Journal Buletin Plasma Nutfah-
Buletin Plasma Nutfah, Volume 24, pp 31-42; doi:10.21082/blpn.v24n1.2018.p31-42
Abstract:High acceptance of farmer to variety with have similar to IR64 type has led to almost all new varieties always be assessed based on their degree of similarity with IR64. Closely relations between elite upland varieties may contribute to the stagnation of yield potential and also give the impact un-durable of the resistance to pest and diseases. The aim of this study was to elucidate the morphology similarity kinship characters of elite rice varieties which were released from 1980 to 2011. The study was conducted in September–January 2012 in Indonesian Center for Rice Research field experiment. The material consisted of 46 rice varieties representing the released varieties from 1980–2011. The material was grown in 2 m × 5 m of plot size with 3 replications. Observations were conducted on qualitative and quantitative characters based on UPOV descriptors. Data were analyzed by Principal Component Analysis and Cluster Analysis. Principal component analysis revealed 40 components with 79,86% of cumulative variation that was used to determine the genetic relationship by cluster analysis. Based on the principal component analysis and cluster analysis, irrigated rice varieties released before and in 2000 and after 2008 (Inpari group) tend to be one big group and have a high phenotypic similarity. While the upland rice varieties tend to spread or were grouped in small groups. This high similarity suggested that the irrigated rice varieties have a close genetic relationship, which is derived from Ciherang or IR64.
Buletin Plasma Nutfah, Volume 24, pp 1-8; doi:10.21082/blpn.v24n1.2018.p1-8
Abstract:Local rice is a potential germplasm as a source of genes that control important properties in rice plants. The research aimed to characterize the morphological character of local rice cultivars of North Sulawesi. The research was conducted from January to June 2015 in North Sulawesi. The method used was the descriptive qualitative method. Exploration was done by collecting samples of local rice cultivars in North Sulawesi. Each cultivar was characterized its morphological characters according to the Characterization and Evaluation Guidelines of Rice Germplasm. The local rice found in North Sulawesi were 10 varieties, namely Pulo Sawah, Superwin, CK, Serwo, Pilihan, Sako, Sito Merah, Sito Putih, TB, and Serayu. There were similarities of the characters from all local rice varieties of North Sulawesi, such as culm (culm strength and culm habit), leaf character (basal leaf sheath color, leaf blade color, collar color, and auricle color), and flower character (panicle exsertion and panicle attitude of branches). The character of grain morphology was very diverse for all local rice varieties of North Sulawesi.
Buletin Plasma Nutfah, Volume 24, pp 63-76; doi:10.21082/blpn.v24n1.2018.p63-76
Abstract:Taro (Colocasia esculenta) is a plant that has been long cultivated in Indonesia, which belongs to Colocasia genus and Araceae family. Taro has an ecological uniqueness, which can grow in an extreme condition such as on submergence area, saline soil, and shaded areas. In Indonesia, Java Island is the main concentrated area of taro plantation. This research aimed to investigate the variability of local taro germplasm from Java Island based on morphological character. A total of 164 accessions were planted in Pacet Field Experimental and were observed for its morphological characters, i.e. root and plant type, leaves, and corm characters. The Javanese taro local genetic resources indicated variation in some of its plant type characteristic and corm as well as several of leaves character. A total of 17 accessions were identified as a unique collection. The identification of suspected duplicate accessions within the collection may be strengthened further by molecular characterization in order to provide more accurate information regarding the genetic variability of taro collection.
Buletin Plasma Nutfah, Volume 24, pp 19-30; doi:10.21082/blpn.v24n1.2018.p19-30
Abstract:In the middle of 1980s, rice self-sufficiency in Indonesia has been achieved, but the growth of rice production slowed down since the 1990s. Narrow genetic variability of released rice varieties contributed largely to the occurrence of leveling of potential rice yield over the past decades. To enlarge the genetic variability, an intersubspecies crossing of Koshihikari (japonica) and IR36 (indica) has been performed. Through this crossing, three high yielding and high yield quality promising lines of KI 37, KI 238, and KI 730 have been obtained. The objective of this study was to evaluate the superiorities of these lines through multi-location yield trials, pests, diseases, and grain qualities examinations. Examination methods used followed the release food crops variety procedure issued by the Indonesian Ministry of Agriculture. The result of examinations showed that the average yield of KI 730 was 7.47 t/ha, it was significantly higher than that of Ciherang (6,73 t/ha). KI 730 has a good grain quality, with translucent milled rice, a high percentage of milled rice (78.0%) and head rice (91.01%). The texture of its cooking rice was soft, sticky, with the amylose content of 20.41%. In addition, pests and diseases resistances of KI 730 were better than those of other lines tested. After evaluation by National Food Crops Release Variety Team, the KI 730 line was released as a national superior variety with the name of Tropiko. Tropiko should become an alternative variety to grow widely in order to increase national rice production and farmers income.
