Journal Buletin Plasma Nutfah-
Buletin Plasma Nutfah, Volume 24, pp 135-142; doi:10.21082/blpn.v24n2.2018.p135-142
Abstract:Dua rezim intenasional yang mengatur akses terhadap sumber daya genetik tanaman dan pembagian keuntungan dari pemanfaatannya adalah Protokol Nagoya dari konvensi PBB tentang keanekaragaman hayati dan Perjanjian Internasional tentang Sumber Daya Genetik Tanaman untuk Pangan dan Pertanian. Meskipun kedua rezim ini sudah diharmonisasikan, impelementasinya masih menghadapi beberapa kesulitan. Kemunculan teknologi baru sekuen genom dan pengeditan genom serta biologi sintetis menambah kompleksitas tersebut karena aturan-aturan tentang pembagian keuntungan yang sekarang ada bisa diabaikan. Diskusiterkini tentang akses dan pembagian keuntungan terutama pada Perjanjian Internasional tentang Sumber Daya Genetik untuk Pangan dan Pertanian juga dibahas.
Buletin Plasma Nutfah, Volume 24, pp 125-134; doi:10.21082/blpn.v24n2.2018.p125-134
Abstract:Local varieties of pigmented rice are highly valuable genetic resources as a functional food in the future. Pigmented rice contains anthocyanins which function as nutrient bioactive components, called antioxidants. The aim of this research was to characterize anthocyanin content on 27 accessions of pigmented local rice, 2 varieties of released red rice varieties (Aek Sibundong and Inpari24), and 1 control varieties of white rice, Ciherang. The content of anthocyanin was analyzed by using High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) with cyanidin-3-glucoside as a standard. The results showed that local rice Aen Metan and Melik had the highest anthocyanin content were reached 0.7953 mg/g and 0.7806 mg/g. These content were higher than 2 released red rice varieties, Aek Sibundong and Inpari 24 which had anthocyanin content reached 0.6496 mg/g and 0.4423 mg/g, respectively. Aen Metan and Melik were local black rice varieties and frequently have used as a parent in the breeding program. The white rice as control, Ciherang was showed the lowest anthocyanin content. Four pigmented local rice, Baliman Putih, Sari Kuning, Karamanting, and Iden had higher anthocyanin content than the two released red rice breeding varieties.
Buletin Plasma Nutfah, Volume 24, pp 115-124; doi:10.21082/blpn.v24n2.2018.p115-124
Abstract:Taro (Colocasia esculenta (L.) Schott) has been cultivated and used as an alternative food in Toraja. Local taro of North Toraja has high genetic diversity, nevertheless, they have not been well characterized. The objective of this study was to inventorying and characterizing the morphological characters of local taro from North Toraja, that could be a key component for registered and maintained as a wealth of local genetic resources. The study was conducted in North Toraja District which includes highland areas in Parodo Baruppu Village, Baruppu District and lowland areas in Mantirotiku Village, Rantepao District. Each region was selected based on initial surveys which showed that these areas were taro cultivation areas. The study was conducted from April to June 2016. Samples were selected based on purposive sampling method and were descriptively observed in-situ in the field on their optimum growth performance. Five local taro varieties were successfully inventoried from survey activities, namely Upe Ungu, Upe Kuning, Upe Putih, Monggo, and Bite. Those taros have similar characters on the shape and leave color but varied on the size and flesh fibre color of the corm. Local taro from North Toraja is widely used as snacks or vegetables as rice substitution. The advantage of North Toraja local taro is easy to cultivate and also has a savory taste, soft, good fragrant aroma, the corm skin after being boiled is very easy to peel, and the texture of the corm is smooth. The price of this local taro is quite expensive because of still difficult to find and have not been widely cultivated.
Buletin Plasma Nutfah, Volume 24, pp 97-106; doi:10.21082/blpn.v24n2.2018.p97-102
Abstract:There are several types of local black rice with different quality which well known in Yogyakarta. However, the altitude location affect to the quality and pigmentation of local black rice remains were unknown. The objectives of this research was to determine the variation of rice pigmentation and total anthocyanin content of Yogyakarta local black rice which planted on two differentaltitudes location. This study was conducted from February to December 2015 with the experimental design using factorial experiment. The first factor is seven local black rice varieties from Yogyakarta (G) and second factor is two different altitude locations: lowlands (26 m asl) of Gulon, Sri Hardono, Pundong, Bantul (A1), and in medium lands (462 m asl) of Padasan, Pakembinangun, Pakem, Sleman (A2). The total anthocyanin content and rice pigmentation were observed. Three color variables for rice pigmentation, i.e. lightness (L*), greenness (a*), and yellowness (b*) were measured by Chroma Meter, Konica Minolta– Minolta CM-2006. The results showed that there was diversity on pigmentation and total anthocyanin content in the black rice grown at different altitude. Local variety Tugiyo Umur Panjang has any anthocyanin highest in the low altitude location (Bantul), while local variety Sembada Hitam was showed the highest anthocyanin at the height of the medium (Sleman). A positivesignificant correlation was found among color variables, i.e. lightness (L*), greenness (a*), and yellowness (b*) and there was a negative significant correlation between total anthocyanin content and L*, a*, and b* color variables.
