Journal of Infection and Public Health

Journal Information
ISSN / EISSN : 1876-0341 / 1876-035X
Current Publisher: Elsevier BV (10.1016)
Total articles ≅ 1,920
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, Nisha Tewatia, Hemlata Vashisht, Reena Jain, Sudershan Kumar
Journal of Infection and Public Health; doi:10.1016/j.jiph.2021.04.011

Abstract:
Coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19), associated with the outbreak of deadly virus originating in Wuhan, China, is now a global health emergency and a matter of serious concern. Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is rapidly spreading worldwide, and WHO declared the outbreak of this disease a pandemic on March 11, 2020. Though some of the countries have succeeded in slowing down the rate of the spread of this pandemic, most the countries across the globe are still continuing to experience an increasing trend in the growth and spread of this deadly disease. Hence, in the current scenario, is has now become essential to control and finally irradicate this deadly disease using an effective vaccine. One can expect the prominent role of already available antivirals, antibodies and anti-inflammatory drugs in the market, in this pandemic. Immunomodulatory and biological therapeutics are also in the high expectations to combat COVID-19. RNA based vaccines might be more advantageous over traditional vaccines, to deal with the pandemic threat. Aiming towards this direction, clinical trials for SARS-CoV-2 vaccine are currently underway all across the globe. Currently, about 150 health related organizations and research labs are in the progress for the evolution of COVID-19 vaccines, globally. The initial aim of these clinical trials is to assess vaccine’s safety, which is tested in Phase I/II/III studies where the primary outcomes typically examine the frequency of adverse effects. The vaccine is about to undergo phase III testing in several countries such as India, USA, South Africa, Brazil and England. US Government, under Operation Wrap Speed is even ready to sponsor three candidates, namely-The University of Oxford and AstraZeneca’s AZD1222; Moderna’s mRNA-1273; and Pfizer and BioNTech’s BNT162 for Phase III trials.
Sandhanasamy Devanesan, Murugesan Jayamala, , Sankaran Umamaheshwari,
Journal of Infection and Public Health, Volume 14, pp 577-587; doi:10.1016/j.jiph.2021.02.004

Abstract:
In this study, a biologically active molecule, di-methyl flubendazole isolated from the extract of Carica papaya leaves confirmed by using GC–MS, 1H NMR, and 13C NMR analysis was applied to synthesize silver nanoparticles (AgNPs). The AgNPs with plant sources an alternative therapeutic agent for synthetic compound used in cancer chemotherapy. The AgNPs were characterized using UV, FT-IR, XRD, FESEM with EDX and TEM. The antibacterial effects of AgNPs were determined with agar well diffusion method. The MTT assay used to evaluate the inhibitory effect cell lines. The acridine orange and ethidium bromide and DAPI have used cell morphological effects. The AgNPs were mono-crystalline and their size ranged from 7 to 22 nm. AgNPs showed good antibacterial activity against both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. Studies on the antiproliferative potential of bioinspired AgNPs in cancer cell lines revealed that the antiproliferative effect was much stronger in HepG2 than in MCF-7 and A549 cell lines. Similarly, AgNPs exerted less cytotoxic activity in Vero cells (normal cells). AgNPs-treated cells showed necrosis, apoptotic morphology evidenced by cell shrinkage, membrane blebbing, cell decay, and necrosis. HepG2 cells treated with biosynthesized AgNPs exhibited a G0/G1 phase (52–53.37%) blockage. Compared to the control, AgNP-treated HepG2 cells showed elevated ®-actin levels; however, Bcl-2 was significantly down regulated in AgNP-treated cells, indicating the involvement of Bcl-2 in apoptosis. Overall, the fact that di-methyl flubendazole-based silver nanoparticles showed a novel and cost-effective natural antitumor and antibacterial agent.
S. Saqrane, , S. Lahrich, F. Laghrib, Y. El Bouabi, A. Farahi, M. Bakasse
Journal of Infection and Public Health, Volume 14, pp 655-660; doi:10.1016/j.jiph.2021.02.006

