Nutrition and Cancer
ISSN / EISSN : 0163-5581 / 1532-7914
Published by: Informa UK Limited (10.1080)
Total articles ≅ 4,261
Latest articles in this journal
Nutrition and Cancer pp 1-10; https://doi.org/10.1080/01635581.2021.1982995
To determine the association between fish intake and dietary polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) and incidence of lung cancer. We systematically reviewed and meta-analyzed all available studies to quantify the associations of fish and PUFA consumption with risk of lung cancer. Relative risk (RR) with 95% confidence interval (CI) was calculated. 13 population-based prospective cohort studies involving 1,785,000 participants and two randomized control trials were included. Our study demonstrated that dietary PUFA significant reduced risk of lung cancer for men (RR 0.99, 95%CI 0.98 to 1.00) and the U.S. population (RR 0.99, 95%CI 0.98 to 1.00). Dose-response analysis indicated that a 5 g/day increment of dietary PUFA was associated with 5% lower risk of lung cancer (RR 0.95, 95%CI 0.91 to 0.99). In addition, PUFA supplementation is significant improved overall survival in patients with lung cancer (RR 1.98, 95%CI 1.09 to 3.59). Our study showed an inverse association between dietary PUFA and risk of lung cancer in males and among the U.S. population. Although smoking cessation is the single biggest factor associated with lung cancer risk reduction, this study adds to a growing body of evidence that diet may have a role in modestly reducing lung cancer risk.
Nutrition and Cancer pp 1-10; https://doi.org/10.1080/01635581.2021.1990972
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are important epigenetic regulators in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC), with miR-31 being considered an oncomir and miR-375, a tumor suppressor miR, which are up- and down-regulated in HNSCC, respectively. Nutrients are known to influence miRNA expression; however, this association is poorly explored in HNSCC. This work aimed to identify associations between dietary intake and the expression of miR-31 and miR-375 in patients newly diagnosed with HNSCC. The expression of miR-31 was positively associated with the consumption of iron (β = 16.65) and vitamin C (β = 0.37), and inversely associated with total sugar (β = −0.88), cholesterol (β= −0.23), vitamin B9 (β= −0.37) and zinc (β = −5.66) intake. The expression of miR-375 was positively associated with the consumption of selenium (β = 1.52), vitamin C (β = 0.17) and vitamin D (β = 13.01), and inversely associated with the consumption of added sugar (β = −0.49), phosphorus (β= −0.27) and vitamin B12 (β = −10.80). Our findings showed important associations between dietary intake and miR-31 and miR-375 expression in HNSCC, offering possible directions for further studies investigating how nutrients interfere with carcinogenesis. Supplemental data for this article is available online at https://doi.org/10.1080/01635581.2021.1990972 .
Nutrition and Cancer pp 1-10; https://doi.org/10.1080/01635581.2021.1982997
The preoperative prognostic nutritional index (PNI) is associated with postoperative complications and long-term survival of various cancers. However, its role in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) is inconclusive. The aim of this study was to identify the prognostic value of PNI in predicting survival in ESCC patients undergoing radical radiotherapy. We retrospectively reviewed 354 ESCC patients undergoing radical radiotherapy. The time-dependent receiver operating characteristics was used to determine the optimal cutoff value. The association between PNI and survival was determined by Kaplan-Meier method and Cox regression model. Propensity score matching was applied to balance the baseline characteristics. PNI was positively correlated with hemoglobin (P < 0.001) and prealbumin (P < 0.001). The optimal cutoff value of PNI was set at 50.5. The 5-year overall survival (OS) in low PNI group and high PNI group were 20.8% and 34.0%, respectively (P < 0.001). The 5-year progression free survival in patients with low PNI and high PNI were 15.2% and 28.5%, respectively (P = 0.001). Multivariate analysis showed that PNI was a significant predictor for OS (P = 0.038). In the PSM analysis, PNI still remained an independent predictor for OS (P = 0.015). The PNI is a significant and independent predictor for OS of ESCC patients undergoing radical radiotherapy.