Buletin Plasma Nutfah, Volume 24, pp 89-96; doi:10.21082/blpn.v24n2.2018.p89-96
Abstract:Can endanger human health if they contain antibiotic residues in livestock products that can cause resistance to germs in the human body when consuming them. Along with the enactment of a policy to limit the use of antibiotics in animal feed, the use of probiotics as a substitute is urgently needed. This research has been conducted in the Research Center for Veterinary Science inorder to produce probiotic candidates to control the growth of Salmonella sp in chickens that have the potential to pollute the environment and cause foodborne disease. Research on probiotics in chicken has conducted in Indonesian Research Center for Veterinary Science in order to produce probiotic candidates to control the growth of Salmonella sp. in chicken that potentially contaminated the environment causing foodborne disease. The present study aims to evaluate the probiotic potential of indigenous bacteria isolated from cattle in Bogor and select candidates to be used as probiotic. The study was initiated by screening localisolates for probiotic, following by inhibition test against a target of pathogenic bacteria (Salmonella enterica serotype of Typhimurium B0046/ATCC 13311 and serotype of Enteritidis B2893/ATCC 13076), pathogenicity in vitro, survival in thechicken gut, and the lifespan in the lyophilized container. The results showed that six isolates bacteria consisting of Aerococcus viridans B2776, Bifidobacterium dentium B2754 and B2755, Enterococcus faecium B2758, Lactobacillus casei B2752, and Streptococcus uberis B2757 had been selected as the candidate for probiotics. They had specifications namely: anti-microbialsubstance (in vitro) against S. enterica serotype Typhimurium BCC B0046 and serotype Enteritidis BCC B2893, not pathogenic, able to form colonies in intestinal broilers for 40 days with concentrations of >1010 CFU/gram with lifespan up to one year (lyophilized), using protectant serum of inositol 5% or 7,5% skim milk at 5C with concentrations >log10 CFU/ml. The potentialcharacteristics qualified them as probiotics against pathogenic bacteria and could be used to control salmonellosis in the broiler.
Buletin Plasma Nutfah, Volume 24, pp 83-88; doi:10.21082/blpn.v24n2.2018.p83-88
Abstract:Sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum) is one of high-value commodities in Indonesia for producing sugar. Sugarcane production recently reduced due to insect pests attacked, mainly white grub Lepidiota stigma (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae). Utilization of entomopathogenic nematodes (EPN) is one of the alternative control methods for sugarcane white grub. The aim of the presentstudy was to select the higher pathogenicity of EPN isolates for controlling the sugarcane insect pest. The study was conducted in Insect Pathology Laboratory of Indonesia Sweeteners and Fiber Crops Research Institute. Nine isolates of EPN, e.g. DKS-1, AGH-1, DKH-1, DKH-5, NH-1, NH-2, PH-1, PH-2, and PH-4 and one untreated control were tested for their pathogenicity against sugarcane white grub, L. stigma. Each treatment was arranged in Completely Randomized Design with three replications. Every treatment consisted of 30 individuals of the third instar of white grub which treated by 2 × 104 infective juvenile or IJ of EPNisolates. Parameter observed was the mortality of sugarcane white grub, L. stigma. The result showed that all of EPN isolates tested were promising pathogenic against the white grub with about 10 to 80% of the average percentage of mortality. However, DKS-1 and PH-1 showed more pathogenic against L. stigma with about 80–90% and 70–80% of white grub mortality,respectively. The highest enhancement of white grub mortality occurred at 72 hours after treatment and it was showed by DKS-1 and PH-1 isolates which increased the percentage of white grub mortality about 57.1 and 50%, respectively. Obtaining the promising isolates of NPS with different host seeking strategies will potentially increase the effectivity of control against whitegrub with the result to increase the yield of sugarcane.
