Physical education of students

Journal Information
ISSN / EISSN : 20755279 / 23087250
Current Publisher: Kharkov National Pedagogical University (10.15561)
Total articles ≅ 304
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Serdar Bayrakdaroğlu, Erdal Arı, Hüseyin Özkamçı, Ibrahim Can
Physical education of students, Volume 24, pp 235-241; doi:10.15561/20755279.2020.0406

Abstract:
Background and Study Aim. The aerobic fitness in soccer is an important performance component. The aerobic endurance level of players may positively effect performance of critical match activities. The examination of Yo-Yo intermittent recovery test (YYIRT) performance of young soccer players at different playing positions was aimed in this study. Material and Methods. The research group was consisted of 75 young soccer players playing at U-21 category of professional soccer teams at different leagues. The soccer players at 5 different playing positions participated in study voluntarily (centerback: n=15, fullback: midfielder: n=15, winger: n=15, forward: n=15). The YYIRT (level 1) was performed for determination aerobic endurance parameters (covered distance during test, maximum oxygen uptake (VO2max) and maximal aerobic speed (MAS) of players. The one-way ANOVA analysis was used for comparison between playing positions of YYIRT parameters. Results. It was determined that difference between YYIRT parameters of players at different playing positions was non-significant (p>0.05). However, the midfielders covered more distance (2425,33±440,42 m) than forward (2146,67±339,64 m), winger (2137,33±615,18 m), fullback (2056,00±512,43 m) and centerback (1960,00±313,51 m) players. The positional requirements of midfielders may be decisive on covered distance during YYIRT. Conclusions. Consequently, it may be said that the young soccer players at different playing positions had similar YYIRT performance and the playing position effect on YYIRT performance could vary depending on league level and individual features of players.
Ali E. Cigerci, Harun Genc
Physical education of students, Volume 24, pp 186-193; doi:10.15561/20755279.2020.0401

Abstract:
Background and Study Aim: The target of this paper was to examine the effects of strength training with different frequency on physical, performance and strength features on untrained university male students. Material and Methods: 24 subjects (age= 21.47+1.50) were divided into three groups; 8 for strength training group once a week (ST1), 8 for strength training group three times a week (ST3) and 8 for control group (CG). The training groups were applied a 6-week ST that lasted approximately 80-90 minutes for each training 3 days a week for ST3 and once a week for ST1. Analysis of intergroup, intragroup and the effect of training were carried out with repeated measures ANOVA. Significance was set at 0.05. Results: There was no difference in body weight and body mass index values in training groups, while a significant increase was found in CG. In addition, there was a significant decrease in body fat percentage and a significant increase in skeleton muscle mass without any change in body weight and body mass index in ST3. No statistical difference was seen in 10-20 m sprint and agility tests in all groups. For vertical jump, balance test for right and left leg, there was a significant difference between the pre and post-test measurements of ST1 and ST3. In standing long jump measurements, significance was seen in favor of ST3. In strength parameter, while a significant difference was detected in bench press, shoulder press and push-up due to the development of training groups, a statistically significance was found in squat and biceps curl by reason of improvement in ST3. Conclusion: As a conclusion, it can be said that 6-week strength training with different frequency applied on untrained male students has a positive effect on physical, performance and strength features.
Mohammed H.H. Mohammed
Physical education of students, Volume 24, pp 251-258; doi:10.15561/20755279.2020.0408

Abstract:
Background and Study Aim. Few controlled studies have been conducted on the effect of sports games as a physical education (PE) course on the health-related fitness of university students. The aim of the study was to determine whether three sports in a PE course will help improve the health-related fitness of male university students. Material and Methods. Students from two universities participated in the study, with one university acting as a control group. There were two PE courses which students registered for: a football and volleyball (FVG, n=169) course and a badminton (BG, n=97) course. The students received basic training drills and competed with one another. The duration of the activities was 50 minutes sessions for eight weeks. The following tests were taken before and after eight weeks: Cooper test, sit-and-reach test, 60-s curl test, standing long jump test, and body mass index. Paired t-tests were used to compare the baseline and post data of each group. The Welch t-test, ANCOVA, and analysis of gains scores were used to compare each of the PE groups to the control group. ANCOVA was used to account for baseline differences, while analysis of gains scores was used whenever ANCOVA could not be used. The Vargha-Delaney Effect Size (VD) and the Common Language Effect Size (CLES) were used to determine the effect sizes for the Welch t-tests and ANCOVA, respectively. Significant changes were set at p ≤ 0.05 and VD ≤ 42% or VD ≥ 58%, or if p ≤ 0.05 and CLES ≥ 58 %. Results. Both PE groups showed significant improvements in all the measured fitness parameters except body composition. Moreover, the measured parameters of the control group reduced after eight weeks. Conclusion. The study shows evidence that PE courses can serve male universities in improving their health-related fitness. Moreover, students who do not participate in a PE course may be at risk of losing their fitness.
Eugeny Vrublevskiy, Anatoly Skrypko, Ryszard Asienkiewicz
Physical education of students, Volume 24, pp 227-234; doi:10.15561/10.15561/20755279.2020.0405

