Journal Jurnal Ilmu Ternak dan Veteriner

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Jose A Escarlos Jr, J. F. Cane, Alan P. Dargantes
Jurnal Ilmu Ternak dan Veteriner, Volume 21; doi:10.14334/jitv.v21i3.1417

Abstract: The study was conducted to assess the knowledge, attitudes, practices (KAP), and financial losses of buffalo raisers due to Trypanosoma evansi infection (surra) and its control in Agusan del Sur Province. One-hundred and sixty (160) buffalo raisers from eight villages in four municipalities (towns) in Agusan del Sur, Mindanao, Southern Philippines were personally interviewed. Majority (63.65%) of respondents provided information about surra. Mean knowledge score of 12.54 was quite low to consider the respondents well informed about surra. Financial losses from mortalities among livestock in eight villages (in four towns) in Agusan del Sur amounted to 9.3 million Philippine Pesos (PHP) (US$ 0.2 M) with additional losses for treatment and diagnosis amounting to PHP 657,000 and PHP 229,500, respectively. The estimated mass treatment and diagnostic costs were PHP 2.4 and PHP 1.1 million, respectively. The estimated overall total financial losses was PHP 13.7 million, averaging PHP 1.7 million per village, and an estimated PHP 538 million (US$ 10.7 M) of total financial losses among livestock in Agusan del Sur due to surra. In conclusion, buffalo raisers in Agusan del Sur Province lack adequate knowledge, attitudes and practices to effectively control surra, a disease that has caused high financial losses among livestock in the province.
Kusmiati ., Fifi Afiati, Farha Elein Kukihi
Jurnal Ilmu Ternak dan Veteriner, Volume 21; doi:10.14334/jitv.v21i3.1414


Immunomodulatory activity assay and characterization of exopolysaccharide (EPS) from Lactic Acid Bacteria (LAB) was done in Bogor. Bacteria used in this study was LAB strains of Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus and Streptococcus thermophilus. Exopolysaccharide was extracted from L. delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus and S. thermophilus then characterized with FT-IR spectrophotometer to determine the functional group. IR spectrum analysis using Fourier Transform-Infra Red (FT-IR) showed that EPS from both LAB isolates were carbohydrate compounds. Immunomodulatory activity in vivo from EPS was measured using phagocytic activity and phagocytic capacity macrophage cells from mice peritoneal cavity fluid. Exopolysaccharide were given orally to mice in concentrations of 100 μg/ml, 200 μg/ml and 300 μg/ml for 14 days then the mice were infected with Staphylococcus aureus. Result showed that EPS from both LAB isolate enhanced either phagocytic activity and phagocytic capacity macrophage cell from mice peritoneal fluid. EPS from L. delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus concentration 300 μg/ml showed the highest phagocytic activity of macrophage cells and EPS from S. thermophilus concentration 300 μg/ml showed the highest phagocytic capacity. It is concluded that EPS potency tested as immunomodulatory derived from a culture of L. delbrueckii and S. thermophilus subsp.bulgaricus are able to increase the activity and phagocytosis murine peritoneal macrophages.

Debora - KanaHau, Jacob Nulik
Jurnal Ilmu Ternak dan Veteriner, Volume 21; doi:10.14334/jitv.v21i3.1586


