant isolates at low pH were L12, L16, L17, L19, L20, M10, P8, S3, S19 and S20. Identification with API test CHL 50 for 10 isolates showed that four isolates were identified as Lactobacillus plantarum, L. brevis, L. pentosus and Lactococuslactis. Key Words: Buffalo Milk, LAB, Isolation, Identification
Sussi Widi Kurniasih, Retno D. Soejoedono, N.L.P.I. Mayasari
Jurnal Ilmu Ternak dan Veteriner, Volume 20; doi:10.14334/jitv.v20i2.1166

Abstract:Avian Influenza virus (AIV) still plays as a major cause of the death in poultry in Indonesia and around the world. The aim of this research was to determine the pathogenicity and to analyze the phylogenetic and genetic distances of hemagglutinin gene of isolated AI viruses in Indonesia in 2012-2013 particularly from West Java, Central Java, and North Sumatra. Samples were obtained from poultry farms that suffered from AI outbreaks, were inoculated and propagated in ten days old specific pathogen free (SPF) embryonated chicken eggs. Harvested allantoic fluids at 5 days after inoculation were tested for hemagglutination activity. Positive allantoic fluids were further tested to determine the hemagglutinin and neuraminidase subtype using real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RRT-PCR) and to be prepared for sequencing using reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). The sequence of hemagglutinin genes were analyzed for the amino acid pattern of the cleavage site region and the genetic distances and relationships of those viruses. The result indicated that all of the isolates are classified as HPAI with the pattern of cleavage site regions are QRESRRKKR and QRERRRKR. Six isolates are classified as H5N1 and 3 isolates are H5Nx. All of the isolates have close genetic relationship with the genetic distances less than 0.3 between one to another and also with several AI viruses that caused previous outbreaks in Indonesia. Key Words: Avian Influenza, Cleavage Site, Hemagglutinin, Pathogenicity, Phylogenetic
Ahmad Sofyan, A. A. Sakti, M. F. Karimy, H. Julendra, L. Istiqomah, H. Herdian, E. Damayanti, A. E. Suryani
Jurnal Ilmu Ternak dan Veteriner, Volume 20; doi:10.14334/jitv.v20i2.1164

Abstract:Organic additive for animal had been explored to replace antibiotic growth promoter. Probiotic from lactic acid bacteria was widely used to support the microbial balances in digestive tract, while organic mineral was added into diets to improve bioavailability for preventing mineral deficiency disorders. This experiment was aimed to assess probiotic (Pediococcus acidilactici RS2) and micromineral enriched yeast (MEY) combined with tannin from neem (Azadirachta indica) leaves containing tannin on king grass (P. hybrid) fermentability using in vitro gas production technique. Treatments consisted of P0 (control/forage without additive), P1 (P0+MEY); P2 (P0+MEY+crude tannin); P3 (P0+Probiotic); P4 (P0+Probiotic+MEY), and P5 (P0+Probiotic+MEY+crude tannin). The study was arranged in a completely randomized design (CRD) with three replications in each treatment. Probiotic, MEY or tannin supplementation significantly increased (P<0.05) gas production without affecting volatile fatty acid, protozoa numbers, methane production and in vitro digestibility of forage. The highest cumulative gas production was found in forage treated by P4 followed by P5, P1, P5, P2, P3 and control. Kinetic of gas production was significantly affected by treatments after 8 h incubation. Although the treatments were only significantly affected gas production kinetic (b, c and total gas), the hierarchical cluster analysis indicated that some parameters consisted of acetate, propionate, in vitro digestibility, protozoa numbers, and methane production were closely correlated to the gas production kinetic parameters. It was concluded that either organic mineral supplementation or its combination with probiotic, and probiotic+tannin improved fermentabilty of forage without negative effect on in vitro digestibility. Key Words: Fermentability, In Vitro Digestibility, Organic Mineral, Probiotic, Tannin
Aprizal Panus, S. Setiyaningsih, N.L.P.I. Mayasari
Jurnal Ilmu Ternak dan Veteriner, Volume 20; doi:10.14334/jitv.v20i2.1168

