Asian Journal of Biotechnology and Bioresource Technology

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EISSN : 2457-0125
Published by: Sciencedomain International (10.9734)
Total articles ≅ 156
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Kalyani Singh, Vijay Gurung,
Asian Journal of Biotechnology and Bioresource Technology pp 39-49; https://doi.org/10.9734/ajb2t/2022/v8i230124

Abstract:
Fuels on a broad scale are divided into two categories based on their renewability, i.e., renewable and non-renewable. The increasing scarcity, prices of fossil fuels, and the constantly increasing level of CO2 in the environment have led to an immediate need to investigate alternative fuels. Microorganisms are extensively being used for the generation of biofuels. The qualities of E. coli to be accessible to culture and maintenance have made it stand out among the microbes. Their ability to metabolize pentoses further draws it near to being used for biofuel production. Fermentative bacteria, particularly the class clostridia (obligate anaerobe), have been successful hydrogen producers. Dark fermentation employed by clostridia has dual advantages, i.e., production of biohydrogen and waste reduction since clostridia can utilize a broad range of substrates, including organic wastes. Moreover, the application of metabolic engineering can provide additional processes to clostridia required for the efficient production of biobutanol. The review further explores the two yeast systems, conventional and non-conventional systems. Synthetic biology tools have explored the traditional system, which comprises Saccharomyces cerevisiae for commercial purposes. The non-conventional yeast system has several advantages over the conventional ones, like ethanol tolerance, thermotolerance, inhibitor tolerance, and genetic diversity. However, the application of synthetic biology tools is still being explored in microbes like E. coli, Clostridia species, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, andYarrowia lipolytica. The review also incorporates excellent commercial strain features like economical fuel tolerance, inhibitor tolerance, and thermotolerance control on redox balance and yield increases. The main focus is to bridge the gap between lab-scale production and commercialization.
Bello Ibrahim, , Mukhtar Gambo Lawal
Asian Journal of Biotechnology and Bioresource Technology pp 30-38; https://doi.org/10.9734/ajb2t/2022/v8i230123

Abstract:
Aims: To determine the prevalence of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency and its variant (G6PD A-) among children diagnosed with Plasmodium falciparum malaria in Katsina state, Nigeria. Study Design: Cross-Sectional Studies. Place and Duration of Study: General Hospitals Katsina, Dutsin-ma, Daura, Baure, Malumfashi and Funtua of Katsina state, Nigeria from June, 2020 to December, 2020. Methodology: A total of 200 blood samples were collected from the study subjects after getting the ethical approval and informed consent. Their socio-demographic information and clinical presentations were also noted with the aid of questionnaire. G6PD deficiency was detected using G6PD qualitative test. Molecular characterization of African A- Variants was carried out using PCR and Sanger sequencing. Phylogenetic studies were carried out to analyze the relationship between the types of mutations found in Nigeria and other countries. Results: The G6PD qualitative test shows that 35(17.5%) samples were G6PD deficient which indicates significant association (P<0.05) between G6PD and malaria. The PCR and sequence analysis of the 35 G6PD deficient samples shows the presence of G202A mutations in only 7(20.0%) samples. However, the BLAST analysis of the nucleotide sequences has shown 98.73% - 100% homology with other sequences of G6PD from the NCBI database. The bioinformatics analysis revealed G6PD mutations which indicate a Guanine to Adenine mutations at amino acid number 68 substitution of valine to methionine. Conclusion: This study has shown a high prevalence of G6PD deficiency among children diagnosed with Plasmodium falciparum malaria in Katsina State, North-western Nigeria. Polymerase Chain Reaction, NCBI blast, Phylogenetic and Bioinformatics analysis of the deficient samples shows that G202A mutation in relation to the deficient children was not statistically significant (p>0.05), hence does not appear to have a role in G6PD deficiency among children in the selected area of Katsina state, Nigeria though our findings were limited by the small sample size.
Niti Srivastava, Richa Srivastava,
Asian Journal of Biotechnology and Bioresource Technology pp 15-29; https://doi.org/10.9734/ajb2t/2022/v8i230122

