Vascular Health and Risk Management

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ISSN / EISSN : 1176-6344 / 1178-2048
Published by: Informa UK Limited (10.2147)
Total articles ≅ 1,314
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Ya-Chi Cheng, Yi-Chun Kuo, Pei-Chi Chang, Ya-Ching Li, Wan-Ting Huang, Wei Chen,
Vascular Health and Risk Management, pp 389-394; doi:10.2147/vhrm.s305490

Background: The World Health Organization (WHO) proposed the integrated care for older people (ICOPE) screening tool to identify functional impairment. We explore the association of geriatric functional impairment and hypertension, diabetes, dyslipidemia in the community-dwelling elderly. Methods: We enrolled individuals aged at least 65 with hypertension, diabetes, or dyslipidemia; or those aged at least 75 from May to July 2019. We applied ICOPE tools to evaluate six function assessments: cognitive decline, limited mobility, malnutrition, visual impairment, hearing loss, and depressive symptoms. Factors were analyzed using stepwise multivariable linear regression for ICOPE scores and logistic regression for geriatric functional impairment. All analyses were adjusted for age and glomerular filtration rate. Results: We enrolled 457 participants including 303 (66.3%) participants with hypertension, 296 (64.8%) diabetes, and 221 (48.4%) dyslipidemia. Seventy-eight (17.1%) participants have at least one geriatric functional impairment, including 41 (25.9%) participants aged ≥ 75 and 37 (12.4%) aged 65– 74. The ICOPE score (0.4 ± 0.6) of participants aged at least 75 was higher than that (0.1 ± 0.4) of the participants aged 65– 74 (p Conclusion: Dyslipidemia but not hypertension, diabetes is linked to geriatric functional impairment in community-dwelling elderly. Lower renal function is associated with decreased mobility and nutrition. More studies are needed to determine if treatment of dyslipidemia reduces geriatric functional impairment.
Douglas Poschinger-Figueiredo, , , Claudia Salvador Amorim, Cristiane Ferreira de Araujo Gomes, Cristina Ribeiro Riguetti-Pinto, Monica Rochedo Mayall, Leonardo Silveira de Castro, Felipe Borges Fagundes
Published: 1 July 2021
by 10.2147
Vascular Health and Risk Management, pp 379-387; doi:10.2147/vhrm.s313282

Objective: This study assessed the outcomes and impact on the quality of life following one-step outpatient radiofrequency ablation (RFA) and ultrasound guided foam sclerotherapy (USGFS) for large reflux with varicosities in the great saphenous vein (GSV). Design: Prospective, single-centre, analytical cohort. Materials and Methods: Thirty symptomatic patients having reflux in the GSV and varicosities (CEAP C3 to C6) were treated with RFA and USGFS simultaneously, in a single-step procedure, from March 2016 to December 2016. They were followed up at 1 week, 6 months, 1 and 3 years. Clinical outcomes, changes in the Quality of Life (QOL) questionnaires SF-36™, VCSS and AVVQ, evolutive vein occlusion rates were assessed by duplex ultrasound, and ulcer closure was checked. Results: The sample was divided into two groups: (Group 1) GSV diameter ≥ 13.0 mm (median 19.0 [14– 24]), 17 subjects, and (Group 2) GSV diameter ≤ 12.9 mm (median 10.3 [10– 12]), 16 subjects. No major adverse event was observed, and the postoperative minor adverse event rates were similar between the two groups. A significant improvement was observed in VCSS and AVVQ from the preoperative levels to the sixth month and the third-year follow-up. Twelve of 13 ulcers had healed at 1 year and remained closed until 3 years. The entire sample had a significant increase in all short form 36 domains, except for mental health in the Group 2 (GSV ≥ 13.0 mm). Overall first week occlusion rate for the whole sample was 90.9% and 69.7% at the 3-year follow-up. No difference in occlusion rate was observed between the two groups at any time. Conclusion: Exclusively outpatient combined techniques were safe and feasible in this study with no major adverse events, despite the large diameters of the GSV or ulcer presence. Within 3 years, both diameter groups showed equivalent improvement in all QOL parameters, satisfactory axial occlusion, and maintained ulcer closure.
Alexander Lupilov, Dietmar Krause, Renate Klaassen-Mielke, ,
Vascular Health and Risk Management, pp 421-429; doi:10.2147/vhrm.s307675

