Journal Horticultural Biotechnology Research

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11 articles
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Dalel Telahigue, Lamjed Toumi
Horticultural Biotechnology Research pp 01-09; doi:10.25081/hbr.2017.v3.3378

Abstract:The induction and growth of quinoa’s callus depend on several factors, including the culture medium and the nature of the growth hormone and its dose. In effect, the best callogenesis rates were obtained with the media MS and B5 with respect to the media WHITE and KNOP the callogenesis is too low or zero. The best combination used was 0.2 BA + 2.4 D give well-developed callus. To obtain water-stress resistant cell lines, the effect of water stress induced by polyethylene glycol (P.E.G 6000) on the growth, osmotic potential and metabolic parameter of Chenopodium quinoa callus was studied. Applied water stress showed a reduction in the growth of stressed callus compared to the control. The presence of PEG in the culture medium caused a decrease in the content of fresh matter as well as the dry matter content compared to the control. Water stress also significantly affected the water parameters of calluses. The chlorophyll a, b and carotenoids content decreased, but this decrease is not too pronounced.
R. Karthikeyan S. Jeevitha, R. Tirumalai A. Malarkodi, M. Prakash R. Anandan
Horticultural Biotechnology Research pp 06-09; doi:10.25081/hbr.2018.v4.3463

Abstract:A phenotypic and molecular diversity study was conducted using seven traits and 19 SSR markers in a collection of 26 black gram genotypes. Phenotypic characterization was based on seven yield and yield related variable. The field experiment was laid out at Panboli village (YMV hotspot) of Tirunelveli District in Tamilnadu during summer 2017. Genetic divergence was estimated on the basis of D2 values and 26 genotypes under study were grouped into six clusters by Tocher’s method. Seed yield per plant followed by Plant height and number of pods per plant contributed to the genetic divergence. The genetic distance announced using DICE dissimilarity co-efficient indicated highest divergence of 1.0 between VBN 8 and AUBG 17 and between VBN 8 and AUBG 19. The dendogram constructed using the DICE dissimilarity co-efficient between genotypes showed four apparent clusters based on marker allele distribution. Divergence was noted between the dissimilarity matrices based on the molecular and phenotypic diversity based on agronomic data.
B. Sunil Kumar G. Sathiya Narayanan, R. Anandan M. Prakash
Horticultural Biotechnology Research pp 19-22; doi:10.25081/hbr.2018.v4.3482

Abstract:An evaluation was carried out to study the effect pre sowing seed treatment and foliar spay with chicory leaf extract on resultant seed quality characters of sesame cv TMV 3. The bulk seeds were graded for uniformity using appropriate round perforated metal sieves of sizes of 5/64" size sieve and were imposed various concentration of chicory leaf extract presowing treatment coupled with foliar spray at different concentration under drought condition. After harvest the resultant seeds were evaluated for its seed qualities. The results revealed that the that the Chicory @ 20 % Pre sowing seed treatment + Chicory foliar spray @ 30 % during pod filling stage significantly increased the resultant seed quality characters of the sesame, when compared to other concentration and control.
D. Venkatakrishnan
Horticultural Biotechnology Research pp 16-18; doi:10.25081/hbr.2018.v4.3479