Buletin Plasma Nutfah, Volume 24, pp 31-42; doi:10.21082/blpn.v24n1.2018.p31-42
Abstract:High acceptance of farmer to variety with have similar to IR64 type has led to almost all new varieties always be assessed based on their degree of similarity with IR64. Closely relations between elite upland varieties may contribute to the stagnation of yield potential and also give the impact un-durable of the resistance to pest and diseases. The aim of this study was to elucidate the morphology similarity kinship characters of elite rice varieties which were released from 1980 to 2011. The study was conducted in September–January 2012 in Indonesian Center for Rice Research field experiment. The material consisted of 46 rice varieties representing the released varieties from 1980–2011. The material was grown in 2 m × 5 m of plot size with 3 replications. Observations were conducted on qualitative and quantitative characters based on UPOV descriptors. Data were analyzed by Principal Component Analysis and Cluster Analysis. Principal component analysis revealed 40 components with 79,86% of cumulative variation that was used to determine the genetic relationship by cluster analysis. Based on the principal component analysis and cluster analysis, irrigated rice varieties released before and in 2000 and after 2008 (Inpari group) tend to be one big group and have a high phenotypic similarity. While the upland rice varieties tend to spread or were grouped in small groups. This high similarity suggested that the irrigated rice varieties have a close genetic relationship, which is derived from Ciherang or IR64.
Buletin Plasma Nutfah, Volume 24, pp 1-8; doi:10.21082/blpn.v24n1.2018.p1-8
Abstract:Local rice is a potential germplasm as a source of genes that control important properties in rice plants. The research aimed to characterize the morphological character of local rice cultivars of North Sulawesi. The research was conducted from January to June 2015 in North Sulawesi. The method used was the descriptive qualitative method. Exploration was done by collecting samples of local rice cultivars in North Sulawesi. Each cultivar was characterized its morphological characters according to the Characterization and Evaluation Guidelines of Rice Germplasm. The local rice found in North Sulawesi were 10 varieties, namely Pulo Sawah, Superwin, CK, Serwo, Pilihan, Sako, Sito Merah, Sito Putih, TB, and Serayu. There were similarities of the characters from all local rice varieties of North Sulawesi, such as culm (culm strength and culm habit), leaf character (basal leaf sheath color, leaf blade color, collar color, and auricle color), and flower character (panicle exsertion and panicle attitude of branches). The character of grain morphology was very diverse for all local rice varieties of North Sulawesi.
Buletin Plasma Nutfah, Volume 24, pp 63-76; doi:10.21082/blpn.v24n1.2018.p63-76
Abstract:Taro (Colocasia esculenta) is a plant that has been long cultivated in Indonesia, which belongs to Colocasia genus and Araceae family. Taro has an ecological uniqueness, which can grow in an extreme condition such as on submergence area, saline soil, and shaded areas. In Indonesia, Java Island is the main concentrated area of taro plantation. This research aimed to investigate the variability of local taro germplasm from Java Island based on morphological character. A total of 164 accessions were planted in Pacet Field Experimental and were observed for its morphological characters, i.e. root and plant type, leaves, and corm characters. The Javanese taro local genetic resources indicated variation in some of its plant type characteristic and corm as well as several of leaves character. A total of 17 accessions were identified as a unique collection. The identification of suspected duplicate accessions within the collection may be strengthened further by molecular characterization in order to provide more accurate information regarding the genetic variability of taro collection.
Buletin Plasma Nutfah, Volume 24, pp 19-30; doi:10.21082/blpn.v24n1.2018.p19-30
Abstract:In the middle of 1980s, rice self-sufficiency in Indonesia has been achieved, but the growth of rice production slowed down since the 1990s. Narrow genetic variability of released rice varieties contributed largely to the occurrence of leveling of potential rice yield over the past decades. To enlarge the genetic variability, an intersubspecies crossing of Koshihikari (japonica) and IR36 (indica) has been performed. Through this crossing, three high yielding and high yield quality promising lines of KI 37, KI 238, and KI 730 have been obtained. The objective of this study was to evaluate the superiorities of these lines through multi-location yield trials, pests, diseases, and grain qualities examinations. Examination methods used followed the release food crops variety procedure issued by the Indonesian Ministry of Agriculture. The result of examinations showed that the average yield of KI 730 was 7.47 t/ha, it was significantly higher than that of Ciherang (6,73 t/ha). KI 730 has a good grain quality, with translucent milled rice, a high percentage of milled rice (78.0%) and head rice (91.01%). The texture of its cooking rice was soft, sticky, with the amylose content of 20.41%. In addition, pests and diseases resistances of KI 730 were better than those of other lines tested. After evaluation by National Food Crops Release Variety Team, the KI 730 line was released as a national superior variety with the name of Tropiko. Tropiko should become an alternative variety to grow widely in order to increase national rice production and farmers income.