Abstract:
Background and Study Aim. To develop and justify the criteria for morphogenetic markers of speed-power abilities of athletes and the main directions of individualization of the process of their preparation, taking into account the characteristics of the female body. Material and Methods. Using the “2D: 4D” determination methodology, finger proportions were analysed for 126 qualified athletes specializing in speed-strength types (sprinting and hurdling, jumping, shot-putting) of different ages (from 17 to 25 years old). For 13 weeks, eight qualified short-distance student runners were regularly tested using computer strain gauge equipment: 5 masculine and 3 feminine types. The tensodynamograms of the manifestation of the strength of muscle groups carrying the main load in the structure of the sprint run were recorded and processed. Results. It was found that 78% of the examined athletes observed finger proportions close to the "male" proportions. This may indicate their certain masculinization. The technique used for this can be an informative and simple marker to predict a genetic predisposition to the ability of effective performance of speed-power work. It was determined that the same amount of power load causes masculine athletes, runners for short distances, a more significant deployment of long-term adaptation restructuring of masculine athletes, runners for short distances, compared with athletes of a different gender identity. Conclusions. Criteria for the prognostic assessment of speed-power abilities of athletes based on simple biological markers for testing and identification, like finger proportions (2D: 4D), have been developed. For athletes of high qualification who have a gender identity similar to men and a masculine somatotype, it is possible to use adapted male techniques for training.
Mikhail Kolokoltsev, Larisa Kuznetsova, Wladyslaw Jagiello, Elena Romanova
Physical education of students, Volume 24, pp 242-250; doi:10.15561/20755279.2020.0407

Abstract:
Background and Study Aim. The purpose of the study is to give a comparative description of the somatotypes, anatomical components of the body, and motor qualities of female students studied at the university (Irkutsk, Russia) in 2009 and 2019. Material and methods. It was conducted the survey and somatotypological diagnosis of 1226 female students (in 2009 – n = 762; in 2019 – n = 464) on 27 anthropometric parameters. It was measured: Pinier index; the average value of the absolute and percentage of the bone component of the body (BC), the fat component of the body (FC), and muscle component of the body (MC). The following indicators were evaluated by motor tests: speed endurance and agility; speed; speed and strength endurance of the trunk flexor muscles; strength and endurance of the shoulder girdle muscles; dynamic strength of the lower limb muscles; active flexibility of the spine; overall endurance. Results. In 2019, compared to 2009, there was observed: a decrease (by 19.6%) in the number of normosthenic females; an increase in the number of hypersthenics (by 70.9%), and asthenics (by 27.4%); body weight gain; decrease in body length. The values of the following indicators significantly decreased in 2019: the trunk length, upper and lower limbs; chest circumference. There was a decrease in the average values of body circumference; shoulder width. It was observed an increase in pelvic width. In 2019, compared to 2009, the following indicators were determined in females of all somatotypes: a significant increase in body fat content and a decrease in muscle mass (p
Oleksandr Pryimakov, Sergii Iermakov, Jerzy Eider, Stanislav Prysiazhniuk, Natalija Mazurok
Physical education of students, Volume 24, pp 205-212; doi:10.15561/20755279.2020.0403