Nutrition and Cancer pp 1-15; https://doi.org/10.1080/01635581.2021.1985534
Chemo-radiotherapy is one of the promising approaches to treat bladder cancer, but its effectiveness is limited to sensitive patients. Polyphenol curcumin has shown anticancer and radiosensitizing potentials, but the mechanism is not fully understood. Here, the In Vitro response of UM-UC5 and UM-UC6 bladder cell lines to curcumin and radiation treatments was evaluated. The effect of curcumin on the DNA double-strand breaks repair system after treatment with ionizing radiation (2 Gy) was determined by immunofluorescence. Cell viability, proliferation, and survival were performed using trypan blue, MTT, clonogenic, and sphere-forming assays. The migratory ability of both cells was assessed by wound healing. We showed that curcumin treatment increased the radiosensitivity by modifying the DNA double-strand breaks repair kinetics of the most radioresistant cells UM-UC6 without affecting the radiosensitive UM-UC5. Moreover, UM-UC6 cell survival and proliferation was significantly decreased after the combination of curcumin with radiation. Bladder cell migration was also inhibited considerably. Curcumin was also shown to reduce the number and the volume of bladder cancer spheres of both cell lines. This study revealed that curcumin was able to radiosensitize resistant bladder cell line without affecting the sensitive one with minimal side effects through enhancing DNA damage signaling and repair pathway.
Nutrition and Cancer pp 1-12; https://doi.org/10.1080/01635581.2021.1985532
The effects of 3,5,3′,4′-tetrahydroxystilbene (piceatannol) on azoxymethane (AOM)/dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced colon cancer growth and changes in IL-1β, IL-6, tumor necrosis factor-α (cytokines), MCP-1, vascular endothelial growth factor, and PD-1 colon levels were investigated herein. AOM (10 mg/kg, i.p.) on day 0 induced colorectal carcinogenesis. On day 3, mice were provided with water containing 1.5% (w/v) DSS ad libitum for 3 day, and this 3-day drinking protocol was repeated twice. Piceatannol (5 and 12.5 mg/kg, twice daily) was orally administered to mice for 7-, 7-, 7-, and 6-day and then discontinued for 14-, 15-, and 16-day. Cytokines, chemokine, and PD-1 colon levels were measured by the respective ELISA kits. In mice administered piceatannol (12.5 mg/kg), the tumor number, tumor area, and Ki-67-positive cell numbers decreased by 30.1%, 57.2%, and 89.1%, respectively, colon MCP-1 and PD-1 levels showed reductions of 43.8% and 70.9%, respectively, and COX-2-positive cell numbers declined by 60.2%. The inhibitory effects of piceatannol on AOM/DSS-induced colon tumor growth appear to be associated with reductions in colon MCP-1 and PD-1 levels through the downregulated expression of COX-2 in the tumor microenvironment.
Nutrition and Cancer pp 1-9; https://doi.org/10.1080/01635581.2021.1988118
Chemotherapy-induced side effects include an impaired nutritional status and reduced quality of life in patients. The contribution of propolis, as a co-adjuvant nutritional supplement in cancer treatment, is suggested due to its functional characteristics and biological activities such as antitumoral activity, DNA protection, free radicals scavenging, and immune stimulation; however, clinical trials to support these effects in cancer patients are necessary. This is a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial to assess the effect of propolis vs. placebo on the nutritional status and quality of life in patients diagnosed with breast cancer who are receiving chemotherapy (No. IRCT2016062828679N1). A total of 60 patients from the Oncology Clinic at Tohid Hospital, Sanandaj, Iran were randomized to receive propolis (250 mg/two times per day for three months) or a placebo. After three months of intervention, energy intake of patients who received propolis increased significantly compared to placebo group (p = 0.000). The quality of life also showed significant improvements in patients receiving propolis, particularly with regards to emotional functioning (p = 0.03), global QoL functioning (p = 0.04), and financial difficulties (p = 0.01) compared to the control group. Propolis is suggested an adequate and safe therapeutic option to improve the nutritional status and quality of life in patients diagnosed with breast cancer receiving chemotherapy. However, more trials are needed in order to draw robust conclusions with regard to its efficacy in chemotherapy-induced side effects.
Nutrition and Cancer pp 1-4; https://doi.org/10.1080/01635581.2021.1986554
Chronically elevated levels of inflammatory biomarkers may contribute to the development of cancer and diet may be an important factor in the interplay between inflammation and cancer. We examined associations between glycemic load (GL), glycemic index (GI), and adapted dietary inflammatory index (ADII) and markers of inflammation and adipokines in 135 premenopausal women at high genetic risk for breast cancer (NCT00892515). We assessed body mass index (BMI), 3-day food records, and blood biomarkers TNF-α, IL-12, CCL2, IL-10, leptin, and adiponectin. Regression models assessed associations between dietary variables and biomarkers, adjusted for caloric intake and BMI. Participants were on average 34.2 years old with mean BMI of 26.8 kg/m2. Significantly higher levels of IL-10 and leptin were observed in participants with higher GI. Leptin and adiponectin were significantly associated with ADII. Leptin remained associated with ADII after adjustment for caloric intake and BMI. There were no associations between inflammatory biomarkers of interest and GL, GI, and ADII, after adjusting for caloric intake and BMI. Elevated leptin levels were observed with higher ADII independent of caloric intake and BMI. The relationship between carbohydrate quality and inflammatory potential of the diet and markers of inflammation may be modulated by leptin.
