Journal Jurnal Ilmu Ternak dan Veteriner

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APRIL HARI WARDHANA, I. Abadi, M. M. CAMERON, P. D. Ready, M. J.R. Hall
Jurnal Ilmu Ternak dan Veteriner, Volume 23, pp 45-60; doi:10.14334/jitv.v23i1.1617

Abstract:Epidemiology of traumatic myiasis in Indonesia was studied by the widespread collection of fly larvae from infested livestock in passive case detection surveys involving veterinary clinics. In addition, monthly data from Kediri regency in Eastern Java were analysed from 2006-2009 to explore the seasonality of myiasis. Larvae from a total of 260 cases from the nationwide survey and 341 cases from Kediri were identified. Except for 5 cases of chicken infestation due to Musca species in the nationwide survey, all other cases were exclusively caused by the Old World screwworm (OWS) fly, Chrysomya bezziana (Diptera: Calliphoridae). The monthly numbers of cases at Kediri were very variable, with cases in all months, but there was statistical evidence for an increase in cases in January and December, during the rainy season. The greatest numbers of infestations recorded were from cattle and goats. The most frequently infested sites nationwide and in Kediri were the vulva and umbilicus, associated with calving, which is a major risk period for traumatic myiasis. Mitochondrial DNA typing of 176 specimens was useful for detecting multiple infestations, but no association was found between genetic lineage and host. The equatorial climate of Indonesia, combined with poor husbandry systems are factors that help to support OWS fly development year round. Even if not considered a disease of strategic importance, screwworm myiasis remains a threat to livestock production in Indonesia and a major welfare issue that requires constant interventions by farmers. The new and collated epidemiological data presented represent the most extensive survey of traumatic myiasis in Indonesia to date and provide a valuable baseline to support integrated pest management programs.
Gebrekidan Tesfay, Berhan Tamir, G. Berhane
Jurnal Ilmu Ternak dan Veteriner, Volume 23, pp 28-37; doi:10.14334/jitv.v23i1.1634

Abstract:The purpose of this study is to evaluate effects of partial or full substitution of mulberry leaf meal for concentrate mix on performances of Tigray highland lambs. Thirty intact yearlings Tigray highland male lambs (average initial body weights of 17.8±0.95 kg) were separated into 6 groups based on their live weight with each groups assigned 5 treatment diets (RCBD), that are: T1: 300 g concentrate mix alone, T2: 225 g concentrate mix + 86.55 g mulberry leaf, T3: 150 g concentrate mix + 173.1 g mulberry leaf, T4: 75 g concentrate mix + 259.7 g mulberry leaf and T5: 346.2 g mulberry leaf alone. The treatments diets were designed in such a way that concentrate mix was progressively replaced by mulberry leaf meal from 0% to 100% at iso-nitrogenous level. Lambs were adapted to experimental diets for 15 days, and after adaptation period, feeding trial was conducted. Results reveal that complete substitution of concentrate mix by mulberry leaf meal showed in higher (P<0.05) total dry matter, organic matter, NDF and ADF intake than the sole concentrate mix. The growth performance parameters resulted comparable across all the treatment diets. The slaughter weight and empty weight resulted higher (P<0.05) in sole mulberry leaf meal as compared to the whole concentrate mix supplemented lambs. On the other hand, the dressing percentage on empty body weight base and hot carcass weight showed less difference (P>0.05) across the different treatments. Therefore, mulberry foliage could potentially be used to replace concentrate mix as a feed supplement for the small holder farmers in Ethiopia.
Erika Gracia, S. Magdalena, Elizabeth Wina, Arnold P. Sinurat, Tresnawati Purwadaria
Jurnal Ilmu Ternak dan Veteriner, Volume 23, pp 11-17; doi:10.14334/jitv.v23i1.1800

