Physical education of students
ISSN / EISSN : 2075-5279 / 2308-7250
Current Publisher: Sergii Iermakov (10.15561)
Total articles ≅ 324
Latest articles in this journal
Physical education of students, Volume 25, pp 28-35; doi:10.15561/20755279.2021.0104
Background and Study Aim. To determine the perception of self-sufficiency and burnout levels of students studying in the faculty of sports sciences during the Covid-19 pandemic. Material and Methods. This cross-sectional descriptive-correlational study was performed in the Sports Science Faculty of İnönü University of Turkey which forms the universe of the study. In addition, "Perception of General self-sufficiency" and "Burnout Level Scale" were used in the study. T-test and One-Way ANOVA tests were used to perform the differential analysis and Pearson Product Moment Correlation analysis was used to determine the correlation between variables. In addition, regression analysis was performed by creating dummy variables in order to predict the dimensions. Results. The students’ general self-sufficiency perception scores were found to be above average and their burnout levels were found to be below average. It was observed that the general self-sufficiency perception scores differed in terms of the class variable, and the burnout level scores differed in terms of class, family income level and studied department variables. In the correlation analysis that was carried out, it was understood that there was a mutually inverse and significant correlation between the dimensions of the scale. With the regression analysis, it was determined that the first-grade level scores were an independent significant predictor for both self-sufficiency and burnout scores, and the lowest income level scores were only an independent predictor for burnout level scores. Conclusions. It can be said that students at the faculty of sports sciences are not overly affected by the Covid-19 Pandemic and the results are as desired. It can be suggested that the perception of self-sufficiency and burnout scores to be correlated and predicted with different variables.
Physical education of students, Volume 25, pp 4-9; doi:10.15561/20755279.2021.0101
Background and Study Aim. The COVID-19 pandemic has caused many athletes to interrupt their regular training programme. The change-of-direction performance is a highly critical parameter for fencing. This study aims to investigate the effects of the detraining process caused by the COVID-19 pandemic on the change-of-direction performance of fencers. Material and Methods. The study sample comprised 15 fencers (11 males, 4 females) who were competitors in the U17-20 age categories (mean age: 15.75±1.51 years; height: 170.30±7.68 cm; weight: 65.16±10.83 kg) in Turkey. All participants were high school students. Branch-specific change-of-direction tests (4-2-2-4-m shuttle and 7-m repeat lunge ability) were measured in the middle of the competition season and after the detraining period. The detraining period lasted 31 weeks due to the pandemic process. Results. The results showed that participants were slower in the post 7-m repeat lunge ability test (23.32±2.21 sec.) compared with the pre-test (22.38±1.58 sec.) and participants were slower in the post 4-2-2-4-m shuttle test (6.43±0.54 sec.) compared with the pre-test (5.84±0.33 sec.) (p
Physical education of students, Volume 25, pp 10-19; doi:10.15561/20755279.2021.0102
Background and Study Aim. The aim of this research was to examine The effect of depression among taekwondo students and its relationship with negative events due to COVID-19 in Mazandaran University. Material and Methods. This research was conducted on the appropriate sample of 116 Taekwondo students from Mazandaran university, being 18-24 years old. The applied measure instruments were - Adolescent Perceived Events Scale, Automatic Thoughts Questionnaire, General Self-Efficacy Scale, Confrontation with Stressing Situation Questionnaire, Social Support Questionnaire, Children's Depression Rating Scale-demonstrated satisfactory reliability. The data was processed using descriptive parameters, Pearson’s correlation coefficient and hierarchy regression analysis & SPSS23 software. Results. Achieved results didn’t show that predictor variables (common automatic thoughts, the sense of general self-efficiency, confrontation strategies and perceived support of family, coach and team peers) are the cause of the common negative events due to COVID-19 and depression relations of Taekwondo students in the middle period of adolescence. Conclusions. On contrary, the results have emphasized the fact that mutual relations of common negative events and depression of Taekwondo students, in this young category, can be explained using independent variables (unwilling unconscious negative thoughts, confrontation focused on feelings, as well as support of family, coach and team peers).