Abstract:
Background and Study Aim. The objective of the work is to study the key factors of highly skilled wrestler fitness structure determining the level of their functional state and physical work capacity at the stage of maximum realization of individual capacities. Material and methods. 45 highly skilled wrestlers aged 19-27 years, members of the national teams of Ukraine in freestyle and Greco-Roman wrestling were examined. 27 athletes of student age (19-24 years-old), among them were 23 students and postgraduate. Instrumental research methods were used to record indices of functional fitness (FF) and physical work capacity of wrestlers while performing a specialized test with throws of a partner and a block of testing physical loads on a bicycle ergometer. Results. It was revealed that among factors determining the structure of wrestlers' fitness, the integral factor of FF general level (31.13% of the total variance) has the greatest impact on the variability of physical work capacity indices of athletes. Increase in skill level of wrestlers is associated with decreased time of performing throws in a specialized test, increased relative values of lactate power, O2-debt, general level of FF, O2 consumption per 1 kg of body mass. Improvement of wrestler FF structure along with an increase in their skill level is characterized by higher contribution of FF integral parameters (anaerobic power, mobility of physiological reactions, FF general level) to the manifestation of physical work capacity. It was revealed that the general level of FF of wrestlers is characterized by the following ratio of key factors (relative to model values of elite athletes): anaerobic power - 52.6 ± 4.9%, aerobic power - 52.8 ± 4,1%, mobility - 80.4 ± 5.3%, economy - 43.3 ± 3.0%. In the course of studies, mathematical models of the key factors of wrestler FF structure associations with the level of special work capacity, skill level and weight category have been developed. Modeling allowed to specify the criteria and develop scales for assessing special physical work capacity level, differentiated according to skill level and weight category groups of highly skilled wrestlers. Conclusions. The findings reflect the crucial role of anaerobic energy supply mechanisms in the manifestation of high special work capacity in wrestling. Improvement of wrestler FF structure along with the increase of their skills is characterized by a decrease in the number of key functional parameters determining the level of physical work capacity during testing with loads that model specific activity of highly skilled wrestlers. This, along with body functions economization, is one of the important criteria for improving FF structure of the combat athletes.
Jarosław Jaszczur-Nowicki, Joanna Bukowska, Dariusz Kruczkowski, Michał Spieszny, Magdalena Pieniążek, Grzegorz Mańko
Physical education of students, Volume 24, pp 194-204; doi:10.15561/20755279.2020.0402

Abstract:
Background and Study Aim: The article presents the results of analyses of students’ foot pressure distribution on the ground, as well as their body balance before and after exercise (Harvard Step Test). The aim of the paper was to carry out a comparative analysis of foot pressure distribution on the ground, as well as assess the degree of body balance before and after exercise. With that purpose in view, the following research hypothesis was formulated: in the students participating in the study, the distribution of foot pressure on the ground and the degree of body balance differ significantly after physical effort compared with the at-rest conditions. Material and Methods: The study encompassed n=48 students, including 37 women and 11 men. The tests were carried out using such tools as: an EPS/R1 podobarographic mat and the impedance methods – i.e. the InBody 270 body composition analyser. An analysis was performed for the parameters concerning body composition, the distribution of foot pressure on the ground, and the level of body balance. Results: The results obtained revealed statistically significant differences in the physiological parameters of foot arching and the functional efficiency of the body balance system under different measurement conditions that reflected the impact of effort stimuli. Conclusions: Significant differences reflecting the impact of the effort stimuli were expected to be achieved during the mathematical analysis of the results of podobarographic tests that allow for the assessment of the physiological parameters of foot arching and the functional efficiency of the body balance system under different measurement conditions. The authors’ assumption was mathematically and statistically confirmed by significant differences foe most of the parameters arising out of the possibilities offered by the research method applied. Comparative assessment unquestionably revealed a negative change in foot arching, as well as lower body posture stability in the female and male subjects, resulting from the physical exercise applied.
Mateusz Tomanek, Andrzej Lis
Physical education of students, Volume 24, pp 213-226; doi:10.15561/20755279.2020.0404

