Annals of Dermatology

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ISSN / EISSN : 1013-9087 / 2005-3894
Total articles ≅ 2,969
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Annals of Dermatology, Volume 33, pp 68-72; https://doi.org/10.5021/ad.2021.33.1.68

Abstract:
Hidradenitis suppurativa (HS) is a chronic recurrent inflammatory condition presenting with painful, deep-seated abscesses and sinus tracts in multifocal locations. Rarely, long-standing inflammation in HS may lead to serious complications, such as cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) (also termed Marjolin ulcer). Herein, we report a case of invasive cutaneous SCC arising from chronic ulcers of a HS patient. A 40-year old Korean male, a current smoker with 20 pack-year history, presented with a history of painful, recurrent, deep-seated abscesses and ulcers on the buttocks since his late teens, thus classified as Hurley stage III. A large purulent ulcer developed on the right buttock several months ago. Initial treatment was focused on controlling infection and facilitating wound healing. The lesion showed 50% reduction of size in 6 weeks, but also developed foul odor and showed fungating margins. Multiple skin biopsies were consistent with invasive SCC. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed a few enlarged lymph nodes on the right inguinal area, which was confirmed as metastasis on frozen biopsy. Slow Mohs micrographic surgery and radical right inguinal lymph node dissection was done. Incidence rates of SCC arising from HS have been reported up to 4.6%. To our knowledge, this is the first report of cutaneous SCC arising from HS in Korea. Our case emphasizes that the diagnosis of cutaneous SCC in HS should not be delayed, and early surgical intervention is crucial for better outcomes.
Hae Seok Park, , Mi Yeon Cho, ,
Annals of Dermatology, Volume 33, pp 18-25; https://doi.org/10.5021/ad.2021.33.1.18

Abstract:
Acral melanoma occurs on glabrous skin or the nail apparatus and is distinct from ultraviolet-related melanoma due to differing genetic alteration patterns. Although the pathogenesis of acral melanoma is not well understood, mechanical stress is thought to induce acral melanoma. The incidence of gene mutation and promoter methylation has been reported in tumors from acral melanoma; however, an association between genetic/epigenetic alterations and mechanical stress in acral melanoma remains unclear. To investigate the relationship between clinical/genetic factors and mechanical stress in acral melanoma. A retrospective review of 52 patients diagnosed with acral melanoma was performed. We reviewed the clinical characteristics of patients, tumor status, and tumor location. Mutations in BRAF, NRAS, and the TERT promoter, along with KIT amplification and PTEN promoter methylation were analyzed in the tumors. The heel (34/52, 65.4%) was the most common anatomical tumor site. Mutations in BRAF (6/48, 12.5%), NRAS (6/49, 12.2%), and the TERT promoter (4/33, 12.1%), along with KIT amplification (3/37, 8.1%) and PTEN promoter hypermethylation (12/48, 25.0%) were observed in the tumors. On the forefoot, heel, and hallux, PTEN promoter hypermethylation was significantly associated with Breslow thickness (p=0.001) and ulceration rate (p=0.042). On the midfoot and lesser toes, there was no significant difference in Breslow thickness or ulceration rate regardless of PTEN promoter hypermethylation (p>0.05). PTEN promoter hypermethylation is associated with Breslow thickness and tumor ulceration on the forefoot, heel, and hallux in acral melanoma in Korean patients.
Yi Zhou, Minglong Cai, ,
Annals of Dermatology, Volume 33, pp 61-67; https://doi.org/10.5021/ad.2021.33.1.61

Abstract:
Psoriasis vulgaris is a chronic inflammatory skin disease which occur at any age. It can be clinically classified into two age-onset subtypes: early-onset psoriasis (EOP; <40 years) and late-onset psoriasis (LOP; ≥40 years). More evidence showed EOP and LOP have different genetic architecture, notably the risk allele human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-C*06:02 located within the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) region, which was reported to be the outstanding variant associated with EOP. However, genetic structure of EOP and LOP have not been fully elucidated. To investigated HLA genetic heterogeneity between EOP and LOP in China. We first calculated the MHC-based heritability of EOP and LOP respectively. Then, we conducted a large-scale, stratified analysis including 7,097 EOP, 1,337 LOP patients, and 9,906 healthy controls by using MHC target sequencing data from a previous study. We observed that HLA alleles collectively explained a larger heritability of EOP (27.4%) than LOP (11.3%). Further association analysis identified three independent loci (HLA-C*01:02, p=6.70×10−8; HLA-A amino acid position 9, p=3.27×10−17; and HLA-A amino acid position 161, p=5.75×10−10) that confer specific susceptibility to EOP. Our data also confirmed HLA-C*06:02 as an independent psoriasis-associated variant, contributing a higher degree of risk to EOP than LOP. Moreover, case-case analysis confirmed that HLA-C*06:02-positive psoriasis patients have earlier onset. Our analysis indicating that different genetic background underlie the EOP and LOP. We believe these findings will serve to predict psoriasis risk in the future and facilitate clinical decision.
Minjeong Kim, Guk Jin Jeong, Ji Yeon Hong, , ,
Annals of Dermatology, Volume 33, pp 116-121; https://doi.org/10.5021/ad.2021.33.2.116