Physical education of students, Volume 25, pp 20-27; doi:10.15561/20755279.2021.0103
Background and Study Aim. Physical activity (PA) is regarded as a critical component of a healthy lifestyle and disease prevention. Different constraints placed upon social interaction and public spaces due to COVID-19 could decrease PA and academic performance in physical education (PE) in student population. The purpose of the research was to assess overall and sport/fitness PA level and academic performance in PE in a sample of university students pre- to post-cancellation of face-to-face PE classes due to the COVID-19 pandemic. Material and Methods. Participants (n=209) – university students (19-20 years old). The overall period of the research is September-December 2020. All participants (male–n=106 and female–n=103) were divided into approximately equal groups: humanities students (male–MG-1, female–FG-1), medicine students (male–MG-2, female–FG-2), technical students (male–MG-3, female–FG-3). The main research tools: modified student self-reported questionnaire (on the base of IPAQ), academic grading (scores for self-completed PE tasks). In surveys, all participants self-rated overall and sport/fitness PA level pre- to post-cancellation of face-to-face PE classes. The participants had to complete 32 special PE tasks, during the research period. PE teachers rated participants by a special grading scale. Results. For the male and female students’ groups there were no significant differences of overall PA, sport/fitness PA level and academic performance in PE pre-cancellation of face-to-face PE classes. All participants significantly (p≤0.05) decreased overall PA, sport/fitness PA level and academic performance in PE post-cancellation. There was a significant (p≤0.05) large amount of overall PA level in MG-2 students and sport/fitness PA level in MG-1 students’ post-cancellation of face-to-face PE classes. For the male students there were no significant differences of grading in PE pre- to post-cancellation of face-to-face PE classes between participants groups. There was a significant (p≤0.05) large amount of overall PA level post-cancellation of face-to-face PE classes in FG-2 students. There was a significantly (p≤0.05) lower amount of sport/fitness PA level post-cancellation of face-to-face PE classes in FG-3 students. There was a significant drop in mean grading scores in PE post-cancellation of face-to-face PE classes in students. FG-2 participants had significantly (p≤0.05) higher grading scores in PE post-cancellation of face-to-face PE classes. Conclusions. The universities closure and cancellation of face-to-face PE classes due to the COVID-19 pandemic decreased overall PA, sport/fitness PA level and academic performance in PE in all participants. It is important to note that the proportional decrease in overall PA for the male students was actually large, then decrease in overall PA for the female students was less. The findings highlight the need for active interventions of PA promotion targeted at the student population in the context of self-isolation measures during the COVID-19 pandemic.
Physical education of students, Volume 25, pp 36-42; doi:10.15561/20755279.2021.0105
Background and Study Aim. Health literacy is the ability to access health information, understand, evaluate and apply health information. The health literacy of athletes may be determinant in the understanding of the COVID-19 pandemic process and in the level of the impact of this health-related anxiety factor. Therefore, the aim of this study is to examine whether there is a relationship between college athletes' COVID-19 anxiety levels and their health literacy levels during the COVID-19 pandemic. Material and Methods. College athletes between the ages of 18 and 32 participated in the study and the average age was 24.2. A total of 234 elite collage athletes participated in the study. 133 of the participants were males and 101 were females. COVID-19 Anxiety Scale was used to determine the COVID-19 anxiety states and Health Literacy index was used to the level of health literacy of the participants in the COVID-19 pandemic process. Pearson correlation analysis and stepwise regression analysis were performed for statistical analyses. Significance level in analysis has been accepted as p. < 05. Results. Our findings revealed that there were significant relationships between elite athletes' health literacy sub-dimension scores and COVID-anxiety level. In addition, it was determined that access to information and understanding information sub-dimensions from health literacy sub-dimensions predicted elite college athletes’ the COVID-19 anxiety level at 21.2%. As a result, elite college athletes had low levels of anxiety against COVID-19, and this situation associated with their high level of health literacy. Conclusions. The increase of elite college athletes' the level of health literacy will decrease their anxiety levels. It will be beneficial to implement training programs that can increase their health literacy levels in order to reduce the impact of the unexpected health crisis due to COVID-19, especially the anxiety levels of college athletes.