Buletin Plasma Nutfah, Volume 24, pp 9-18; doi:10.21082/blpn.v24n1.2018.p9-18
Abstract:The utilization of local upland rice germplasm as genetic resources for important and potentially traits can be implemented if their characteristics have been known. Plant growth characters such as plant tillering will determine the levels of productivity of the plant. Tillering character has not been much characterized in most rice accession collected in BB Biogen genebank. The objective of this research was to characterize tillering type, including primary, secondary, and tertiary of 100 accessions of local upland rice. The Experiment was carried out by planting 100 local varieties of upland rice grown in pots with three replications in the greenhouse. The type of tiller that is marked with a string of different colors from early emergence was observed. Numbers of primary, secondary and tertiary tillers of the upland rice tested were observed at the age of two months and ripening stage. Grouping rice germplasm tested was implemented through average linkage cluster analysis method with Euclidean distance. The diversity of number tertiary tillers character at maturity stage was showed the highest diverse compared with other characters. Ketan Hitam and Ketan Salome are the two upland rice accessions that have the highest number of tillers.
Buletin Plasma Nutfah, Volume 24, pp 43-52; doi:10.21082/blpn.v24n1.2018.p43-52
Abstract:Two experiments to study responses of resistance of maize germplasm to downy mildew (Peronosclerospora philipinensis) have been conducted. Both experiments were arranged in randomized block design with two replication. The treatments in each experiment (2014 and 2016) were 70 maize accessions. The accessions were planted in planting distant of 75 cm × 20 cm, in 5 m rows, resulting in 20 plants per row. In every 10 rows, two check varieties were planted, i.e. one susceptible and one resistant variety. Ten days prior to planting, the soil was fertilized with mixed fertilizers consisted of urea, ZA, SP36, and KCl at a dose of 100, 100, 100, and 100 kg/ha, respectively. Fertilization II and III was given at 30 days after planting, and 45 days after planting with a dose of 100 kg urea/ha. As a source of inoculum downy mildew, around the repeated plot was planted with varieties Anoman variety (susceptible variety) that was inoculated with a suspension of downy mildew pathogen. Observation was conducted at 25, 35, and 55 days after planting, with the standard score of resistant to downy mildew, followed: 0–10% = resistant, 11–25% = moderately resistant, 26–50% = moderately susceptible, >50% = susceptible. The result of the experiments showed that there were 5 accessions resistant to downy mildew (P. philipinensis), i.e. CML 440×MR4-9-30-3, 664, 60, 572, and 554 with the intensity of downy mildew infection ranged from 5 to 10%. Twelve other accessions were classified as moderately resistant, i.e. CML 440×MR4-9-98-2, 440×MR4-9-98-4 CML, CML 440×MR4-9-124-1, 66, 71, 319, 108, 73, 48, 105, 554, and 682 with intensity of infection ranged from 13 to 25%. At the same experiments, the average intensity of downy mildew infection on susceptible check varieties reached 100 percent.
Buletin Plasma Nutfah, Volume 24, pp 53-62; doi:10.21082/blpn.v24n1.2018.p53-62
Abstract:Local germplasm of Cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) have an economic potential important for West Sumatra community. The local cassava has high morphological diversity. To distinguish different type of cassava, identification of morphology and tuber quality were required. The objective of this research was to identify morphology and tuber quality determinant characters of West Sumatra local Cassava. An analysis was performed on ten local cassava originated from four districts of West Sumatra and three other released varieties. Morphological characterization was performed based on InternationalInstitute of Tropical Agriculture (IITA) standard descriptors, whereas physical and chemical analyses were carried out in the Agricultural Product Technology Laboratory at University of Andalas, Padang. The research was conducted at Sukarami Experimental Station, Solok Regency in March 2015–February 2016. Morphological characters and data quality were first analyzed by principal component analysis (PCA). The PCA analysis resulted 4 major component axes contributing to a total diversity of 78, 83, and 81.3% on plant morphology, tuber quality, and morphology and tuber color, respectively. Based on thosediversities, the thirteen varieties of cassava could be grouped into six clusters. Special characters that distinguishing between groups was the number of lobes, leaf stem length, shoot color, and leaf width. Meanwhile, based on its chemical content and morphology of tubers, the cassavas were grouped into five clusters, with the distinguishing characters were carbohydrate content, protein content, and tuber color. The varieties that have the highest weight of the tuber/plant were Kuning and Roti 2, with a production of 203–380% higher than the released varieties. On their tubers, varieties that had the lowest levels of HCN were Tangkai Merah-1, Dumai, and Roti 2, whereas those with starch content >35% were Sanjai Padang Jariang, Jurai Merah, Kuning, Roti 2, and Hijau Pesisir Selatan. Each variety has its own specific morphological characters, tuber morphology, and chemical composition.