Abstract:The objectives of this research were to study Newcastle Disease Virus (NDV) infection in Subang area and to examine the diversity of the circulating NDV. Swabs of cloacal and oropharynx, and serum were sampled from total of 393 chickens and 149 ducks in backyard farms and live bird markets located in 10 subdistricts. Screening of NDV in pool of 5-7 samples by real-time Reverse-Transcription Polymerase Chain Reaction (rRT-PCR) matrix (M) showed 19/67 (28.3%) cloacal and 8/67 (11.9%) pharyngeal pools of chicken samples; 18/67 (26.9%) of the pools excreted virus via cloaca and oropharynx, while the duck pools of 8/30 (26.7%) shed virus from cloaca. Virus isolation attempted on individual sample from positive pools yielded 18 isolates which the majority of the isolates showed homogeneous antigenic character, only some of these showed variations up to 2 Log2 with Lasota and 4 Log2 with Komarov antisera. Majority of isolates had a higher affinity to Komarov indicating their propencity to virulent strains. Pathogenicity examination using elution test showed 3 isolates virus were grouped to mesogenic strains and 15 isolates to velogenic strain, in agreement with rRT-PCR fusion results. HI test on 408 sera showed that NDV antibody was detected in 48 (12%) birds with titres ranging from 1 to 8 Log2; only about 13% of vaccinated chickens demonstrated protective antibody titre (≥3 Log2). Newcastle disease is still endemic in Subang with relatively low antigenic variation among circulating strains. Key Words: Newcastle Disease, rRT-PCR Detection, Detection of Virulence, Antigenic Diversity, Antibody
Annisa Rahmi, A. Setiyono, V. Juniantito
Jurnal Ilmu Ternak dan Veteriner, Volume 20; doi:10.14334/jitv.v20i2.1169

Abstract:Curcumin, a curcuminoid compound of turmeric has been demonstrated to have anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. Bleomycin (BLM) is an anti-cancer drug induced pulmonary fibrosis in human and animals. This study was aimed to investigate biological effects of curcumin on bleomycin-induced pulmonary fibrosis in mice (Mus musculus) through pathomorphological assessment. In this study, 16 mice ddy strain were divided into four groups, namely (i) control, mice were subcutaneously (SC) injected with 100 µl sterilized aquadest in dorsal skin, (ii) BLM group, injected SC with 100 µl of 1 mg/ml BLM in dorsal skin, (iii) Curcumin (CMN) group, mice were intraperitoneally (IP) injected with 100 mg/kg body weight (BW) curcumin dissolved in 0,5% carboxy methyl cellulose (CMC) and injected with 100 µl sterilized aquadest SC, (iv) BLM+CMN group, injected SC with 100 µl of BLM 1 mg/ml and injected IP with 100 mg/kg BW CMN in 0,5% CMC. All treatments were performed daily for four weeks period. The lung samples were collected and fixed in buffered neutral formalin (BNF) 10%. Histopathological evaluation was performed with hematoxylin-eosin (HE) and Masson’s trichrome (MT) stains. The results showed that BLM treatment significantly increased fibrosis area and alveolar wall area fraction as compared to control. OIn the other hand, CMN treatment significantly reduced fibrosis area and alveolar wall area fraction in mice treated with BLM. In conclusion, our study showed that CMN treatment may inhibit lung fibrogenesis in BLM-induced pulmonary fibrosis. Key Words: Bleomycin, Curcumin, Mice, Pulmonary Fibrosis
R. K. Pundir, P. K. Singh, D. K. Sadana
Jurnal Ilmu Ternak dan Veteriner, Volume 20; doi:10.14334/jitv.v20i2.1162