Physical education of students, Volume 25, pp 43-50; doi:10.15561/20755279.2021.0106
Background and Study Aim. The current study was carried out to analyze the impact of COVID-19 pandemic on the emotional state and nutritional behavior of university athletes. Material and Methods. This research was carried out during the first wave of COVID-19 in Turkey. A total of 334 (162 female and 172 male) athletes who are undergraduate students in the faculties of sports sciences of universities participated in the study. Their mean age was 21.46 ± 3.7. The Emotional Eating Scale (EES) was used to determine the nutritional behavior of the participants and The Profile of Mood States (POMS) scale was used to determine their emotional state. The Chi-square and Cross-tabulation tests were used for the statistical analysis of categorical variables. Mann Whitney U test was used for the analysis of continuous variables, and Spearman Sequence Correlation test protocols were used for correlation analysis. Results. The results of the statistical analysis revealed that there was a significant increase in the amount of fluid consumption of elite athletes. There was a significant relationship between negative mood and emotional eating sub-assessment (p 0.05). Conclusion. As a result of the research, it was seen that elite and amateur athletes did not have a significant difference in emotional eating and mood status, except for the amount of fluid consumption. The increase in negative emotions of university athletes is an important factor that increased their emotional eating behavior.
Physical education of students, Volume 25, pp 51-57; doi:10.15561/20755279.2021.0107
Background and Study Aim. The COVID – 19 pandemic has post threats on the physical and mental fitness of the people. Thus, the study determined the effectiveness of home quarantine - based rhythmic exercises to the fitness level of the university students in physical education. Material and Methods. University students were the participants of the study. 200 student populations who were taking physical education subject in the year 2020 were considered. Quasi – experimental research design was employed and 96 participants between the age bracket of 18 - 26 (74 females & 22 males) were chosen using simple random sampling in determining the population size of the study. SPSS program was used in the analysis in the obtained data. Results. The result shown that there is a significant difference between the pre – test and post – test results in the fitness level of the participants in body mass index (T= -3.482, p < .001), cardiovascular endurance (T= -4.193, p < .000), flexibility (T= -6.279, p <.000), muscular endurance (T= -9.553, p <.000), and muscular strength (T= -7.569, p < .000) performing the home quarantine-based rhythmic exercises. Conclusion. Further, it is concluded that engaging in two (2) months home quarantine – based rhythmic exercises from 30 minutes to 1 hour with moderate to vigorous intensity augment the physical fitness level of an individual. Moreover, it is recommended to put vision accounts in strengthening the inclusion of home quarantine - based rhythmic exercises in teaching physical education either in synchronous and asynchronous in teaching – learning process.
Physical education of students, Volume 25, pp 58-66; doi:10.15561/20755279.2021.0108
Background and Study Aim. The physical activity level of students is closely associated with ecological, hygienic, and socioeconomic facts. This is especially true during the COVID-19 pandemic, which has dramatically reduced the student opportunity to engage in regular physical activity. The purpose of the work is to study the influence of the weekly physical exercises on the indicators of biological age of students of higher education institutions of Ukraine. Material and Methods. The study involved 409 students (182 boys and 227 girls), who were divided into experimental (87 boys and 117 girls) and control (95 boys and 110 girls) groups. The biological age (BA) of students was determined by means of Voitenko’s method using biomarkers of their physical status. Indices of the cardiovascular system (pulse, systolic, and diastolic blood pressure); respiratory system (vital capacity, the Hench and Stange test); central nervous system (static balancing); PHSA (personal health self-assessment) were studied. In addition, a questionnaire-based survey of students on their health self-assessment including 27 questions was carried out. Statistica 13.5 statistical software package was used to process the experimental material. Methods of variation statistics, correlation, and regression analysis were used. The coefficients of the Student t-test and Fisher’s F-test were calculated. Results. In the process of pedagogical experiment, the positive impact of the author’s physical education program on BA of students of the experimental group (EG) was revealed: in boys, the positive dynamics of BA changes was detected already after four additional hours of performing exercises per week, whereas in girls – after six or more hours. The most pronounced changes in physical state, which determined BA decrease during academic year were noted in students with a weekly motor regime exceeding 6 hours. In boys of EG, the biological age decreased at the end of the experiment by 11,1 years (p < 0,001), whereas in girls – by 5,3 years (p < 0,001). No positive changes of BA were observed at the end of the experiment in students of the control group (CG), whose weekly regime of motor activity constituted 2 hours. In boys of EG, the decrease of BA is manifested after four additional hours of performing physical exercises per week, whereas in girls – after six or more hours. The most pronounced changes in BA indices during the academic year were noted in students of the experimental group with weekly motor regime exceeding 6 hours. Conclusions. The developed mathematical models are recommended to be used for estimating, modelling, and predicting the biological age of students according to informative indices of physical state.