Buletin Plasma Nutfah, Volume 23, pp 91-100; doi:10.21082/blpn.v23n2.2017.p91-100
Abstract:Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui keragaman sumber daya genetik (SDG) kacang tanah berdasarkan karakter morfoagronomis dan kandungan protein biji. Penelitian dilakukan di Kebun Percobaan Cikeumeuh Balai Besar Bioteknologi dan Sumber Daya Genetik Pertanian (BB Biogen) dan Laboratorium Balai Besar Penelitian dan Pengembangan Pascapanen Pertanian (BB Pascapanen), Bogor pada tahun 2013. Sebanyak 240 aksesi plasma nutfah kacang tanah koleksi bank gen BB Biogen digunakan dalam penelitian ini. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan adanya keragaman yang relatif tinggi pada karakter tinggi tanaman, jumlah polong muda, bobot polong per tanaman, dan hasil polong. Hasil analisis klaster menghasilkan 9 klaster. Di antara 9 klaster tersebut, terdapat satu klaster yang beranggotakan sebanyak 221 aksesi, sedangkan klaster yang lain terdiri atas 1-8 aksesi. Terdapat beberapa aksesi yang terpisah dari klaster yang lainnya dan memiliki sifat yang spesifik. Aksesi-aksesi tersebut di antaranya adalah Leuweungkolot (pertumbuhan tanaman tinggi), Tapir-1 (jumlah cabang banyak), Hobotama (jumlah polong isi banyak), Lokal Tretes dan Lokal Subang (hasil polong tinggi), dan Lokal Subang XI (kandungan protein >30%). Aksesi-aksesi dengan karakteristik spesifik tersebut berpotensi sebagai sumber tetua persilangan.
Buletin Plasma Nutfah, Volume 23, pp 119-126; doi:10.21082/blpn.v23n2.2017.p119-126
Abstract:Rotan alam di Provinsi Sulawesi sudah semakin berkurang akibat eksploitasi yang kurang terkendali dan banyak jenis rotan yang sudah hampir punah. Jenis tersebut laku di pasaran, namun tidak diimbangi dengan penanaman kembali. Berdasarkan hal tersebut, prioritas penelitian dan pengembangan jenis andalan setempat rotan sangat penting. Rotan merupakan jenis rotan unggulan, memiliki peluang pasar yang baik, dan dapat diterima oleh masyarakat. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengidentifikasi dan mendeskripsikan jenis tumbuhan andalan setempat rotan di Hutan Dolago Tanggunung, Desa Nupabomba, Kecamatan Tanantovea, Kabupaten Donggala, Provinsi Sulawesi Tengah. Metode yang digunakan adalah metode deskriptif dengan teknik survei dan pengumpulan data. Hasil penelitian ditemukan empat spesies tumbuhan andalan setempat rotan, yaitu Daemonorops macroptera (Miq.) Beccari), D. robusta Warb. ex Beccari, D. lamprolepis Beccari, dan Calamus inops Beccari ex Heyne. Populasi empat spesies rotan di kawasan hutan ini jarang ditemukan. Dengan kondisi ini perlu tindakan pengembangan budi daya rotan melalui konservasi ex situ.
Buletin Plasma Nutfah, Volume 23, pp 101-108; doi:10.21082/blpn.v23n2.2017.p101-108
Abstract:Cekaman kekeringan menjadi masalah yang perlu diperhatikan dalam budi daya kacang hijau di lahan kering, mengingat ketersediaan air yang relatif terbatas terutama pada musim kemarau. Tujuan penelitian adalah untuk mengevaluasi aksesi-aksesi kacang hijau terhadap cekaman kekeringan. Sebanyak lima puluh aksesi plasma nutfah kacang hijau yang terdiri atas varietas unggul nasional, dan varietas lokal koleksi Bank Gen BB Biogen digunakan dalam penelitian ini. Pengujian kekeringan dilaksanakan di KP Naibonat, BPTP NTT, Kupang pada tahun 2013. Percobaan menggunakan Rancangan Petak Terpisah 3 ulangan, di mana petak utama adalah kondisi tanah (normal dan kekeringan) dan anak petak adalah 50 aksesi kacang hijau. Pada kondisi normal (N) tanah pada setiap petak selalu dalam keadaan cukup air hingga seminggu menjelang panen (disiram sesuai keperluan). Pada kondisi kekeringan (K) tanah tidak disiram semenjak umur 4 minggu setelah tanaman hingga panen. Setiap galur ditanam 2 tanaman per rumpun, pada jarak 40 cm × 20 cm dalam petakan 2 m × 3 m. Pengamatan dilakukan terhadap hasil biji dan karakter agronomi penting lainnya. Toleransi kekeringan dinilai berdasarkan persentase penurunan hasil pada kondisi kekeringan dibanding dengan kondisi normal. Untuk melihat keeratan hubungan antarkarakter agronomis dilakukan uji korelasi. Berdasarkan hasil evaluasi, diperoleh 11 aksesi plasma nutfah yang toleran, lima aksesi di antaranya tergolong paling toleran dengan penurunan hasil pada kondisi kekeringan lebih rendah dibanding dengan varietas toleran lainnya. Kelima varietas tersebut adalah Walet, Kenari, Merak, Sriti, dan Lokal Pameungpeuk. Korelasi antarkarakter agronomi (komponen hasil) dengan hasil biji plasma nutfah kacang hijau pada kondisi normal dan kekeringan relatif sama.