Abstract:
The demand for carotenoids and their derivatives from natural sources is increasing rapidly due to public concern about food safety and health issues, and thus, carotenoid production from microbial fermentation is increasing significantly due to its ability to accumulate higher levels of carotene. Carotenoids, lipid-soluble pigments, are responsible for the vibrant colors in food and microorganisms. Carotenoids have the most important advantages in terms of antioxidant and anticancer activity. These possible applications are used for treating various diseases like xerophthalmia, keratomalacia, skin acne, breast cancer and tumor formation. They are widely used in the pharmaceutical, cosmetics and food industries. Due to the overall increase in the cost of carotenoids, carotenoids are produced in the pharmaceutical, food and cosmetics industries through chemical synthesis or extraction from plants. The oleaginous red yeast, Rhodotorula minuta, is well known for producing a high yield of carotenoids with a low production cost. Over the years, these carotenoids have been produced from oleaginous red yeast, using low-cost substrates or agricultural waste for cost-effective purposes. In this paper, we highlighted the production of carotenoids from oleaginous red yeast and its applications.
, K. Jaya Raju
Asian Journal of Biotechnology and Bioresource Technology pp 7-14; https://doi.org/10.9734/ajb2t/2022/v8i230121

Abstract:
Proteases are the enzymes that catalyze the breakdown of protein molecules into peptides and amino acids. Because of the vast variety of applications of the proteases in the current investigation. the production of protease from Aspergillus oryzae NCIM 637 was carried out under solid-state fermentation. The highest yield of the enzyme was screened using two substrate powders (Prawn's shell and fish meal powder), and it was observed that combined substrate powder has a higher potential to serve as a substrate for neutral protease synthesis by the fungal strain Aspergillus oryzae NCIM 637. Fermentation time (5 days), fermentation temperature (35°C), optimum pH (7), initial moisture content (46.40%), inoculum age (4 days), and inoculum volume were all optimized (1.0ml). The influence of additives such as carbon source maltose (2%) and nitrogen source casein (2%) was investigated, with a maximum production of 562.57U/gds. When the enzyme was partially purified using ammonium sulfate precipitation, the activity of the protease enzyme was found to be 570U/gds. Proteases have a wide range of applications in the food, pharmaceutical, and leather industries, as well as brewing.
, T. M. Ilesanmi, A. C. Olaleye
Asian Journal of Biotechnology and Bioresource Technology pp 1-6; https://doi.org/10.9734/ajb2t/2022/v8i230120

Abstract:
Introduction: Wastes generated from abattoirs are an increasing source of pollution of water bodies. Aims: This study emphasizes on identifying environmental impacts caused by the abattoir along Iworoko Road, Ilokun Ado-Ekiti facility on its receiving water body and its users. Methodology: Wastewater, stream water, and soil samples were collected twice from the abattoir over a two-month period (June and August). Heavy metals, physiochemical and microbial analyses were carried out on the samples. Results: The sample collected in June from the study area showed mean bacterial count which ranges from 8.0 – 55.0x103 cfu/ml, and sample obtained in August showed mean bacteria count and this indicated that wastewater sample has the highest bacteria count of 8.0 x 103 cfu/ml. The lowest bacterial count was found in the stream water sample with 1.7 x 103 cfu/ml. The mean bacterial count in the contaminated soil sample was 2.8 x 103 cfu/ml. The results also show the occurrence of potentially pathogenic organisms such as Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus. The heavy metals and physiochemical properties of samples collected from the study area are as follows; Fe (3.806 and 2.812), Cu (1.070 and 0.95), Cd (0.001 and 0.001), Ni (0.0055 and 0.0025), Pb (0.13 and 0.107), Zn (0.37 and 0.406), pH (8.475 and 8.600), temperature (26.250 and 27.750 oC), total dissolved solid (267.05 and 212.8), dissolved oxygen (1.65 and 2.45) for waste water sample; Fe (0.402 and 0.519), Cu (0.277 and 0.3095), Cd (0.0 and 0.001), Ni (0.002 and 0.003), Pb (0.04 and 0.016), Zn (0.126 and 0.16), pH (6.82 and 7.235), temperature (26.600 and 27.700 oC), total dissolved solid (103.4 and 125.95), dissolved oxygen (4.85 and 5.00) for stream water sample; and Fe (122.85 and 98.500), Cu (0.694 and 0.4745), Cd (0.004 and 0.001), Ni (0.02 and 0.010), Pb (0.3675 and 0.2885), Zn (0.3255 and 0.525), pH (6.200 and 6.495), temperature (23.300 and 27.800 oC) for soil sample – each figure representing June and August respectively. Conclusion: The concentration of the heavy metals reported in this study indicates that there is significant difference in the concentration of the pollutants taken at different sample points.
, Ezeribe K. Phil, Charles C. Chigbu
Asian Journal of Biotechnology and Bioresource Technology pp 46-54; https://doi.org/10.9734/ajb2t/2022/v8i130119