Physical education of students, Volume 24, pp 312-318; doi:10.15561/20755279.2020.0602
Background and Study Aim. The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of volleyball training on the development of exercise-induced arterial hypoxemia during incremental exercise in male competitive volleyball players. Material and Methods. Eight male amateur volleyball players (age 21±1.3 years) participated in a 6-week volleyball training program three times a week in the pre-season preparatory period. Before and after the training period, all players performed an incremental treadmill test to determine maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max), and oxyhemoglobin saturation (SaO2) was continuously measured using a pulse oximeter during the test. Maximal values of minute ventilation (VEmax), respiratory exchange ratio (RERmax), ventilatory equivalent for oxygen (VE/VO2) and carbon dioxide (VE/VCO2) were determined. Exercise-induced arterial hypoxemia (EIAH) was defined as a SaO2 decreased by at least 4% (ΔSaO2≤ −4%) from resting level. Results. All the players exhibited exercise-induced arterial hypoxemia before (ΔSaO2= –8.8±3.3%) and after (ΔSaO2= –8.31.5%) the training period. SaO2 was significantly decreased from 97.6±1% at rest to 88.7±2.7% at exhaustion before the training period, and from 97.2±1.1% at rest to 88.8±2.1% at exhaustion after training period (p < 0.001). There was no significant difference in resting and lowest SaO2 values by comparison between the before and after training (p > 0.05). There were no significant changes in VO2max, VEmax, RERmax, VE/VO2 and VE/VCO2 after training period (p > 0.05). Conclusions. The results of this study showed that volleyball players with a history of anaerobic training may exhibit EIAH, but that 6-week volleyball training has no effect on the degree of exercise-induced arterial hypoxemia.
Physical education of students, Volume 24, pp 319-324; doi:10.15561/20755279.2020.0603
Background and Study Aim. Mental imagery and self-talk are two important mental skills that are used for improvement of performance and learning of motor and sport skills. This study aimed to investigate the effect of positive/negative mental imagery and positive/negative self-talk on learning of soccer kicking skill. Material and Methods. Participants included 48 young soccer player students. Participants were soccer player students with mean age 18.44 and SD=.88 years. After selecting the sample and filling out the personal detail form, the imagery and self-talk instructions, the method of completing mental imagery questionnaire, Moore-Christine kick-skill test instructions, and principles of free kick at soccer were explained to participants. Then, the mental imagery test and kick-skill test were run in 4 blocks of 4 attempts and the results were recorded. Based on their pre-test scores, the participants were divided into 4 groups. The acquisition sessions were held for 3 weeks and 2 sessions per week, with 8 blocks of 4 trials (32 trials) per session. The data was analyzed using one-way ANOVA, mixed ANOVA, and two-way ANOVA tests at different learning stages (significance level= 0.05). Results. The results of data analysis showed that positive imagery and positive self-talk groups performed significantly better than negative imagery and negative self-talk groups. Also, due to the significance of interactive effect of imagery × training sessions, it was found that the positive imagery groups performed significantly better than negative imagery groups from the third session onwards. Conclusion. According to the results, it was recommended that trainers use this aspect of self-talk at early stages of training. Also, the positive imagery can be emphasized by increasing the training sessions in more skilled individual.