International Journal of Environment, Agriculture and Biotechnology

Journal Information
EISSN : 24561878
Current Publisher: AI Publications (10.22161)
Total articles ≅ 1,141
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International Journal of Environment, Agriculture and Biotechnology; doi:10.22161/ijeab

Ian Imanuel Fidhatami, Rosana Agus, Muh. Nasrum Massi
International Journal of Environment, Agriculture and Biotechnology, Volume 5, pp 63-67; doi:10.22161/ijeab.51.9

Okolo Samson Ayegba, Olotu Olafemi Ayopo
International Journal of Environment, Agriculture and Biotechnology, Volume 5, pp 56-62; doi:10.22161/ijeab.51.8

M.K.A Wahab, A. A. Alarape, S. K. Halidu, I. A. Idowu
International Journal of Environment, Agriculture and Biotechnology, Volume 5, pp 1-8; doi:10.22161/ijeab.51.1

Bi Tra Jean-Innocent Nanti, Yah Gwladys Gnamien, Tchoa Kone, Brahima André Soumahoro, Mongomaké Kone
International Journal of Environment, Agriculture and Biotechnology, Volume 5, pp 621-630; doi:10.22161/ijeab.53.14

Abstract:
The culture of cashew (Anacardiumoccidentale L.) is the main source of income for populations in northern Côte d'Ivoire, with an estimated production of 725 000 tonnes in 2017, but the average yield remains low likely due to the lack of elite planting material and hence use of unselected plant material by mostfarmers. For mass propagation of such a material, in vitro methods are necessary. Unfortunately, it is difficult to obtain surviving explants from mature plants grown in the field, whereby explants from seedlings obtained by in vitro germination are the most suitable for micropropagation of cashew.The objective of this study was to propagate under in vitroconditionselite plants of Anacardiumoccidentaleto be used as planting material. In Nangui Abrogoua University laboratory,shoot tip and basal part explants derived from vitroplants of 16-day-old were transferred onto Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium containing different concentrations of cytokinins.After one month of culture, the induced shoots were placed onto different strengths of MS medium withvarious concentrations of sucrose and auxin. The highest number of buds (9) was recorded with the basal explants on medium supplemented withThidiazuron (TDZ) at 0.01 mg/l. The highest shoots (3 cm) were obtained with these sameexplantson a medium without growth regulators. A½ MS with 60 g/l of sucrose and 5 mg/l of IBA induced the highest rooting percentage (72%) and number of roots (4 roots) in a short time (16 days).
Ernest C. Bwalya, Salem Marzougui, Esther Mwangi, Choi Wooseon, Myung-Chul Lee
International Journal of Environment, Agriculture and Biotechnology, Volume 5, pp 643-646; doi:10.22161/ijeab.53.17

Abstract:
Finger millet is a high nutritious cereal compared to maize, wheat, rice and sorghum and adaptable to different abiotic and biotic stresses. Understanding the molecular basis of unique traits of finger millets, is key in harnessing its potential as a nutritional security crop among other important aspects. In this study some accession from Africa and Asia were used to research the genetic diversity and population structure of finger millet using EST-SSR Markers. Twenty four accessions of finger millet were tested for polymorphism and highly polymorphic bands were generated in 27 EST markers. A total of 46 alleles were amplified and ranged from 2 to 3 with average of 1.703 per primer pair. The observed heterozygosity value of EST-SSR markers (mean = 0.004) was from 0 to 0.125 and the range of expected heterozygosity value was from 0.16 to 0.582 (mean=0.233). The range of PIC values were from 0.077 to 0.477 and the average PIC value was 0.273.The genetic relationship was divided into three major groups, with accessions from Africa showing a high level of polymorphism and unique population structure compared to Asian ones. These results echos the need for strategic continued colaborative breeding and other crop research programmes between Africa and Asia. The results from futher molecular evaluation will serve as important information for better and efficient management of genetic resources of finger millet for; conservation, crop improvement and intellectual property protection rights purposes.
Alice Kwamboka Omasire, J M Kimondiu, And P. Kariuki
International Journal of Environment, Agriculture and Biotechnology, Volume 5, pp 631-635; doi:10.22161/ijeab.53.15