Abstract:This study was conducted to evaluate the response of brinjal (Solanum melongena L.) with conventional, non-conventional organic source, industrial by-products combined with inorganic fertilizers. The treatments imposed were T1 – Control (100% RDF), T2-100% RDF + Municipal Solid Waste Compost @ 5 t ha-1, T3 – 100% RDF + Municipal Solid Waste Compost @ 10 t ha-1, T­4 – 100% RDF + Vermicompost @ 2.5 t ha-1, T5 – 100% RDF + Vermicompost @ 5 t ha-1, T6 – 100% RDF + Rice Husk Ash @ 5 t ha-1, T7 – 100% RDF + Rice Husk Ash @ 10 t ha-1, T8 – 100% RDF + Lignite Fly Ash @ 5 t ha-1, T9 – 100% RDF + Lignite Fly Ash @ 10 t ha-1. There were nine treatments combinations replicated thrice in CRD. The soil was sandy in texture with available nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium of 257, 10.2 and 117 kg ha-1 respectively which fell in fertility status of low. The soil classified taxonomically as Typic Udisamments. The results showed that application of 100% RDF + Vermicompost @ 5 t ha-1 (T5) significantly increased yield attributes viz., fruit length (16.6 cm), fruit girth (15.2 cm), no. of fruits plant-1 (20.67), fruit weight (45.2 g) and fruit yield plant-1 (934.2 g plant-1). This treatment registered maximum quality attributes like ascorbic acid content (4.5 mg 100 g-1), crude protein (4.81%), drymatter of fruit (70.2 g plant-1) and dry matter of plant (81.3 g plant-1). The post harvest soil available N (148mgkg-1) and P (7.15mgkg-1)status was higher due to application of 100% RDF with Vermicompst @ 5 t ha-1 (T5). The post harvest available K (75.58mgkg-1) status recorded higher in the treatment T9 which received 100% RDF with Lignite Fly Ash @ 10 t ha-1 (T9).
L. Mullainathan K. Aviya
Horticultural Biotechnology Research pp 23-25; doi:10.25081/hbr.2018.v4.3485

Abstract:The present study was carried out to induce chemical mutagens in Finger millet (Eleusinecoracana(L.) Gaertn.). The seed were subjected to different treatment level of EMS and DES. The parameters like Plant height(cm), Number of leaves per plant, Leaf length (cm/plant), Number of finger per plant, Finger length (cm/plant), Days to first bloom, Yield per plant (g) and 1000 grains weight (g)were observed in M1generation. And the result revealed that, all the parameters except days to first blooming show a dose dependent decrease in both treatments. The LD-50 value was found in 30mM of EMS and 40mM of DES.
Ritesh Kumar Yadav, Sandeep Jain Amarjit Singh, Madhav Pandit, Rajeev Dhakal
Horticultural Biotechnology Research pp 13-21; doi:10.25081/hbr.2017.v3.3392

Abstract:Effect of different culture media, pH levels and natural substrates on mycelial growth and sporulation of Alternaria porri and Stemphylium vesicarium, incitants of purple blotch complex of onion was investigated. Maximum colony growth of A. porri and S. vesicarium was recorded on oat meal agar and Richard’s agar while, oat meal agar and V8 juice agar recorded the maximum sporulation, respectively. Similarly, pH 5.0 and 6.0 on potato dextrose agar (PDA) recorded the maximum colony growth of A. porri and S. vesicarium, respectively. None of the pH levels on PDA supported the sporulation of A. porri while maximum sporulation of S. vesicarium was recorded on pH 5.0. Onion seed stalks and garlic leaves were found to be the most suitable natural substrates for mass multiplication of A. porri and S. vesicarium, respectively. The present findings are useful for preparation of inoculums required for resistance breeding and fungicidal evaluation against purple blotch complex.
Abeer M. Shehata, A. A. El-Sayed M. A. H. Abdou
Horticultural Biotechnology Research pp 26-36; doi:10.25081/hbr.2017.v3.3450

Abstract:This experiment was conducted at the Floriculture Nursery, Faculty of Agriculture, Minia University during the two successive seasons to study the effect of compost at rates (0, 25, 2.50 and 3.75 ton/fed.) and natural substances i.e. vitamins (ascorbic acid at 50 and 100 ppm, ?-tocopherol at 10, 20 ppm and thiamine, at 25 and 50 ppm) and active yeast at 2.5 and 5 g/l. and their interaction on some chemical constituents of guar plants. The results indicated that, Addition of compost caused an increase in guaran %, Photosynthetic pigments, Total carbohydrates (%) N, P and K (%) and Protein (%). The maximum level in all previous traits was for the plants growing in the soil fertilized with the highest level of compost (3.75 t/fed.). Using the treatments of vit. C at 50 ppm followed by 5 g/l. active yeast, then vit. E at 10 ppm gave the highest values of all previous traits. The interaction between the two main factors (A×B) was significant for guaran %, photosynthetic pigments, total carbohydrates %, N and P %., The highest values were obtained from the interaction treatments of 3.75 ton/fed., compost in combination with active yeast at 5 g/l. and vit. C at 50 ppm. On the other hand, the interaction between compost, active yeast and vitamins treatments was not significant for protein content (%). We conclude that supply guar plants with compost at 3.75 ton/fed., and spraying plants with either active yeast at 5 g/l. or ascorbic acid (vit. C) at 50 ppm to improve the values of some chemical constituents under investigation condition.
A.E. Esson M.I. Adebola
Horticultural Biotechnology Research pp 10-12; doi:10.25081/hbr.2017.v3.3386