Abstract:The occurrence of microbial resistance against antibiotic due to the subtherapeutic dosage of antibiotic growth promoter (AGP) in poultry can be prevented by the antibiofilm substance. Plant secondary compounds have some activities like antioxidant, antimicrobial, and antibiofilm. This research was conducted to obtain the plant with the highest activity of antibiofilm and also antioxidant by analyzing several plant secondary compounds as antioxidant and antibiofilm against chicken’s gut bacteria. The tested plants were clove leaves, leaffruit plants, mangosteen peel, cashew nut shell, guava leaves, and bay leaves. These plants were extracted with methanol or n-hexane using sonication method. The antioxidant activity as the IC50 value of the plant methanol extracts were determined using α,α-diphenyl-β-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) assay. The biofilm inhibition activity was tested against Escherichia coli, Salmonella enteritidis, and Staphylococcus aureus ATCC® 29213TM using methanol and n-hexane extracts. All of the samples had antioxidant activity. The clove leaves and leaffruit plants had the highest antioxidant activity, while mangosteen peel extract in methanol had the highest antibiofilm activity against all tested bacteria. The species of bacteria also affected the antibiofilm activity. E. coli and S. enteritidis were more resistant to antibiofilm then S. aureus. Mangosteen peel extract which showed high antioxidant and antibiofilm activity is potential to be used as a feed additive to control the pathogenic bacteria.
Eslam Faid-Allah, E. Ghoneim, A. R. Elbetagy, M. El-Dabour
Jurnal Ilmu Ternak dan Veteriner, Volume 23, pp 1-10; doi:10.14334/jitv.v23i1.1647

Abstract:This study investigates genetic diversity and structure of native Egyptian cattle populations, called Baladi, as Saidi from Southern Egypt, Menufi from Mid-Delta and their F1 crosses with the French Tarentaise breed using DNA Microsatellite markers. A total of unrelated 97 individuals were genotyped utilizing eight SSR primers (ETH10, ETH225, BM1818, BM1824, BM2113, SPS115, TGLA53 and TGLA126). All utilized SSR were found to be polymorphic. The highest and lowest numbers of alleles detected were 16 and 6 at TGLA53 and SPS115 loci, respectively. Baladi-Tarentaise crosses (Bal-Tar) had the highest number of alleles over all. The PIC values of 7 loci were higher than 0.5, indicating high allelic variation of utilized markers. Estimated PIC values were up to 0.898, 0.866 and 0.873 for TGLA53 genotyped in Saidi, Menufi and Bal-Tar, respectively. Hobs values were lower than the expected ones in the native populations accompanied with positive values for Fis and significant deviation from HWE indicating inbreeding trend in native populations. Structure analysis indicated three ancestral genetic backgrounds. The native populations share two main backgrounds in almost equal percentages, while the Bal-Tar had the third one. The three populations showed low percentage of admixture. The studied Mediterranean cattle populations that belong to Egypt and France seem to have differentiated from each other with only little genetic exchange between the geographically isolated populations so local cattle is very similar.
Arnold P. Sinurat, Elizabeth Wina, Susana I.W. Rakhmani, T. Wardhani, Tuti Haryati, T. Purwadaria
Jurnal Ilmu Ternak dan Veteriner, Volume 23, pp 18-27; doi:10.14334/jitv.v23i1.1660

Abstract:A study was conducted to explore the bioactive substances of some local plants in order to find their effectiveness as antioxidant, antibacteria and antifungi to be used as feed additives. Twelve plants material were used in this study. The total phenol, tannin and saponin contents in the plant extract were assayed. The extracts were also assayed on their antioxidant activities and on their ability to depress in vitro gas production of microbes obtained from chicken’s guts, their ability to inhibit growth of bacteria (E. coli and Salmonella enteridis) and fungi (A. niger). The results showed that the highest total phenol and total tannin contents were found in clove leaf extract, while the highest saponin content was found in Sapindus rarak fruit pericarp. The highest antioxidant activity was found in the leaffruit extract. Gas produced by microorganims was reduced to the level similar to antibiotic addition were found with addition of hexane- extract of leaffruit, kapok seed or methanol- extract of mangosteen fruit rind pulp or clove leaves. The best inhibitory effect on E. coli growth (measured by clearing zone) was found in methanol extract of S. rarak fruit. However, the most effective growth inhibitor for both E. coli and Salmonella was the liquid smoke of cashew nut shell. The best growth inhibitor for fungal growth was found in extract of clove leaves. Therefore, clove leaves extract (anti fungi), liquid smoke of cashew nut shell (antibacteria) and leaffruit (antioxidant) may have potential to produce feed additives to substitute antibiotic growth promoters.
Faidah Rachmawati, Tati Ariyanti
Jurnal Ilmu Ternak dan Veteriner, Volume 22, pp 205-211; doi:10.14334/jitv.v22i4.1674