Abstract:
Urban sprawl on agricultural lands has become a global phenomenon plaguing all countries of the world, rich or poor and is mainly influenced by spatial growth of urban areas. Spatial growth in urban areas is an inevitable phenomenon hence the need to regulate it. The aim of this research was to establish the effects of urban sprawl and land use change in the area of Wote town in Makueni County, Kenya.Purposive sampling was used to subdivide the study area into two clusters (Kamunyolo and Unoa). The target population for the study were the natives who own land and live within the study area. The research identified increase in urban population (14%), low agricultural returns (29%), demand for housing (16%) and weak ineffective land institutions (13%) as the major causes of urban sprawl in Wote town. The major impacts of sprawl were found to be diminishing agricultural land (55%), pressure on the existing infrastructure (17%) and increase in land values (14%).The research points that the current urban sprawl is very prevalent and of major concern for attainment of two sustainable development goals (improved agricultural food production and affordable housing) in Kenya . The urban sprawl has both positive and negative effects. However, the negative effects far outweigh positive effects, with diminishing agricultural land being the greatest negative effect. There is need therefore, to regulate urban sprawl to optimize positive effects while minimizing the negative effects.
C. C. Onwubiko, E. M. Onuoha, F. A. Anukwa
International Journal of Environment, Agriculture and Biotechnology, Volume 5, pp 647-653; doi:10.22161/ijeab.53.18

Abstract:
Studies on the accumulation of some heavy metals in African river prawn (Macro brachium Vollenhoven Ii), in Calabar River, Calabar, Cross River State, Nigeria, A total of 54 prawn samples, were collected during the study. The heavy metals in the samples were analyzed using atomic absorption spectrophotometer for cadmium, cobalt, chromium, copper, mercury, manganese, nickel and lead while total hydrocarbon (THC) was analysed using UV-spectrophotometer. The heavy metal concentrations in prawn varied across sampling stations and between seasons. The mean metal concentrations in prawns were: 0.02 ± 0.01 mg/kg (Cd), 0.45 ± 0.04 mg/kg (Co), 0.06 ± 0.04 mg/kg (Cr), 0.56 ± 0.04 mg/kg (Cu), 0.63 ± 0.03 mg/kg (Mn), 0.67 ± 0.03 mg/kg (Ni), 0.08 ± 0.01 mg/kg (Pb) and 0.69 ± 0.19 mg/kg (THC). Mercury was not detected in the prawns. The prawns from Calabar River have high chromium, nickel and THC concentrations according to WHO standard and as such consumption of the prawns is not safe. There should be increase awareness on the impact of unlawful dumping of wastes in the study areas. More studies in the Calabar River aimed at monitoring of pollution should be carried out and properly funded to give an insight into whether the fishery resources in the study area are safe for consumption or not.
Nimisha P, Sincy Joseph
International Journal of Environment, Agriculture and Biotechnology, Volume 5, pp 616-620; doi:10.22161/ijeab.53.13

Abstract:
Heavy metals are non-degradable pollutants and must be removed or reduced to acceptable limits before discharging into the environment to avoid threats to living organisms. This study was carried out to assess Manganese and Lead removal efficiency of the Spirogyra maxima isolated from ponds. The heavy metal removal capacity of the algal species was investigated for the period of 30 days at room temperature (28±20C) and regular light. The percentage Manganese removal on day 30 by Spirogyra species was 76.81% and the percentage removal of the lead is above 90%. In the present study, the capacities of live green algae, Spirogyra maxima were evaluated for toxic heavy metals, Pb, Mn from water bodies. The study examines the possibility of using live Spirogyra to biologically remove aqueous Lead and Manganese of low concentration from waste water. These algae proved that efficient biological vectors for heavy metal uptake.
T. Ramesh, A. Amuthavalli, R. Boopathy
International Journal of Environment, Agriculture and Biotechnology, Volume 5, pp 636-642; doi:10.22161/ijeab.53.16

Abstract:
Soil is the main source of supplying essential nutrients for plant growth. In agricultural practice, when a particular nutrient or a group of nutrients are absent in the soil, it may affect the growth of the plant. Thus, most of the farmers practicing to apply chemical fertilizers to overcome the soil nutrient deficiency. Chemical fertilizers enhance the soil fertility on one hand whereas on the other hand it cause environmental pollution. Therefore alternative methods of soil nutrition practice must be considered. Hence this work focused to prepare fermented liquid fertilizer to enhance the plant growth. In the present study the fermented liquid fertilizer was prepared by fermenting the Portunussanguinolentus (Herbst, 1783) crab wastes with jaggery. After 15 days, the fermented liquid from crab waste was filtered and used for further study. The harvested liquid subjected to physico chemical and microbial analysis. The functional group and active compounds present in the fermented liquid was analyzed through FT-IR and GC-MS study. Phytotoxicity of the fermented liquid was determined through seed germination assay by using TMV-7 ground nut seeds. The result showed that the fermented liquid was diluted in water in the ratio of 1:100 exhibited higher seed germination when compared to other test dilutions and control. Thus the present work strongly supports the view that the traditionally fermented crab waste liquid contain high nutrients and active compounds and that may support the ground nut plant growth.
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