Abstract:
The management of SARS-CoV-2 has not yet been clearly determined and is based on potential therapies evaluated during the SARS-CoV and MERS-CoV outbreaks. An emerging potential therapeutic approach currently being evaluated in numerous clinical trials is the remdesivir agent, which acts on COVID-19 by interfering with key steps in the virus replication cycle. It is considered a therapeutic option to be evaluated against COVID-19, based on data on its in vitro and in vivo activity against MERS-CoV and SARS-CoV coronaviruses. In this work, we provide an overview of remdesivir’s discovery, mechanism of action, and the current studies exploring its clinical effectiveness. Recommendations for its use against COVID-19 infection are also summarized.
, Lomas Kumar Tomar, Charu Tyagi, Jayanad Manjhi, Yugandhar P. Reddy,
Journal of Infection and Public Health, Volume 14, pp 681-682; doi:10.1016/j.jiph.2020.09.014

, Charné Bornman,
Journal of Infection and Public Health, Volume 14, pp 555-560; doi:10.1016/j.jiph.2021.02.011

Abstract:
Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) continues to exert a substantial toll on the global health and world economy and is now expected to be hidden by COVID-19 for a while. The wrong consumption of antibiotics during the COVID-19 pandemic will raise disastrous effects on AMR management and antibiotic stewardship programs. This is related to the concerns extrapolated due to an increase in mortality rates in patients with bacterial coinfections. Importantly, the immune system of COVID-19 patients in regions with high AMR may be fighting on two fronts altogether, the virus and MDR bacteria. Current control policies to manage AMR and prioritization of antibiotic stewardship plans are mandatory during this pandemic. This review aims to discuss the rising concerns of the excess use of antibiotics in COVID-19 patients highlighting the role of bacterial coinfections in these patients. Types of prescribed antibiotics and the development of antibiotic resistance is addressed as well.
, Qamar Zia, Anzarul Haque, Ali S. Alqahtani, Omar M. Almarfadi, Saeed Banawas, Mohammed S. Alqahtani, Keshav L. Ameta, Shafiul Haque
Journal of Infection and Public Health, Volume 14, pp 611-619; doi:10.1016/j.jiph.2021.01.016

Abstract:
The emergence and spread of SARS-CoV-2 throughout the world has created an enormous socioeconomic impact. Although there are several promising drug candidates in clinical trials, none is available clinically. Thus, the drug repurposing approach may help to overcome the current pandemic. The main protease (Mpro) of SARS-CoV-2 is crucial for cleaving nascent polypeptide chains. Here, FDA-approved antiviral and anti-infection drugs were screened by high-throughput virtual screening (HTVS) followed by re-docking with standard-precision (SP) and extra-precision (XP) molecular docking. The most potent drug's binding was further validated by free energy calculations (Prime/MM-GBSA) and molecular dynamics (MD) simulation. Out of 1397 potential drugs, 157 showed considerable affinity toward Mpro. After HTVS, SP, and XP molecular docking, four high-affinity lead drugs (Iodixanol, Amikacin, Troxerutin, and Rutin) with docking energies −10.629 to −11.776 kcal/mol range were identified. Among them, Amikacin exhibited the lowest Prime/MM-GBSA energy (−73.800 kcal/mol). It led us to evaluate other aminoglycosides (Neomycin, Paramomycin, Gentamycin, Streptomycin, and Tobramycin) against Mpro. All aminoglycosides were bound to the substrate-binding site of Mpro and interacted with crucial residues. Altogether, Amikacin was found to be the most potent inhibitor of Mpro. MD simulations of the Amikacin-Mpro complex suggested the formation of a complex stabilized by hydrogen bonds, salt bridges, and van der Waals interactions. Aminoglycosides may serve as a scaffold to design potent drug molecules against COVID-19. However, further validation by in vitro and in vivo studies is required before using aminoglycosides as an anti-COVID-19 agent.
, Elsa G. Aguilar-Ancori, María A. Quispe-Ricalde, Julia G. Muñiz-Duran, Mercedes M. Quispe-Florez, Aldo Chinen
Journal of Infection and Public Health, Volume 14, pp 670-673; doi:10.1016/j.jiph.2021.02.005