Purpose: The common definition of asymptomatic peripheral artery disease (PAD) by a single determination of the ankle brachial index (ABI) has some uncertainty due to measurement errors. This may impact estimates of PAD incidence and assessment of PAD risk factors. To investigate this issue, we used three methods to define asymptomatic PAD and made use of data from the German Epidemiological Trial on Ankle Brachial Index (getABI). Patients and Methods: A total of 6,880 unselected subjects aged ≥ 65 years, enrolled by 344 trained general practitioners, had ABI assessments at baseline and four visits during follow-up. The first approach defined asymptomatic PAD onset as soon as a single ABI value was below 0.9 (single ABI). The second approach employed a regression method using all available ABI values (regression A), while for the third approach (regression B), an extended regression beyond the last valid ABI value for the observation time of the study was allowed. For each approach, we calculated PAD incidence rates and assessed the effect of important PAD predictors using multivariable Cox proportional hazards regression. Results: The regression method A showed the lowest (25.0 events per 1,000 person years) and the single ABI method the highest incidence rate (41.2). The regression methods assigned greater impact to several risk factors of incident PAD. Using regression A, the hazard ratios (HR) of active smoking (2.36; 95% CI 1.92 to 2.90) and of diabetes (1.33; 95% CI 1.13 to 1.56), using regression B the HR of older age (1.72; 95% CI 1.50 to 1.97) were about twice as high as the corresponding HR of the single ABI approach. Conclusion: Use of the single ABI method leads to higher PAD incidence rates and to lower impact of important PAD predictors compared to regression methods. For an alert risk factor management, multiple ABI determination may be useful.
, Bernd Sanner
Vascular Health and Risk Management, pp 407-414; doi:10.2147/vhrm.s317859

Purpose: Atrial fibrillation (AF) is the most common arrhythmia and is associated with an increased risk of complications. A screening test has the potential to prevent AF-related complications. This study investigated the diagnostic accuracy of an automated device for home blood pressure (BP) monitoring, which implements an algorithm for AF detection. Patients and Methods: A modified, automated oscillometric device for home BP monitoring (Omron BP785N (HEM-7321-Z), Omron Healthcare) with an AF detector was used to measure the BP in patients. During each BP measurements, the electrocardiogram (ECG) was recorded simultaneously. Simultaneous BP measurements and ECG recordings were obtained from 99 subjects. Results: Twenty out of 20 patients with atrial fibrillation were correctly recognized by the device and the device correctly identified 67 patients with sinus rhythm as “Not-AF”. On the other hand, 12 patients with basic rhythm: sinus rhythm were incorrectly referred to as “atrial fibrillation”. In summary, the device has a diagnostic accuracy of 87.88% with a sensitivity of 100% and a specificity of 84.8%. On the other hand, in 23 patients, the raw data of the device showed that a body movement occurred during the measurement of the blood pressure. If these subjects were excluded of the analysis, then the diagnostic accuracy of the device would be even better, namely 90.79%. The sensitivity would be 100% and the specificity 89.5%. Conclusion: These data suggest that an automated device for home blood pressure has an excellent diagnostic accuracy for detecting an AF and could be used as a reliable screening test for early diagnosis of atrial fibrillation. Body movements have an impact of the accuracy and specificity of a blood pressure monitor.
Vascular Health and Risk Management, pp 395-405; doi:10.2147/vhrm.s314951