Abstract:E. coli serotype O157:H7 is a foodborne pathogen that endangers human health. Cattle are the main reservoir of this bacterium. E. coli O157:H7 that come out of the livestock can contaminate the surrounding environment, dairy products, meat, vegetable or fruit crops, so it can act as a source of infection and disease in humans. This research was conducted to identify the contamination of E. coli O157:H7 on dairy cow farms so the current situation is known. Sampling area for this research was dairy cow farm in Depok, Cianjur, Sukabumi, and Bandung. Types of samples taken are cow anal swab or fresh feces and livestock drinking water. Isolation of E. coli bacteria was done on mTSB media, agar MacConkey, and Eosin Methylene Agar. Identification of bacteria as E. coli O157:H7 was done by biochemical test and for serotype determination was used agglutination test using monospesifik antiserum for O157 and H7. The results of research showed that of the total 178 samples had 126 (70.8%) samples containing E. coli bacteria. Of the 126 samples containing E. coli bacteria, 94 (74.6%) were determined as E. coli serotype O157:H7. The presence of E. coli O157:H7 contaminants on dairy cow farms, their potential impacts on human health, prevention and control of the disease is discussed in this paper.
Ening Wiedosari, APRIL HARI WARDHANA
Jurnal Ilmu Ternak dan Veteriner, Volume 22, pp 196-204; doi:10.14334/jitv.v22i4.1622

Abstract:The continuous use of anticoccidial drug in chicken often continuously generates drug resistance and tissue residue; so thatconsequently, a safe alternative anticoccidial drug based on herb is fundamentally required. The aim of thise study was to examine anticcocidial activity of artemisinin and extract of Artemesia annua leaves in chicken infected by Eimeria tenella. A total of 35 chickens of Cobb strain was divided into seven groups with five replicates birds per group, i.e. uninfected chicken group (P I), infected but untreated chicken group (P II), infected and treated chicken group with 8.5 ppm, 17 ppm, 34 ppm, for P III, P IV and P V respectively, infected and treated chicken with 17 ppm of A. annua extract (P VI) and infected and treated chicken with Sulfa (P VII). All chicken, except the uninfected group, whereas infected with 2000 infective oocyst of E. tenella except the uninfected group. Treatment was delivered by oral, once per day for eight days. The criteria observed were clinical manifestation of chickens, number of oocyst in feces, body weight, cecal lesion score, haematocrit (packed cell volume) and haemoglobin value. The results showed that extract of A. annua leaves (P VI) was the most effective treatment to reduce the number of oocyst in feces (74.18%), followed by 34 ppm of artemisinin group (P VII). In addition, application of A. annua extract and artemisinin was significantly able to decreased the cecal lesion score (P<0.05). Even though body weight and Hb value were not indifferent significantly different (p>0.05), however A. annua extract and artemisinin treatments were significantly able to hold PCV value on normal level compared to P II and P IV (P<0.05). It concluded that extract A. annua leaves and artemisinin could be used an alternative anticoccidial in chickens.
Herry Sonjaya, M. YUSUF, A. Hamdana, Renny Fatmyah Utamy, Sri Gustina, Hasbi Hasbi
Jurnal Ilmu Ternak dan Veteriner, Volume 22, pp 173-178; doi:10.14334/jitv.v22i4.1585

Abstract:The aim of this study was to investigate whether the reproductive status influences the nuclear maturation and fertilization rates of bali cattle oocytes in vitro. Several pairs of ovary were classified into four groups: 1) ovaries with Corpus Luteum (CL) and Dominant Follicle (DF), 2) ovaries without CL and with DF, 3) ovaries with CL and without DF, 4) ovaries without both CL and DF. In the first experiment, oocytes were collected by slicing method in Phosphate Buffer Saline (PBS) medium supplemented with 10% Fetal Bovine Serum (FBS) and 100 IU/ml penicillin streptomycin. Oocytes were matured in tissue culture medium (TCM)-199 supplemented with 10% Fetal Bovine Serum (FBS), 10 IU/ml Follicle Stimulating Hormone (FSH), 10 IU/ml Luteinizing Hormone (LH), and 50 μg/ml gentamycin. Oocytes were matured in 5% CO2 incubator, 38oC for 24 h. In the second experiment, oocytes were matured and then fertilized in vitro to observe pronuclear formation. The first experiment showed that the percentage of oocytes reached methaphase-II (MII) stage on ovaries with CL and without DF (89.47%) were higher (P<0,01) compared to ovaries without both CL and DF (75,47%), ovaries without CL and with DF (74.,41%), or ovaries with CL and DF (65,52%). The result of second experiment showed that the ovarian reproductive status was not significantly different (P>0.05) on fertilization rate.
Wisri Puastuti, Dwi Yulistiani, Eko Handiwirawan
Jurnal Ilmu Ternak dan Veteriner, Volume 22, pp 179-187; doi:10.14334/jitv.v22i4.1664