Abstract:
Aims: To isolate and characterize hydrocarbon – degraders in a contaminated soil sample Study Design: This experiment was carried out under aseptic conditions. The result was confirmed by visible spectrophotometer Place and Duration of Study: Department of Biological Sciences, Microbiology Programme, Clifford University, Ihie Campus, Owerrinta, Abia State, Nigeria, between May 2021 to July 2021 Methodology: Soil sample contaminated with hydrocarbon used in this experiment was from an automobile mechanic workshop. A ten-fold serial dilution was made for each soil sample, after which 1 ml of 10-5 dilutions was plated out using pour plate method and incubated at 37 0C for 48 hrs. The isolates were then grown on different hydrocarbons (crude oil, fuel or spent engine oil) and the degradation efficiency was confirmed by visible spectrophotometer. Result: The isolation of hydrocarbon – degrading bacteria in topsoil and subsoil samples of a mechanic workshop located in Isiala Ngwa North Local Government Area Junction, Abia State was carried out. Four bacterial species were isolated from the soil sample collected, the isolates were subjected to hydrocarbon degradation/utilization test of different hydrocarbons (crude oil, fuel or spent engine oil) it was observed that two of the isolates identified as Bacillus and Staphylococcus sp were able to utilize hydrocarbons in the medium more efficiently than other isolates. Conclusion: Hydrocarbon – degrading bacteria were isolated from an auto – mechanic workshop in Isiala Ngwa North, Abia State. Two of the four strains (Bacillus sp and Staphylococcus sp), have the highest potential to use different hydrocarbons (fuel, crude oil and condemn oil) as the sole carbon source. These strains' hydrocarbon – degrading abilities suggest that they could be effective in bioremediation of hydrocarbon – polluted locations. This could be used to combat contamination caused by motor mechanics who carelessly dispose of old motor oil in the environment, as well as general hydrocarbon contamination.
, Precious O. Chinenye, Charles C. Chigbu, Joy O. Okechim
Asian Journal of Biotechnology and Bioresource Technology pp 40-46; https://doi.org/10.9734/ajb2t/2022/v8i130118

Abstract:
Aim: To isolate cellulose degrading fungi from rice husk. Study Design: The experiment was carried out under aseptic condition in 3 replicates. Place and Duration of Study: Department of Biological Sciences, Microbiology Programme, Clifford University, Ihie Campus, Owerrinta, Abia State, Nigeria, between May 2021 to August 2021. Methodology: Rice husk from a rice mill was collected and kept until visible microbial growth was noticed. The organisms were isolated, characterized and screened for enzyme activities. Results: Cellulolytic organisms were isolated from rice husk, an agricultural by-product of rice milling. The isolates were identified as Penicillium and Aspergillus species. The two fungal isolates were screened for enzyme activity using 0.5 ml Carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC) as carbon source, the highest cellulase activity of 0.448 µg/ml/min was recorded for Aspergillus sp. at 48 hours while Penicillium sp, had enzyme activity of 0.388 µg/ml/min at day 1. Conclusion: The result of this study shows that Aspergillus and Penicillium spp were isolated from rice husk and were able to secrete the enzyme cellulase which is a very important enzyme in so many industries and also very expensive. Thus isolating organism that can secrete this enzyme is an added advantage to many industries.
Asian Journal of Biotechnology and Bioresource Technology pp 26-39; https://doi.org/10.9734/ajb2t/2022/v8i130117

Abstract:
Aims: To characterize amylase enzymes responsible for the spoilage of Eko, a Nigerian fermented food and to provide the best way to preserve it. Study Design: The experiment was carried out to extract the enzyme involved in the deterioration of Eko, it was partially purified using ion-exchange chromatography. Place and Duration of Study: Department of Microbiology, Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile Ife, between 1994 and 1996. Methodology: Eko was obtained from the new market Ile Ife and cut into slices, the slices were inoculated with spores of Aspergillusniger, on the eleventh day after inoculation, the enzyme was extracted, partially purified using ion-exchange chromatograpghy and characterized. Results: Within eleven days of inoculation, the Eko slices were extensively covered by the fungal spores, the amylase secreted by the Aspergillusniger was harvested and characterized. Its molecular weight was 70,000 Da, the optimum pH and temperature were 6 and 35 0C respectively, enzyme activity increased with increase in starch concentration with optimum activity at 0.9 mg/ml, the apparent Km for starch hydrolysis was 0.4 mg/ml. Cations such as Na+ and K+ stimulated amylase activity but was inhibited by EDTA and HgCl2Conclusion: The result of this work showed that amylase enzyme was produced by Aspergillus niger in the infected Eko slices also that the enzyme contributed to the degradation process, therefore, keeping Eko in conditions that will hinder the secretion of amylase enzyme or hinder its activity and the subsequent growth of A. niger will prolong the shelf life of Eko.
, O. O. Julius, F. B. Oluwatobi, D. J. Arotupin
Asian Journal of Biotechnology and Bioresource Technology pp 12-25; https://doi.org/10.9734/ajb2t/2022/v8i130116