Deep vein thrombosis (DVT) is common among the severely injured and may lead to pulmonary embolism (PE), which can be life threatening. Thromboprophylaxis may reduce the incidence of venous thromboembolism (VTE); it does not guarantee complete protection. This study’s primary aim was to determine the incidence and nature of lower-limb DVT in polytrauma patients taking prophylaxis. The secondary objective was to assess the incidence of DVT-related complications, including the development of PE and death. This prospective observational study included patients age 18 years or older who presented with polytrauma directly from the scene and were admitted into the trauma unit between March 1, 2020 and August 31, 2020. All patients underwent lower-limb ultrasound during their hospital course to diagnose DVT. A total of 169 patients underwent extremity Doppler ultrasound to detect DVT. Of these, 69 patients (40.8%) were considered at the highest-risk for VTE development. For VTE prophylaxis, 115 patients (68%) received pharmacologic agents, and 54 patients (32%) had intermittent pneumatic compression on admission. Three patients (1.8%) developed DVT despite prophylaxis. Four patients (2.4%) developed PE during the index presentation and were diagnosed between days 3 and 13 after injury. Early DVT was not detected in any patients with diagnosed PE. Overall, nine patients (5.33%) died, but no in-hospital deaths were related to DVT and/or PE. The incidence of DVT in polytrauma patients remains low in our small series, perhaps because of the mandatory VTE risk assessment for all hospitalized patients and the early initiation of prophylaxis. Using a trauma center registry to measure DVT and PE incidence regularly is recommended to improve trauma care quality.
, Sanaa Mrabeti
Vascular Health and Risk Management, pp 337-348; doi:10.2147/vhrm.s285907

β-blockers are a heterogeneous class of drugs, with varying selectivity/specificity for β1 vs β2 receptors, intrinsic sympathomimetic activity (ISA), and vasodilatory properties (through β2 stimulation, α receptor blockade or nitric oxide release). These drugs are indicated for the management of arterial hypertension, heart failure or ischemic heart disease (IHD; eg angina pectoris or prior myocardial infarction). Most of the benefit of β-blockade in these conditions arises from blockade of the β1 receptor, and, in practice, the addition of ISA appears to reduce the potential for improved clinical outcomes in people with heart failure or IHD. Aspects of the benefit/risk balance of β-blockers remain controversial, and recent meta-analyses have shed new light on this issue. We have reviewed the current place of cardioselective β-blockade in hypertension, IHD and heart failure, with special reference to the therapeutic profile of a highly selective β1-adrenoceptor blocker, bisoprolol.
Vascular Health and Risk Management, pp 273-298; doi:10.2147/vhrm.s299357

COVID-19 sepsis is characterized by acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) as a consequence of pulmonary tropism of the virus and endothelial heterogeneity of the host. ARDS is a phenotype among patients with multiorgan dysfunction syndrome (MODS) due to disseminated vascular microthrombotic disease (VMTD). In response to the viral septicemia, the host activates the complement system which produces terminal complement complex C5b-9 to neutralize pathogen. C5b-9 causes pore formation on the membrane of host endothelial cells (ECs) if CD59 is underexpressed. Also, viral S protein attraction to endothelial ACE2 receptor damages ECs. Both affect ECs and provoke endotheliopathy. Disseminated endotheliopathy activates two molecular pathways: inflammatory and microthrombotic. The former releases inflammatory cytokines from ECs, which lead to inflammation. The latter initiates endothelial exocytosis of unusually large von Willebrand factor (ULVWF) multimers and FVIII from Weibel–Palade bodies. If ADAMTS13 is insufficient, ULVWF multimers activate intravascular hemostasis of ULVWF path. In activated ULVWF path, ULVWF multimers anchored to damaged endothelial cells recruit circulating platelets and trigger microthrombogenesis. This process produces “microthrombi strings” composed of platelet-ULVWF complexes, leading to endotheliopathy-associated VMTD (EA-VMTD). In COVID-19, microthrombosis initially affects the lungs per tropism causing ARDS, but EA-VMTD may orchestrate more complex clinical phenotypes, including thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura (TTP)-like syndrome, hepatic coagulopathy, MODS and combined micro-macrothrombotic syndrome. In this pandemic, ARDS and pulmonary thromboembolism (PTE) have often coexisted. The analysis based on two hemostatic theories supports ARDS caused by activated ULVWF path is EA-VMTD and PTE caused by activated ULVWF and TF paths is macrothrombosis. The thrombotic disorder of COVID-19 sepsis is consistent with the notion that ARDS is virus-induced disseminated EA-VMTD and PTE is in-hospital vascular injury-related macrothrombosis which is not directly related to viral pathogenesis. The pathogenesis-based therapeutic approach is discussed for the treatment of EA-VMTD with antimicrothrombotic regimen and the potential need of anticoagulation therapy for coinciding macrothrombosis in comprehensive COVID-19 care.
Rahul Chandra, Harneel Saini, Russell Cerejo, Ashis Tayal,
Vascular Health and Risk Management, pp 357-362; doi:10.2147/vhrm.s266968