Abstract:
To date, there have been no molecular typing studies to identify the Sporothrix species circulating in Abancay, a hyperendemic area of sporotrichosis in Peru. To identify six clinical isolates of the Sporothrix schenckii complex from Abancay, Peru, we used PCR-sequencing of the calmodulin gene, and a phylogenetic analysis was conducted with these and additional sequences from GenBank. All clinical isolates were identified as S. schenckii (sensu stricto). Phylogenetic analysis revealed that the six clinical isolates from Abancay, Peru clustered in a clade along with sequences from Costa Rica, Iran, South Africa, and four other sequences from Peru. These findings reveal the presence of S. schenckii (sensu stricto) in Abancay, Peru.
Journal of Infection and Public Health, Volume 14, pp 661-667; doi:10.1016/j.jiph.2021.01.015

Abstract:
Human papillomavirus (HPV) is the most common viral infection of the reproductive tract. This cross-sectional study among female schoolteachers assessed the prevalence of i) unawareness of HPV infection’s causal role in cervical cancer; ii) unawareness of HPV vaccine availability and iii) examined the sociodemographic variables associated both the outcome variables. This cross-sectional study was conducted among female schoolteachers employed in public and private sectors schools in Kuwait using a structured questionnaire for data collection. Prevalence of each of outcome variables was computed. Multivariable logistic regression analyses were used to evaluate independent predictors of two dependent variables. A total 1341 female schoolteachers participated were enrolled. Of participants, 60% were unaware of HPV causal role in cervical cancer and 88% were unaware of HPV vaccine availability. Among those who were aware of HPV vaccine availability, 83.8% were unvaccinated. Multivariable logistic regression (MLR) model showed that 20-29 years old participants or with low family income (< 500 KD/month) were significantly (p < 0.05) more likely to be unaware of HPV causal role in cervical cancer. Moreover, participants with family/ personal history of cervical cancer were significantly (p < 0.05) less likely to be unaware of HPV role in causation of cervical cancer. A separate MLR model revealed that participants were significantly more likely to be unaware of HPV vaccine availability if they were Kuwaiti nationals or non-Kuwaiti Arabs (p < 0.05), employed in in public schools (p = 0.003) or less likely to be unaware if they had personal or family history of cervical cancer (p < 0.001). High prevalences of unawareness of causal role of HPV in cervical cancer and unawareness HPV vaccine availability were recorded. Targeted education among identified sociodemographic groups with high levels of unawareness is warranted. Future studies may evaluate the impact of recommended efforts.
Journal of Infection and Public Health, Volume 14, pp 628-637; doi:10.1016/j.jiph.2021.02.007

Abstract:
The rapid emergence and variations of antibiotic resistance among common gram negative bacteria cause a significant concern specially in India and all over the world because of high mortality and morbidity rates. In our study, we screened 189 bacterial isolates from Assam Medical College & Hospital, Dibrugarh for antibiotic resistance pattern and tried to identify the resistant genes causing responsible for β-lactam and fluoroquinolones resistance. More than 80% and 45% strains were resistant to all the 3rd generation cephalosporins, fluoroquinolones respectively. Among the 3rd generation cephalosporin resistant strains, 38% and 24% isolates were only ESBL and MBL producers respectively and 11% were reported to have both ESBL and MBL genes. The ESBL positive isolates have shown the dominance of CTX-M3 gene. VIM-1 gene was mostly reported in MBL producers. Our study probably for the first time reporting SIM-1 and SPM-1 MBL gene from India. Mutations in QRDR is found to be the primary cause of fluoroquinolone resistance along with efflux pump and PMQR presence. The study represents the first detailed study on antibiotic resistance from NE India this could help to take control measures for the emerging antibiotic resistance in hospital and community based infections in North East India.
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