Abstract:In the present study an attempt has been made to differentiate three cattle populations of North East states of India i.e. Tripura, Mizoram and Manipur based on morphometric traits, using canonical discriminant analysis to see whether they are similar or distinct. Data consisted of eight different morphometric traits of 383 indigenous cows from Tripura (136), Mizoram (71) and Manipur (176). Morphometric traits included body length, height at withers, heart girth, paunch girth, face length, ear length, horn length and tail length without switch. All the morphometric traits under study differ significantly in these populations except horn length. All the traits, values were lower in Tripura cows than that of Mizoram and Manipur cows. The stepwise discriminant analysis showed that height at withers, body length, ear length, tail length without switch, paunch girth and face length were the most discriminating traits in these three cattle populations. The pair wise Mahalanobis distances between Tripura and Mizoram, Tripura and Manipur and Mizoram and Manipur were 9.72578, 5.72089 and 4.65239, respectively, and significant. The dendogram showed that there are two clusters; cluster one includes Manipur and Mizoram cows and cluster two Tripura cows those are clearly separated from cluster one. The Individual assignment of different cattle populations by the cross-validation classification revealed 84.13% of Tripura cows, 82.09% of Mizoram cows and 79.87% Manipur cows were assigned correctly into their respective population. Based on the present study we cannot conclude that they are three different distinct breeds. However, the present information on the three cattle populations could therefore be exploited in designing appropriate strategies for their management and conservation. Key Words: Indigenous Cattle, Morphometric Traits, Multivariate Analysis, Cluster Analysis, Canonical Discriminant Analysis
N.L.P. Indi Dharmayanti, Hartawan R, DharmayantI NLPI
Jurnal Ilmu Ternak dan Veteriner, Volume 18; doi:10.14334/jitv.v18i3.317

Abstract:Numerous viral pathogens are circulated in the environment of commercial chicken farms that causing the difficulty in the confirmation of diagnosis. A breakthrough on the diagnosis technique is required in order to deal with multiple viral infections. Ideally, the approach should have not only high accuracy but also economical and straightforward. The objective of this research is to develop a rapid multiplex reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (mRT-PCR) diagnostic method for three common infectious viral diseases in poultry, Newcastle Disease (ND), Avian Influenza (AI) subtype H5N1 and Infectious Bronchitis (IB). This study was successful in developing and optimizing the mRT-PCR for these three pathogens in a single reaction test. Testing 67 field samples from Sukabumi district revealed the presence of several targeted viruses. Key Words: Screening Test, Multiplex RT-PCR, Newcastle Disease, Avian Influenza, Infectious Bronchitis
Ervandi M, Susilawati T, Wahyuningsih S
Jurnal Ilmu Ternak dan Veteriner, Volume 18; doi:10.14334/jitv.v18i3.319

Abstract:Damage of spermatozoa membrane in sexing procces with albumin gradient can decrease the quality of spermatozoa, thus to solve that need diluents for protect spermatozoa membrane to make good quality. The aim of this research is to know the best diluents between Andromed and CEP2 (cauda epididymal plasma) + 0% of yolk to keep the quality of Limousin Cow’s Spermatozoa from sexing procces with albumin’s gradient. Parameters measured for the quality of spermatozoa were : spermatozoa motility, spermatozoa viability, spermatozoa abnormality, spermatozoa concentration, and spermatozoa motility, membrane integrity, spermatozoa capacity, and acrosom reaction. Observation of membrane integrity using HOS (Hypoosmotic Swelling Test), observation of capacity and acrosom reaction using fluoresen CTC (Chortetracycline) dye. Result show that Andomed diluents and CEP2 + 10% yolk in top layer and bottom (X) and (Y) layer can keep the quality of Limousin Cow’s spermatozoa in sexing procces include spermatozoa motility (X 62,5%, Y 58%,) (X 56,5%, Y 55%), viability (X 91,64%, Y 91,51%) (X 89,87%, Y 93,51%, spermatozoa’s concentration (X 643 million /ml, Y518 million /ml) (X648 million/ml, Y517 million/ml), total spermatozoa are motil (X373,60 juta/ml, Y187,80 million/ml) (X 296,03 miliion/ml, Y 187,38 million/ml) , and have low abnormality (X 4,11%, Y 4,38%), (X 6,42%, Y 4,04%). Andromed diluents and CEP2 + 10% yolk can keep the integrity of spermatozoa membrane (X 87,60%, Y 80,26%) (X 79,61%, Y 81,03%), remains well and have the spermatozoa are not yet capacitation(X 87,60%, Y83,71%) (X 79,61%, Y 81,03%) remains high, spermatozoa capacity (X 9,76%, Y 9,92%) (X 13,45%, Y 8,95%), dan acrosom reaction (X 4,11%, Y 4,38%), (X 6,42%, Y 4,04%) remains low. Andromed diluents was not different (P > 0,05) from CEP2 diluents + 10% yolk in keeping the quality of Limousin Cow Spermatozoa from the sexing process with albumin’s gradient (egg white). Key Words: Semen, Andromed, CEP+10% Yolk, Albumin’s Gradient, Sexing
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