A series of experiments on techniques and time of sowing, and weed management of legumes Clitoria ternatea cv Milgarra, Centrosema pascuorum cv Cavalcade and cv Bundey, and Lablab purpureus cv Highworth, was conducted in East Nusa Tenggara (in the islands of Timor, Flores, and Sumba) in order to determine proper technique and time of sowing and weed management, which would be efficient in labor use and sufficient biomass production. Treatments of sowing techniques included dibble, furrow (covered and not covered), and broadcast (harrowed and not harrowed); while sowing time consisted of early wet season (December-January), mid of wet season (February-March) and the end of wet season (April-May), while weed managements consisted of weeded and unweeded treatments. The experiments employed block randomized design with four replications using plot sizes of 3 x 4 m to 4 x 5 m, depending on the availability of land for the experiments. The results of the experiments showed that the best sowing technique with the highest plant population  at 4 weeks after planting was dibbling (42 plants/m²), followed by furrow, while the lowest plant population was obtained at the broadcast technique (9-20 plants/m²). Similarly, the highest biomass production was obtained in the dibbling technique (1.75 to 2.5 tons DM/ha per harvest at 12 weeks after planting in Ende, and 4-5 ton DM/ha in Nagekeo), followed by furrow technique covered or not covered (1-1.3 tons DM/ha in Ende and 3.5-4 tons DM/ha in Nagekeo), and the lowest in broadcast technique (0.3-1 ton DM/ha in Ende and 2-2.5 ton DM/ha in Nagekeo). However, considering the labor requirement and cost, it was recommended that furrow technique to suit the small farmer practices in the region. Weed management showed that weeded treatment (keep legume cleaned of weeds) gave significantly better (P<0.05) biomass production compared with to that of unweeded treatment. It can be seen also that weed had more suppressing effects on Clitoria ternatea, compared to that of Lablab purpureus, especially when the plants were sown in the early wet season.

Cecep Hidayat, Sofjan Iskandar, Tike Sartika, T. Wardhani
Jurnal Ilmu Ternak dan Veteriner, Volume 21; doi:10.14334/jitv.v21i3.1397

Abstract: The aim of doing this experiment was to observe the growth response of improved native breeds of chicken under diets differed in energy and protein content. Three groups of improved native breeds, obtained from mating of ♂KUB to ♀KUB (Line 1), of ♂SenSi to ♀KUB (Line 2) and of ♂Gaok x ♀KUB (Line 3), were subjected to three experimental diets, differed in metabolizable energy (ME) and crude protein (CP) content. The experimental diets consisted of Diet 1 (2,800 kcal ME/ kg with 17,81% CP), Diet 2 (2,950 kcal ME/ kg with 18,61% CP) and  Diet 3 (3,100 kcal ME/ kg with 19,25% CP). The experiment was designed as factorial 3 x 3 with 7 replications of each treatment combination, consisted of 5 birds per treatment combination. The chickens were raised up to 10 weeks of age. Results of the experiment showed that Line 2 (♂SenSi mated to ♀KUB) had highest body weight at 10 weeks of age (P<0.05), lowest feed conversion ratio (FCR) and highest European Production Efficiency Factor (EPEF), compared to other two lines. The appropriate diet for Line 2 was Diet 2. It could be concluded the crossbred line that was resulted from crossing of ♂SenSi to ♀KUB (Line 2), had potential to be used as improved native chicken for the industry in Indonesia supported by appropriate diet containing 2,950 kcal ME/kg with 18.61% crude protein.
Sajimin ., Nurhayati D. Purwantari, Irawan Sugoro
Jurnal Ilmu Ternak dan Veteriner, Volume 21; doi:10.14334/jitv.v21i3.1520