Abstract:
Introduction: The importance of palm oil in the country is due to the versatility of applications of their by-products, such as cooking oil, margarines, soaps, detergents, cosmetics, lubricants, biofuels and electric power, among many others. Aims: This study investigates the optimization, purification and characterization of lipase produced by Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolated from palm oil processing cottage industries. Methodology: Effluent samples were taken from a depth of 10 – 15 cm in six different locations within Ekiti State, Nigeria. Bacteria species isolated from the effluents and identified using standard microbiological techniques and molecular characterization. The physiochemical characterizations of the isolates were carried out and the process parameters (nitrogen, carbon, temperature and pH) were optimized. Partial purification of crude extract from P. aeruginosa was carried out by ammonium sulphate precipitation and dialysis. Results: The pH of the inoculum ranged from 6.23 to 6.01 oil and grease contents ranged from 149.6 to 114.2 mg/l while the biochemical oxygen demand ranging from 42760 to 33800 mg/L. The chemical oxygen demand ranged from 1.9 to 1.8 mg/L. Pseudomonas aeruginosa exhibited considerable enzyme activity ranging from 75.33 to 22.44 µmol/min/mL. High lipase activity of 2.68 µmol/min from P. aeruginosa was recorded from a medium supplemented with palm oil, while the medium supplemented with goya oil had least lipase activity 2.31 µmol/min. The lipase activity increased with increase in incubation temperature at 50°C with relative activity of 99.9 % before it declined to 15 % at 80°C. Conclusion: The lipase produced from the P. aeruginosa exhibited high lypolytic activities. It can therefore, be a biodegradable agent for industrial applications especially in the waste treatment especially of waste rich in oil and fats. Thus, lipase may act as a biodegradable agent for industrial applications.
, James O. Ogbonna
Asian Journal of Biotechnology and Bioresource Technology pp 1-11; https://doi.org/10.9734/ajb2t/2022/v8i130115

Abstract:
Aims: To isolate fungi capable of simultaneous production of amylase and cellulase Study Design: The experiment was carried out in aseptic conditions, data were subjected to one way Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) and the means were separated using Least Significance Deference (LSD). Place and Duration of Study: Department of Microbiology, University of Nigeria, Nsukka, Enugu State, Nigeria, between August 2010 and July 2013. Methodology: Plantain peels and infected bark of the stump of a tree were collected for fungi isolation. A 1 g sample each was weighed separately and added to 10 ml distilled water, 1 ml of each of the diluents was plated out on Emerson’s yeast phosphate soluble starch (YPSs) medium. After growth, colonies were picked and subcultured several times for purity. The isolates were characterized and identified based on colony morphology and microscopic examination. They were later screened for amylase and cellulase activities by growing them on various concentrations of starch and carboxymethyl cellulose Results: Amylolytic and cellulosic fungi were isolated from plantain peels and infected bark of a tree. The isolates were identified as Rhizopus and Fusarium sp and they were able to produce amylase and cellulase simultaneously. The enzyme activities were determined on various concentrations of starch and carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC) in liquid medium. At 2 % starch + 0 % CMC, enzymes activities were 127.44 U/ml and 144.59 U/ml glucoamylase and 356.43 U/ml and 263.63 U/ml cellulase for Rhizopus and Fusarium sp respectively. When the organisms were grown on a solid medium (koji) supplemented with various concentrations of CMC, there was an increase in cellulase activities as CMC increased. Cellulase activity of 1902.02 U/g was recorded by Rhizopus sp at 1.5 g CMC supplementation and 1481.18 U/g was from Fusarium sp at 1 g CMC supplementation, but highest glucoamylase activities of 322.68 U/g and 302.12 U/g were recorded for Rhizopus and Fusarium spp respectively at 1 g CMC supplementation. Glucoamylase activities were not significantly affected by CMC supplementation in solid state culture. Conclusion: The result of the study showed that the isolates were able to produce amylase and cellulase enzymes in appreciable quantities and therefore can find usefulness in industrial application of these enzymes.
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