Nutrition and Cancer pp 1-13; https://doi.org/10.1080/01635581.2021.1986080
In our previous study Alysicarpus vaginalis (AV) has appeared as a promising target for breast cancer hence we have screened potential targets by in silico, In Vitro and In Vivo methods. A network pharmacology (NP) approach involves prediction and validating of targets via molecular modeling, western blotting and In Vivo MNU-induced mammary cancer. The PPI network showed the 573 edges between 214 nodes (targets) that are involved in breast cancer and important one are ESR-1, ESR-2, AR, EGFR, NOS3, MAPK, KDR, SRC and MET. Compound-target-pathway network involves 04 compounds and 221 interactive protein targets associated with breast cancer. GO and KEGG enrichment analysis predicted the ERR, c-MET, PDGFR-α/β, EGFR, and VEGF as a key targets in the breast cancer treatment which are validated via molecular modeling. Expression of ER-α, AR and EGFR were significantly down regulated by AV in MCF-7 cell line. In addition, the immunoreactivity of ER-α was reduced significantly in MNU-induced mammary carcinoma, which is a key target in ER + breast cancer. Overall, this study scientifically light ups the pharmacological mechanism of AV in the treatment of breast cancer, strongly associated with the regulation of ESR signaling pathway.
Nutrition and Cancer pp 1-11; https://doi.org/10.1080/01635581.2021.1985533
The Ferula assa-foetida (FA) is the healthy common-consumed anticancer beverage in Iranian folk medicine. In the current study, we aimed to produce a nanoemulsion-based drug delivery system containing FA essential oil (FAEO) and evaluate its antioxidant and anticancer activity on both MCF-7 cells and murine mammary cancer tissue. The FAEO-loaded nanoemulsion (FAEO-NE) was produced and characterized by DLS, TEM, FTIR, and Zeta potential analysis. Radical (ABTS and DPPH) scavenging activity, cytotoxic, apoptotic, and anti-angiogenic potentials of the FAEO-NE were studied by applying antioxidant (ABTS-DPPH), MTT, AO/PI cell staining, and Q-PCR analysis. Finally, its anti-tumor impact was evaluated on murine mammary tumor models. The FAEO-NE exhibited a meaningful antioxidant activity. Also, its significant cell-selective cytotoxic, apoptotic, and anti-angiogenic impacts on MCF-7 cancer cells indicated its anticancer potential. Moreover, the progressive destruction of the murine mammary glands cancer tissue confirmed their anticancer activity. Regarding the FAEO-NE cell-selective cytotoxic, apoptotic, and anti-angiogenic activity on MCF-7 breast cancer cells, it has the potential to be studied as a safe efficient anti-breast cancer agent.
Nutrition and Cancer pp 1-12; https://doi.org/10.1080/01635581.2021.1986553
With rising cancer incidence rates and numbers of long-term cancer survivors, diet increasingly comes into view of patients as well as healthcare providers. The aim was to analyze cancer patients’ concepts of nutrition, changes in diet and reasons for these changes. This study is a cross-sectional single-center study. Data was collected 12/2017 − 01/2019 using a questionnaire. The study was set at an outpatient department at a German university hospital. 102 patients (male n = 47, female n = 54; age 34 to 86 years [mean = 62.3]) with cancer were included in the study. Statistical calculation was performed with Mann-Whitney-U-Test and Wilcoxon-signed-rank. p < 0.05 was considered significant. Patients were more concerned with diet after their diagnosis than before (p < 0.01). Seventy-one (70%) patients reported that they changed their diet or planned to do so. Some changes included an increased intake of vegetables or fruits. Patients who changed their diet more often were convinced that there was a positive influence of diet on the course of cancer (p < 0.05). Diet is an important topic for many cancer patients. Some patients seem to have a lack of information regarding the effect of diet on health. Physicians and dietitians should provide more education on healthy and safe diets for cancer patients.