Abstract:
Recent studies have revealed that particulate matter induces inflammation, oxidative stress, and several skin diseases. Experimental results have also shown that negative air ions are highly effective in removing particulate matter-induced inflammation. The present study aimed to investigate whether negative air ions can inhibit inflammatory responses and reduce oxidative stress in HaCaT cells exposed to particulate matters. HaCaT cells were treated with particulate matter in the presence or absence of negative air ions and the viability was evaluated by the MTT assay. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation was quantified by the dichlorodihydrofluorescein diacetate assay. The expression of genes and proteins was analyzed by real-time polymerase chain reaction and Western blot. Levels of inflammatory cytokines were quantified by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Negative air ions were observed to downregulate the mRNA and protein levels of particulate matter-induced pro-inflammatory cytokines in HaCaT cells. In addition, negative air ion treatment suppressed particulate matter-induced intracellular ROS generation, p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase activation, and activator protein 1 (c-Fos and c-Jun) activation. Our findings indicate that negative air ions exert anti-inflammatory and antioxidant effects in HaCaT cells exposed to particulate matter. Therefore, negative air ions can be used for the prevention and treatment of particulate matter-related inflammatory skin diseases.
Min Seok Hur, Ji Su Lee, Minsu Jang, ,
Annals of Dermatology, Volume 33, pp 163-169; https://doi.org/10.5021/ad.2021.33.2.163

Abstract:
Atopic dermatitis (AD) has been clarified that imbalance of bacterial and fungal communities in the skin and gut play key roles in immunologic dysfunction. Atopic keratoconjunctivitis (AKC), one of severe ophthalmic manifestation of AD, could be related with dysbiosis as same as AD. In this case-control study, the roles of conjunctival microbial communities in AKC were evaluated by a comparative analysis with healthy controls (HCs). 16S rRNA sequencing was used to construct libraries of compositional information for a total of 30 volunteers including 20 patients with AKC and 10 HCs. In the results, variation in the conjunctival taxonomic composition was higher in patients with AKC than in the HC group. In an analysis of relative abundance at the genus level, some taxa significantly differed between groups, including Ralstonia, Staphylococcus, Pseudomonas, Proteus, Haemophilus, and Bifidobacterium (p<0.05). Beta diversity was significantly higher in patients with AKC than in HCs (PERMANOVA, p=0.004). The results indicated that the diversity and composition of the microbiome differs between patients with AKC and HCs.
Annals of Dermatology, Volume 33, pp 147-153; https://doi.org/10.5021/ad.2021.33.2.147

Abstract:
Longitudinal melanonychia (LM) is a common clinical finding. Most cases of LM are benign, and a wait-and-see approach is preferred in the management of this condition. Nevertheless, it is important for clinicians to distinguish subungual melanoma (SUM) from other benign LMs. To evaluate the demographic and clinicopathologic characteristics of LM in the Korean population and to identify the predictor of SUM against other benign conditions. This was a single-center retrospective cohort study including patients who underwent nail biopsy for LM from January 2000 to May 2019. To identify the predictor of SUM, receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analyses was performed. A total of 68 cases of biopsy-proven LM were included in the analysis. Among the 68 cases, 8 were SUM. In univariable analysis, patients diagnosed with SUM were older (p=0.035) and had a longer disease duration (p=0.004). They also showed multicolor pigmentation of LM (p=0.022), a larger width of LM (p28% of the whole nail was the predictor of SUM (area under the curve=0.883; p<0.001). SUM has distinct demographic and clinical features. The width of LM can predict SUM against other benign LMs.
Annals of Dermatology, Volume 33, pp 122-130; https://doi.org/10.5021/ad.2021.33.2.122

Abstract:
Interleukin (IL)-19 and IL-20 are important members of the IL-10 cytokine family, which are known to play a role in inflammatory processes. Both anti-IL-19 and -IL-20 targeting drugs have been suggested in the treatment of inflammatory diseases such as psoriasis and rheumatoid arthritis. Recently, we presented I-kappa-B-zeta (IκBζ) as a key player in psoriasis by identifying IκBζ as a regulator of IL-17/tumor necrosis factor (TNF)α-inducible psoriasis-associated genes and proteins. Some of these genes were synergistically regulated by IL-17/TNFα. The purpose of this study was to explore the role of IκBζ in the regulation of IL-17A/TNFα-mediated induction of IL-19 and IL-20 expression in human keratinocytes. In vitro experiments with cultured primary humane keratinocytes were conducted and investigated by quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR), Western blotting, ELISA and EMSA. For statistics, a one- or two- way repeated-measures analysis of variance (RM ANOVA) or the Friedman test (a nonparametric equivalent to the RM ANOVA) were conducted. We demonstrated that IL-19 and IL-20 mRNA and protein expressions were synergistically induced by IL-17A and TNFα, whereas IL-17A and TNFα alone had only a minor effect on the IL-19 and IL-20 expression. Moreover, we demonstrated IκBζ to be a regulator of this synergistic induction of IL-19 and IL-20. Finally, the IL-17A/TNFα-induced synergistic induction of IL-19 and IL-20 expression was found to be mediated by a p38 MAPK-, NF-κB- and JNK1/2-dependent mechanism. This study demonstrates that IκBζ plays a role in the IL-17A/TNFα-mediated synergistic induction of IL-19 and IL-20 in humane keratinocytes.
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