Antiplatelet medications are the mainstay for secondary stroke treatment. Aspirin, clopidogrel, and aspirin-dipyridamole are commonly used antiplatelet medications. Other antiplatelet medications such as ticagrelor and prasugrel have been majorly used in cardiovascular or neuro-interventional specialties. Recent studies have paved a way to their use in secondary stroke prevention. In this review, we have briefly discussed the pharmacology of ticagrelor, published literature in cardiology and stroke trials, use of ticagrelor among patients with ischemic strokes, and compared its efficacy, limitations and side-effects with other antiplatelet medications.
Demlie Kassa Gedamu,
Vascular Health and Risk Management, pp 363-370; doi:10.2147/vhrm.s298138

Background: The leading preventable risk factor for premature death and disability worldwide is hypertension. Globally, 31.1% of adults (1.39 billion people) have hypertension and 9.4 million deaths are recorded annually, accounting for 13% of overall mortality. Objective: The objective of this study is to assess the prevalence of hypertension and associated factors among public servants in North Wollo Zone, Amhara Region, Ethiopia. Materials and Methods: An institutional-based cross-sectional study was conducted among 627 public servants. To classify candidate variables for multivariable logistic regression, a binary logistic regression model was applied. In order to analyze factors associated with hypertension among participants, all variables with a P-value< 0.2 were entered into the multivariable logistic regression model. In order to determine statistical significance, a p value of less than 0.05 was taken. The assumptions of Chi square and multi-collinearity were verified. For model fitness, the Hosmer–Lemeshow goodness-of-fit was checked. Results: The total hypertension rate was 27.6% (95% CI: 24.1– 31.3). The prevalence was higher in males 129 (32.5%) than in females 444 (19.1%). History of diabetes mellitus (AOR= 9.64, 95% CI: 3.20– 29.30), age > 35 years (AOR= 2.94, 95% CI: 1.91– 4.51) and body mass index 25kg/m2 and above (AOR= 3.44, 95% CI: 2.21– 5.34) have been found to be separately associated with hypertension. Conclusion and Recommendation: Among public servants in the study setting (study area), hypertension has become a major public health issue. Half of the newly reported cases is hypertensive. The conclusion of this study calls for a more holistic approach to hypertension in terms of hypertension prevention, screening, and proper management.
Heba Mostafa Ahmed, Emad El-Deen Ameen, Mohammad Shafiq Awad, Osama Ezzat Botrous
Vascular Health and Risk Management, pp 349-356; doi:10.2147/vhrm.s295868

Background: Children with nephrotic syndrome (NS) are at a greater risk of atherosclerosis due to recurrent exposures to hyperlipidemia, hypertension, and immunosuppressive medications. CIMT (carotid intima media thickness) is a reliable marker for assessment of atherosclerosis of large and medium-sized blood vessels; endothelial dysfunction and increased CIMT usually precede the development of cardiovascular diseases. Some manifestations of NS, like proteinuria and hyperlipidemia, are associated with an increased risk of cardiac morbidity and mortality. The aim of the current study was to evaluate the carotid intima media thickness and LVM (left ventricular mass) thickness in children with nephrotic syndrome. Subjects and Methods: Eighty-one children with nephrotic syndrome and 100 healthy children as controls were enrolled in the study. The inclusion criteria were: disease duration of minimum of 12 months, glomerular filtration rate > 60mL/min/1.73m 2 and children aged two years or more at the time of study. CIMT and left ventricular mass index, lipid profile, protein/creatinine ratio in urine and kidney function tests were done for cases and controls after approval of internal ethical committee. Results: The mean CIMT (mm) was significantly higher in NS (0.51± 0.12) compared to controls (0.42± 0.09) (P < 0.001). LVM and LVM Index were significantly higher in NS than controls (p< 0.001, for both). Subsequently, CIMT was significantly correlated to duration of the disease (p< 0.001), LVM index was significantly correlated with duration of the disease, body mass index (BMI), blood pressures and triglycerides level (p< 0.05). Conclusion: Children with NS are at increasing risk to develop atherosclerosis as measured by CIMT. LVM was significantly higher in NS and positively correlated to BP, disease duration, triglyceride levels and BMI.
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