Asian Journal of Biotechnology and Bioresource Technology

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EISSN : 2457-0125
Published by: Sciencedomain International (10.9734)
Total articles ≅ 141
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A. C. Onumajuru, J. N. Ogbulie, C. O. Nweke
Asian Journal of Biotechnology and Bioresource Technology pp 52-61; https://doi.org/10.9734/ajb2t/2021/v7i430109

Abstract:
The molecular characterization and toxicity of Cadmium (Cd), Lead (Pb), Zinc (Zn), Chromium (Cr) and Copper (Cu) quinary mixtures on Enterobacter cloacae isolate from Nworie River was investigated. Quinary mixtures of the heavy metals were compounded using fixed ratio (%); and inhibitory effect assessed using inhibition of total dehydrogenase as toxicity response. The mixtures consisted of five heavy metals in the ratios: Pb (20%) + Cr (20%) + Cd (20%) + Zn (20%) + Cu (20%), Pb (30%) + Cr (20%) + Cd (10%) + Zn (30%) + Cu (10%). Pb (10%) + Cr (10%) + Cd (30%) + Zn (40%) + Cu (10%), Pb (15%) + Cr (25%) + Cd (25%) + Zn (15%) + Cu (20%), Pb (40%) + Cr (15%) + Cd (5%) + Zn (20%) + Cu(20%). Result obtained showed that toxicity of the metals against the bacterium ranked in the order Cu > Cr >Zn > Pb > Cd. The quinary mixtures Pb (20%) + Cr (20%) + Cd (20%) + Zn (20%) + Cu (20%), Pb (30%) + Cr (20%) + Cd (10%) + Zn (30%) + Cu (10%) and 10%Pb + 10%Cr + 30%Cd + 40%Zn + 10%Cu showed synergistic interaction, while 15%Pb + 25%Cr + 25%Cd + 15%Zn + 20%Cu and 40%Pb + 15%Cr + 5%Cd + 20%Zn + 20%Cu mixtures were antagonistic and additive respectively. Threshold inhibitory concentration (IC50) of the quinary mixtures was 0.054 ± 0.005mM, 0.053 ± 0.002 mM, 0.038 ± 0.002 mM, 0.077 ± 0.007 mM and 0.058 ± 0.006 mM for the respective mixtures. The toxic index values evaluated for the mixtures exhibited antagonistic, synergistic and additive interaction in the various ratios. The 16S rRNA and ITSF1 sequences obtained of the isolate showed the phylogenetic placement of the 16S rRNA of the isolate was closely related to Enterobacter cloacae strain DL01 (MH168084). The heavy metals mixtures demonstrated diverse toxicity interaction on the isolate depending on their relative composition, thus poses a threat to aquatic microbial diversity.
, G. A. Pallavi, Nayak N. Swathi, Jawali D. Ashita
Asian Journal of Biotechnology and Bioresource Technology pp 39-51; https://doi.org/10.9734/ajb2t/2021/v7i430108

Abstract:
Over the past 35 years, synthetic or semi-synthetic polymers called “plastics” have been widely used across multiple fields due to their low cost, versatility, durability. Plastics have proved to be a boon to mankind. However, overuse of non- biodegradable plastics comes with its own downsides. Despite constant efforts to reuse and recycle plastics, these polymers substantially contribute towards the accumulation of debris hazardous to the environment. Plastic materials are slowly broken into fragments of micro- and nano plastics due to aging and weathering. Micro- and nano plastics were found capable of entering the food chain and hence are viewed as threats. This review paper revolves around methods used for the detection and quantification of micro- and nano plastics. Detection of micro- and nano plastics using methods like Raman spectroscopy, Infrared Spectroscopy, SERS, MALDI-TOF, and machine learning approaches are discussed here. The research efforts carried out in this article aims to further facilitate the R&D initiatives of Jozbiz Technologies.
Noël Mervie Mbiada Tchamba, Bouba Adji Mohammadou, Majesté Pahane, Justine Maiwore,
Asian Journal of Biotechnology and Bioresource Technology pp 25-38; https://doi.org/10.9734/ajb2t/2021/v7i430107