Abstract: Phosphorus availability in soil as a mobile mineral influences forage growth. The purpose of doing this research is to enhance the soil phosphorus availability and grass production of Panicum maximum cv Riversdale by intercropping system with legums. The experiment was conducted based on with randomized design with five treatments of mixcropping of: (i) Gliricidia sepium + P. maximum; (ii) Calliandra calothyrsus + P. maximum; (iii) Leucaena leucocephala cv Taramba + P. maximum; (iv) Calopogonium mucunoides + P. maximum; (v) P. maximum as negative control. Plants were grown in pots with split-root technique using partition with a whole to allow some legume roots grew in the grass side. After growing for three months, on the legume areas 32P isotop solution was injected for 50 ml (11.23 μci/ml). After 21 days incubation samples were collected from both soil areas and both plants. The translocation of 32P was determined using geiger counter from legumes into the grass and the concentration of 32P was also determined in all plants. Forage productions was determined both in the legumes and grass. Result showed that soil phosphorus concentration in the grass area was significantly improved by intercropping with G. sepium and C. callothyrsus, while the one with L. leucocephala was similar, and the one with C. mucunoides was significantly lower than that of negative control (without legume). Detection of 32P showed that there was P translocation in the system. P. maximum grass production depending on kind of legumes (P<0.05) those with G. sepium was significantly higher, L. leucocephala and C. callothyrsus were not significantly higher, while the one with C. mucunoides was 26.2% lower from the control although not significantly. However, C. mucunoides produced the highest forage from the legume plant. It is concluded that grass-legume intercropping had a positive impact on phosphorus soil concentration in the grass area and grass production. Kind of legumes influenced the effectivity.
Dwi Yulistiani
Jurnal Ilmu Ternak dan Veteriner, Volume 21; doi:10.14334/jitv.v21i3.1574


Limited availability of forage diet throughout the year could be overcome by utilization of crop by-products. Corn cob, a by-product from maize production is potential to be used as a fiber source for grass replacement. The objective of the study was to compare the effect of two different basal diets (basal grass diet and corn cob silage) with or without Calliandra supplementation on feed intake, nutrient digestibility, nitrogen utilization, rumen fermentation and growth of sheep. The study used 20 male sheep St Croix breed. The sheep were divided into 5 groups based on body weight. Each group was fed with one of four diet treatments for 13 weeks. The treatments were grass basal diet + concentrate, Corn cob silage (CCS) + concentrate, Grass basal diet + concentrate + 5% Calliandra leaf meal, CCS + concentrate + 5% Calliandra leaf meal. The ratio of basal diet (grass or CCS) to concentrate was 40 : 60% and was formulated in iso protein (crude protein content 14%). The diet was offered in total mix ration. The experiment was conducted in a randomized complete block design and arranged in factorial 2 x 2 (2 type basal diets and 2 Calliandra supplementation levels) with 5 replications. Results showed that there was no interaction between basal diet and Calliandra supplementation on feed consumption, average daily gain (ADG), nutrient digestibility, rumen fermentation, except for crude protein (CP) intake. Feed consumption was not affected by basal diets or Calliandra supplementation. Feed conversion ratio and protein conversion ratio were better in grass basal diet than CCS. CP digestibility was higher in corn cob silage than basal grass diet without Calliandra supplementation. N retention was higher in corn cob basal diet than basal grass diet. Rumen fermentation was significantly affected by basal diet in which rumen ammonia and VFA concentrations were higher in grass basal diet. Grass basal diet had higher propionic acid production than CCS basal diet. From this study, it could be concluded that in iso protein diet, basal grass diet was comparable to corn cob basal diet as revealed by average daily gain was similar in both diets with average 107.5 g/head/day. Calliandra supplementation at 5% in the grass or CCS basal diet did not improve sheep performance.

Eslam Faid-Allah, E. Ghoneim, A.H.M. Ibrahim
Jurnal Ilmu Ternak dan Veteriner, Volume 21; doi:10.14334/jitv.v21i2.1353

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Asep Sudarman, M. Hayashida, M. Miralestari
Jurnal Ilmu Ternak dan Veteriner, Volume 21; doi:10.14334/jitv.v21i2.1355

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A.F.M. Azmi, A.A.A. Ghani, A.S. Saadan, A. Mokrish, K.S. Lai, M. Zamri-Saad, A.B. Zuki, H.A. Hassim
Jurnal Ilmu Ternak dan Veteriner, Volume 21; doi:10.14334/jitv.v21i2.1357

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. Supriyati, R. Krisnan, I.G.M. Budiarsana, L. Praharani
Jurnal Ilmu Ternak dan Veteriner, Volume 21; doi:10.14334/jitv.v21i2.1356

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