Abstract:Corn cob contains high fiber and lignin which causes low nutritive value. The objective of the study was to improve the digestibility of ammoniated corn cob (CC) by supplementation of molasses and branched-chain amino acid (BCAA: valine, leucine and isoleucine). CC was processed by addition 3% urea. The first stage of in vitro test was done with 4 levels of molases 0, 5, 10 and 15% of dry matter (DM) of CC. The experiment was carried out using complete randomized design with 4 treatments and 4 replications. The second stage was also in vitro study of supplementation of two levels each for valine = V, leucine = L and isoleucine = I namely 0.1 and 0.2% of DM of ammoniated CC. There were 8 treatments combination of the BCAA as follow: A = V0.1 L0.1 I0.1; E = V0.2 L0.1 I0.1; B = V0.1 L0.1 I0.2; F = V0.2 L0.1 I0.2; C = V0.1 L0.2 I0.1; G = V0.2 L0.2 I0.1; D = V0.1 L0.2 I0.2; H = V0.2 L0.2 I0.2 and 1 control (V0.0 L0.0 I0.0). The experiments were done using completely randomized design with 9 treatments and 3 replications. The results showed that treated CC with urea was able to increase protein content by 78% (increased from 3.34% to 5.95%) while neutral detergent fiber (NDF) decreased by 15.4%, acid detergent fiber (ADF) by 7.9% and lignin 16.7%. Addition of molasses in ammoniated CC increased DM digestibility (P <0.05) by 7.5% (41.9 vs 43.51-46.26%) and NDF by 17.7% (38.41 vs 43.76 – 46.31%). Supplementation of BCAA resulted in the highest DM, OM and NDF digestibility (P <0.05) in the treatment of A, C, D and G. Compare to treament I, the digestibility of DM, OM and NDF in G treatment increased by 31.4%, 27.5% and 36.5%, respectively and produced the highest total population of rumen bacterial of 12.4 x 109 colonies /ml. It can be concluded that the digestibility of ammoniated CC increased by the supplementation of 5% molases and BCAA combination consisted of 0.2% valine, 0.2% leucine and 0.1% isoleucine. Kata kunci: Tongkol jagung, amoniasi, molases, asam amino bercabang.
Simon P. Ginting, Kiston Simanihuruk, Antonius Antonius, Andi Tarigan
Jurnal Ilmu Ternak dan Veteriner, Volume 22, pp 188-195; doi:10.14334/jitv.v22i4.1782

Abstract:The aim of this study was to evaluate the growth of and feed utilization by Boer x Kacang crosses goats fed on total mixed ration differing in protein and energy levels. Four total mixed rations combination were formulated to contain 16 and 18% crude protein and 2650 and 2850 Kcal ME/ kg DM (dried matter) energy density. Twenty-eight male Boer x Kacang crosses goats (14.5 ± 1.14 kg) and of age ranging from 4 to 5 months were randomly allocated to one of these four TMRs (total mixed rations) (7 animals/TMR). The effects of dietary treatment were assessed using the general linear model and significance of the diet effects was detected using Duncan’s multiple range test. Dry matter intake increased as metabolizable energy density of diet increased from 2650 to 2850 Kcal/kg DM, but it is not affected by increasing crude protein level from 16 to 18%. The average daily gains were not improved (P>0.05) as the crude protein levels and metabolizable energy density of diet increased. Crude protein levels and ME density did not affect (P>0.05) the DM, OM and energy digestibility, but NDF digestibility was affected by the ME density of diets (P<0.05). Daily N intakes were greater (P<0.0%) in goats received diets higher in the crude protein and metabolizable energy levels. At this high rate of feed intake this type of goats are able to gain optimally when offered feed with crude protein level of 16% and metabolizable energy density of 2850 Kcal/kg DM.
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