Abstract:
Recent data show that the containers traditionally used for fermentation, due to their nature, exchange with the fermented product, the consequence being a modification of the physico-chemical, microbiological and organoleptic properties of these products. The objective of this work is to study the influence of the fermentation vessel on the sensory, physicochemical, and microbial properties of kindirmou and pendidam, two traditional fermented milks from Adamawa - Cameroon. To this end, a descriptive test was used to generate the sensory properties of fermented milks in different containers, followed by biochemical (pH, titratable acidity, protein, sugar content, and total phenolic compounds) and microbiological analyses (total aerobic mesophilic flora, coliforms, lactic acid bacteria, yeasts and molds). Regarding sensory evaluation, samples of kindirmou and pendidam fermented in calabashes have a higher general acceptability than those fermented in plastic buckets and enamel plates. The total mesophilic flora and total coliforms were higher than the norm (≥ 6log10) for kindirmou and pendidam regardless of the fermentation vessel. The absence of yeasts and molds is noted in the samples of kindirmou, while they are found at very high levels in the samples of pendidam fermented in the calabash and in the enamel plates ((≥ 6log10). Fecal coliforms are absent in samples of kindirmou and pendidam fermented in the calabash, while they are found in samples fermented in plastic buckets and enamel plates. On the physicochemical level, the results obtained showed that the kindirmou fermented in the calabash had the highest soluble protein content (1.47 ± 0.04 g / 100 mL of milk) than those fermented in plastic bucket and enamel plates. The phenolic compounds are present only in the samples of milk fermented in the calabash and the average contents are 93.41 ± 3.04 mg / 100 mL of milk for kindirmou and 111.20 ± 2.01 mg / 100 mL for pendidam. To conclude, kindirmou and pendidam fermented in calabashes exhibit the best sensory and physicochemical characteristics, and are rich in bioactive compounds than those fermented in plastic buckets and enamel plates.
Dobgima John Fonmboh, Tembe Estella Fokunang, Ngwasiri Pride Ndasi, Noumo Thierry Ngangmou, Bayaga Herve, Bengyella Louis Tita, Kaba Christian Nubia, Tita Margaret Awah, Ejoh Richard Aba, Charles Ntungwen Fokunang
Asian Journal of Biotechnology and Bioresource Technology pp 11-24; https://doi.org/10.9734/ajb2t/2021/v7i430106

Abstract:
Orchids are well known for their beautiful exotic flowers, and food-flavoring products which make them a resource of great economic importance in the global horticultural and food industries. In Cameroon, orchids are particularly important for their tubers which are used for food and traditional medicine. Orchids are therefore of considerable economic importance, traded within and across the regions and out of the country. Few research works have reported for these orchids in Cameroon exploring mostly identification and taxonomy. It is therefore the responsibility and duty of the local population to valorize the tubers for national use based on their awareness of the hidden potentials for food and medicine. Many people will have eaten orchids without realizing, due to the countless products in international trade that contain the seeds of artificially propagated Vanilla orchids. However, this legal trade is only one example of orchids being used as ingredients in food and drink. One example is the trade in chikanda, a cake made from the ground tubers of terrestrial orchids and consumed in several countries in Central and East Africa. Another product made from the ground tubers of terrestrial species is salep, which is used as an ingredient in hot drinks and ice cream and consumed mainly in Turkey and neighboring countries. The high exploitation with no biodiversity and conservation strategic plan by indigenes is a call for concern about the sustainability as future existence of these wild edible orchids is highly threatened; reason why orchids are on the international red list. This paper reviews the ethnobotanical and medicinal uses of orchid roots and tubers with a focus on Cameroon. The review highlights some of the areas that require more focus in terms of research and policy interventions, namely identification of all edible orchids, domestication of edible orchids, and trade controls. Focusing on Cameroon, this paper reviews and examines the edible root and tuber orchids developments based on information from some of the work that has been done in Cameroon, the ethnobotanic, ethnopharmacological and medicinal uses of these orchids.
, U. Nwachi OkeChukwu, A. Ndubuisi Ifeanyi, C. Amadi Onyetugo
Asian Journal of Biotechnology and Bioresource Technology pp 1-10; https://doi.org/10.9734/ajb2t/2021/v7i430105

Abstract:
In this work different ways of optimally producing bioethanol at various pH with thermotolerant yeasts and their cocultures using a non-human edible starchy food as feedstock was examined. African wild cocoyam, Xanthosoma roseum, sourced from abandoned farmlands in Obukpa, Nsukka, Nigeria was used as the substrate, while strains of Kluyveromyces marxianus and Pichia stipitis were used to ferment them. First the tubers were gelatinized by boiling under pressure above 100oC before hydrolysis with concentrated H2SO4. The hydrolysates were then fermented at 35oC with the thermotolerant yeasts for five days at different pH. Results obtained showed that gelatinized sample of the substrate gave optimum glucose yield when hydrolysed with 1M H2SO4 for 60 minutes. Kluyveromyces marxianus produced more ethanol than Pichia stipitis at all the four fermentation pH values tested. However, optimum ethanol production was obtained when the two yeast strains were used as coculture at pH 4.5. The peak time for ethanol production was 96 hours for the individual yeast cultures while that of their coculture was 72 hours. The results of the study indicated that wild cocoyam is an excellent feedstock for bioethanol production with many advantages including being non-edible, thereby eliminating concerns for food security, and containing high amount of carbohydrate. The study also revealed that fermenting sugar hydrolysates with a coculture of microorganisms during bioethanol production is a more efficient process than using individual cultures.
Asian Journal of Biotechnology and Bioresource Technology pp 56-63; https://doi.org/10.9734/ajb2t/2021/v7i330104