Abstract:In this study, two accessions of Bambara groundnut were exposed to fast neutrons Americium-Beryllium (AmBe) source with flux of 1.5 ×104 ncm-2 s-1for different hours, and planted in a completely randomized block design (RCBD) with three replications to raise M1 generation. The data recorded were percentage germination, plant height, number of leaves, leaf length, leaf width, days to 50% flowering, number of pods per plant, fresh weight of plants, dry weight of plants, dry weight of pods, weight of seeds and100 seeds weight. There was variation in plant height, number of leaves, leaf length, leaf width, Days to 50% flowering, fresh weight of plants, dry weight of plants, dry weight of pods, weight of seeds and100 seeds weight for Black accession. In the Cream accession, days to 50% flowering, number of pods per plant, fresh weight of plants, dry weight of plants, dry weight of pods, weight of seeds and100 seeds weight were significantly different. Treatment at 16 hours performed best for plant height, leaf length, number of leaves, weight of seed per plant and 100 seed weight in Black accession while Cream performed best at 8 hours exposure time. Fast neutron was observed to improve the performance of Bambara groundnut, thus can be used in breeding programme for Bambara groundnut.
Ijaz Ashraf Umair Talib
Horticultural Biotechnology Research pp 22-25; doi:10.25081/hbr.2017.v3.3402

Abstract:Crop farming is the key source of revenue (12%) as well as livelihood (45%) generation in Pakistan. Although it is the mainstay of national rural economy, there are certain factors impede its actual potential. Environment and soil degradation are the most significant among these factors. Therefore, it is dire need to mitigate their adverse impact on crop management to combat the food insecurity. The present study was conducted in mix cropping zone of Punjab. Through multistage sampling technique 120 farmers were selected and data were collected through interview schedule and focus group discussion. Psychoanalysis of data revealed that among environmental factors the rain variation has the most adverse effect on crop management followed by flood, temperature variation and hailstorm respectively. Qualitative data illustrated that from last few year’s variation in time & frequency of rainfall become fashion of the day due to usage of huge amount of ammunition in successive operations against terrorism and deforestation. The data showed that soil is degraded mainly by loss of fertility followed by water logging, erosion and salinity. The focus group discussions concluded that due to bulging of population, the cropping intensity increases which deplete the needed nutrients in the soil. Although farmers apply the fertilizers, application without soil testing is all in vain in-spite of increasing the cost of production. Therefore, it is recommended that strengthen the weather forecasting department and use all kinds of media to update the farmers about upcoming weather conditions.
K.V. Deepak T. Deenathayalan R. Anandan, B. Priyadharshini S. Murugan M. Vignesh
Horticultural Biotechnology Research pp 01-05; doi:10.25081/hbr.2018.v4.3462

Abstract:The regeneration methods in Sesame (Sesamum indicum L.) already developed were genotype dependent and were unsuccessful for Indian cultivars. Hence, an efficient protocol for in vitro organogenesis and plant regeneration in sesame was attempted with TMV 3 cultivar. Immature cotyledons derived from 1-week old seedlings were cultured on MS (Murashige and Shoog) medium fortified with different concentrations of 6-benzylaminopurine (BAP), thidiazuran (TDZ) and kinetin for adventitious shoot induction. It was found that optimal medium for direct shoot formation was MS with BAP (2.0 mg/l) at a frequency of 74% with an average of 4.5 shoots per expalnt. The shoot regeneration frequency was significantly reduced with either TDZ or kinetin when compared with BAP alone. Elongated individual shoots were transferred on MS media supplemented with Indole Butyric Acid (IBA; 0.5 mg/l) showed rooting frequency of 70%. The rooted plantlets were acclimatized to potting mixture containing sand, soil and clay mixture and grown to maturity with survival rate of 65 %. No phenotypic aberrations were observed among the ex vitro transferred plantlets. The protocol described here assures a high frequency of shoot regeneration, root induction and also plant survival rate.
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