Abstract:
Background and Study Aim: The aim of the study is to assess the development of scientific production and to map thematic coverage of research in physical education. The research process is focused on the following study questions: (1) how has the research productivity developed in the physical education research field?, (2) who are the main contributors (countries, universities, authors, source titles) to the amassing research output in the field?, (3) what are the leading thematic areas attracting the most attention of the academia?, (4) what are the emerging topics in the research field? Material and Methods: The Scopus database was used as a source of bibliometric data for the research sampling process. The research sample (N=9,224) consisted of the publications including the phrase ‘physical education’ in their titles. In order to achieve the aim of the study, we employed bibliometric methods i.e. research profiling and keywords co-occurrence analysis. We conducted general publication profiling to assess the trends in scientific production and to recognize leading contributors to the research field. We applied keywords co-occurrence analysis in order to identify and explore major thematic areas as well as emerging topics within the research field. VOSviewer software was used to support the analysis process and visualize the findings. Results: The study shows that physical education is a well-established research field with a long tradition. In the 2010s, it has received an increasing attention of academia which resulted in breakthrough growth in the number of publications indexed in Scopus. The amassing research output is distributed over 26 subject areas. Social Sciences, Medicine and Health Professions are the subject areas grouping the highest number of publications. The leading contributors to the research field are: the most productive country – the United States, the most productive research institution – Loughborough University, the United Kingdom, the most prolific author – David Kirk from the University of Strathclyde, the United Kingdom, the first choice source title – Teoriya i Praktika Fizicheskoy Kultury. Within the physical education research field, there are identified five leading thematic clusters related to: (1) physical education didactics, (2) physical activity of school pupils, (3) physical education of adolescents, (4) human motor competence, (5) physical activity of adults. Emerging topics include the following issues: (1) physical education teachers and their training/education, (2) physical education in the tertiary education context, (3) physical education in the secondary education context. Conclusions: The study contributes to better understanding of development patterns in research on physical education. It provides an added value for managing information on scientific productivity in the research field. Through discovering leading thematic areas and emerging topics within the research field, the study points out the issues important both for further research and development of theory as well as for educational and business practice.
Alexander A. Fedyakin, Zhanna G. Kortava, Lidia K. Fedyakina, Natalia Yu. Zaplatina
Physical education of students, Volume 24, pp 149-153; doi:10.15561/20755279.2020.0304

Abstract:
Background and Study Aim. Scientific-methodical literature underlined the importance of improving the effectiveness of physical education’s tools and methods during the scheduled university lessons. Scientists point out the necessity to take into account every factor determining the training effect of lessons with strength exercises. The immediate training effect can be determined by measuring the heart rate during different modes of strength exercises and during recovery. The aim of this study is to analyse the strength exercises’ immediate training effect on a student’s body in the static mode and in the isotonic mode. Material and Methods. In the study participated 47 freshman male students of the Sochi State University (Russia). The study took place in September-December 2019. Heart rate was measured with Sport Testers POLAR RS-400 during strength exercises and during recovery. The results were analysed in the computer programme SPSS Statistics v22.0. Statistical significance of the results was defined using non-parametric Wilcoxon test. Heart rate was analysed during four types of plank positions in static and isotonic modes. Results: The study determined the effect of different training modes of strength exercises on a student’s body. The immediate training effect of doing the bodyweight strength exercises in the isotonic mode compared to the static mode is characterised by a higher maximum heart rate at the end of doing the exercise (р
Kenan Erdağı, Osman Tüfekçi, Mustafa Yeşeri, Mehmet F. Yüksel, Nimet Turgut, Burak E. Eroğlu
Physical education of students, Volume 24, pp 141-148; doi:10.15561/20755279.2020.0303

Abstract:
Background and Study Aim: Handgrip strength is widely accepted as a functionality parameter to assess upper extremity performance. The measurement of hand grip strength by dynamometry is a low cost, non-invasive method of simple applicability. The present study is based on the association of dominant and non-dominant handgrip strength with demographic and anthropometric characteristics; height, body weight, body mass index, upper arm length, forearm length, hand length, forearm circumference, upper arm circumference. Material and Methods: The study included 70 male athletes in olympic style weightlifting (age: 18.06±2.18, height:1.74±.06 m, body weight: 76.09±13.04 kg). A total of 70 sedentary individuals as a control group (age 18.11±.18, height:1.75±.04 m, body weight: 74.01±13.94 kg) were also taken to compare study findings. The data obtained was analyzed by SPPS for Windows, version 25. Handgrip strength measurements were obtained by a Jamar dynamometer, according to the recommendations of the American Association of Hand Therapists. Results: It was found that the values of dominant and non-dominant handgrip strength, upper arm circumference and forearm circumference length of the weightlifting athletes were higher than those of sedentary individuals (p
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