Abstract:
In these days, preparation of eco-friendly wood surface coating agents has become important topic for environmental concerns. In this study, an alternative surface coating formulations was prepared with adducts of oils of apricot kernel (A), sesame (S) and grape seed (G) were mixed with oil modified alkyd-based synthetic varnish system. These emulsions were applied on Rowan (Sorbus torminalis) wood and exposed artificial UV irradiation. However, all emulsion coated samples show lower water sorptions regardless of conditions or level of treatments. Increasing adduct charges from 5.0% to 10% have not considerably effects for water sorptions. The reducing water sorption properties of 35.5%, 35.2% and 39.4% were obtained with 10% sesame oil-varnish coated samples of 10Sı and 10 Sıı in one- and two-time coatings and three-times coated samples of 5Sııı in 5.0% sesame oil-varnish emulsion coatings, respectively. Moreover, selected oil adducts into varnish had one and two point lowering effects on coated surface hardness (in 4H-5H levels). The UV exposure seems to not much influence on surface hardness properties. The similar tendency were also observed for cross-cut resistance that marginally similar adhesion (scratch resistance) for both control and UV exposured samples. Increasing coatings and charge of apricot kernel oil in varnish emulsion looks like more effective than other varnish formulations, in terms of gloss stability. However, increasing adducts charges and UV radiation time, have more less similar effects on all coated and UV irradiated samples.
, Annick Manuela Bengue Baomog, Raissa Hermine Hell, Hippolyte Tene Mouafo, Maxwell Wandji Nguedjo, Alex Dimitri Kamgain Tchuenchieu, Gabriel Nama Medoua
Asian Journal of Biotechnology and Bioresource Technology pp 43-55; https://doi.org/10.9734/ajb2t/2021/v7i330103

Abstract:
Fufu is among the most consumed traditional dishes derived from cassava in Cameroon. However, the processing of cassava into flour used in the preparation of fufu, the home storage of that flour and the cooking practices might lead to microbial contamination and hence constitute a potential health risk for consumers. The aim of this study was to diagnose the cooking systems of fufu in the city of Yaoundé taking into consideration the processing of granules, its storage systems and the cooking practices. A cross-sectional study was conducted in the city of Yaoundé. A total of 74 participants were submitted to a survey by the means of a structured questionnaire. Information on the socio-demographic characteristics of the population, the nature and quality of raw material used to cook fufu, the cooking processes, the storage of cooked fufu and complaints associated with the consumption of fufu were collected and statistically analyzed. Results showed that the majority of participants were women (82.4%) with university education level (73%). Most of the participants preferred granules of fermented cassava as raw material. The odor was the main purchasing criteria of raw materials which were generally stored at room temperature (25±2°C) in the household for 1 to 2 weeks. 76.05% of participants were aware of the impact of microorganisms on the color and odor of the raw material. Two cooking processes of fufu were identified, the heating duration being the main difference. The majority of participants used a heating duration of less than 15 min as it leads to slightly rigid, less elastic and not sticky fufu highly appreciated in the Centre and Sud regions of Cameroon. Leftovers fufu eaten by participants without any heating process and leftovers fufu reheated for a short duration before being consumed might be the causes of digestive troubles associated with its consumption. Prospective studies should be conducted to optimize the cooking process of fufu taking into consideration its microbiological (sporulated microflora) and sensorial quality.
, B. B. Adamu, O. J. Asake, S. S. Leh-Togi Zobeashia
Asian Journal of Biotechnology and Bioresource Technology pp 36-42; https://doi.org/10.9734/ajb2t/2021/v7i330102

Abstract:
COVID-19 pandemic movement restrictions as part of the control measures put in place by countries in Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) has implications on many sectors which include very high costs of importing materials owing to high exchange rates as well as non- availability of microbial cultures for food/ industrial productions, medical/academic research and applications because of fear of new microbial infections and bio-terrorism. Overcoming these challenges in SSA requires developing better policies and packages to confront the challenges by way of rebooting their strategies and policies for sustainable economic growth through reawakening the potentials they have. The maintenance and production of reliable pure microbial cultures with desirable quality is a key operation and is the first significant stage in the success of fungal applications in any scientific venture where they are used. For many years the process of freeze-drying (lyophilisation) has been employed primarily with the purpose of preserving living materials, including microorganisms, for extended periods of time; this is possible because, upon dehydration, substances no longer change as a consequence of the usual turnover of metabolic reactions characteristic of the living condition. This study assessed lyophilization (freeze drying) of some indigenous filamentous fungal cultures (Spores) using skim milk and honey (supports being maize and cassava flours) as the protectants and then critically compared the two protective media for the preservation of active filamentous fungi spores for the first time, and from the data obtained, their applications were optimised. Some fungal isolates(Aspergillus sp., Mucor sp., Penicillum sp., Fusarium sp., Rhizopus sp., Cladosporium sp. Alternaria sp. and Geotricum sp.) previously purified and identified were obtained from the Products Development Unit, National Biotechnology Development Agency, Abuja, Nigeria and were re-validated where their viability and purity were confirmed. The samples were Freeze Dried in the respective medium and monitored immediately after. After the freeze‐drying, the residual water contents were between 0.20-0.32%, 0.39-0.49% and 0.33-0.41%, respectively, with skim milk, Honey with Cassava Starch and honey with Maize Starch. The driedspore viabilities were between 96% (Aspergillus spores in Reconstituted Skim Milk) and 21% (Geotricum spores in Honey with Cassava Starch. Among the protective agents used, skim milk was found to be the best protectant.Each fungal isolate was considered viable if the rate of growth present was the same as that of the original culture and if the morphology of the colony matched the fungal identification documented for each species. All lyophilized fungal species were found viable from both type of lyophilized materials, skim milk and honey and showed the initial colony characteristics and growth rates.
Hasanka Madubashetha, Ruwini Cooray, P. D. S. U. Wickramasinghe, Lakshan Warnakula,
Asian Journal of Biotechnology and Bioresource Technology pp 11-35; https://doi.org/10.9734/ajb2t/2021/v7i330101

Abstract:
Cathepsin K (CatK), encoded by CtsK gene in human, is involved in bone remodeling through ossification. The objective of the work conducted here was to express catalytic domains of CtsK gene in bacterial expression system as an initial step, facilitating recombinant production of human CatK for downstream applications in pharmacology. Four healthy human blood samples were collected. Genomic DNA was extracted using FlexiGene® whole blood DNA extraction kit. Upon quantification of DNA through NanodropTM spectrophotometer, sufficient quantity and quality was observed. CtsK gene was amplified by Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) using two pairs of primers tagged with restriction endonuclease sites of Sal1 and HindIII facilitating molecular cloning and visualized by Agarose Gel Electrophoresis (AGE). Two different bands of size 545bp and 265bp were observed. The bands were dissected and gel purified using GenaxxonTM gel purification kit and sequentially double digested by restriction enzymes; SalI and HindIII. Vector PBS was also subjected to sequential double digestion using same enzymes and visualized via AGE. Double digested insert of size 265bp and vector were ligated using T4 DNA Ligase (all enzymes from PromegaTM). On another trail, ligation of the PCR product with band size 265bp to pGEM-TTM easy vector system (from PromegaTM) was also done and transformed to Top10 Escherichia coli competent cells for expression separately. Cells were grown in LB media in presence of XGAL, IPTG and Ampicillin and transformed cells were screened. In the restriction enzyme digestion and ligation setup, since the insert and vector were both double digested, it is confirmed that white colonies obtained were Escherichia coli cells were transformed with the desired recombinant vector and is therefore confirmatory. In the case of pGEM-TTM ligation, a colony PCR was done using the white colonies obtained and product size was confirmed via AGE. In conclusion, the objective of study was successfully achieved, by expressing a catalytic domain of CtsK. Developments and improvements could be made for expression of entire CatK gene and downstream production of the Cathepsin K protein for effective therapeutic purpose.
, Toluwase Hezekiah Fatoki
Asian Journal of Biotechnology and Bioresource Technology pp 1-10; https://doi.org/10.9734/ajb2t/2021/v7i330100

Abstract:
Background: Sweet potato tubers are invaluable crop that could serve both dietary and industrial purposes owing to its high β-amylase content. β-amylases play essential role in plant carbohydrate metabolism as well as in many industrial applications such as the malting process in the brewing and distilling industries. Aim: This study aims at better understanding of the evolutionary and molecular properties, and structural dynamics of β-amylase of sweet potato using in silico approach. Methodology: 16 of the 250 sequences that are at least 69% identity to the query sequence (P10537) were manually selected from UniProt database for further analysis. Result: It has theoretical isoelectric point of 4.97 and molecular weight of 56 kDa. The root-mean-square fluctuation (RMSF) of sweet potato β-amylase showed possible conservation of the amino acid residues 105-130 and 260-345, with highest fluctuation in C-terminal loop (residues 443-498). The catalytic role of Glu187 and Thr344 in β-amylase of sweet potato has been elucidated, and it provided the missing link in the previously available mechanisms, while Cys96 is essential for the inactivation of enzyme activity. Conclusion: Elucidation of molecular mechanisms of expression and catalytic activity, together with the understanding of physicochemical properties of β-amylase from sweet potato will help in development of useful applications that are of industrial importance.
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